Using Multi-Attribute Decision Making

to Define, Prioritize and Manage Software Requirements



By Haoyu Wang

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France



In the development process of software projects, requirement management runs through the entire life cycle of software projects. In software project management, requirements engineering is the first step in software development, which is a key step and the most difficult step. The quality in requirement management directly affects the quality of software and even the success or failure of software projects. This determines that the project team must have a requirement management strategy and effective implementation.

This paper uses multi-attribute decision making to define and prioritize several behavioral development models that manage software requirements and will help users understand the most critical criteria they should choose (from the customer’s point of view), the advantages and disadvantages of various methods in different aspects. This should allow a team to achieve barrier-free communication, error-free delivery.

Keywords: Specification by Example (SBE),Requirements, information technology, Software, System product, agile, behavioral development models


As IT systems become more and more critical competitive factors in the industry, the scale of the IT project is more and more prominent, involves the organization level is higher and higher, the risk of the project is becoming more and bigger. As one of the fastest growing areas in the world today, the failure of the project also represents a large amount of capital loss and time cost and the waste of labor costs. According to the PMI industry statistics, ‘the average waste of IT industry project expenditures in 2017 was as high as $78 million per $1 billion. Among them, the average waste was the highest regarding geographical distribution and European project expenditure, and $131 million was wasted for every $1 billion.[1]

Then in the field, there are many examples of companies being dragged down by the IT project or the returns were much lower than expected. The data in Figure 1 is the result of the IT project in earlier years. We can see that only 39% of IT projects were successful in that year. This figure means that more than 50% of the IT projects did not achieve the expected results.

Figure 1: Software development project results[2]

Then the software that has been successfully developed must be no problem, without the doubt? However, it is not. According to statistics, there are still many customers not satisfied with the final delivery software. And after customers use the software for two months, the percentage of dissatisfaction can double. This figure is a horrifying number and lets us take a look at the situation of industry practitioners. In the project development work, many programmers have not understood the target results. With this requirement, people can start development. However, the reality is that people do not know what to do, but they continue to develop. When the project is postponed, or there is a problem with the project test, time and money have been lost, and Inconsistent with the original intention.

The technology is advanced, the team is strong, and the products have a market. However, it still failed because – “delivered the wrong software.” However, for a project that delivers a piece of software, “delivering the wrong software” is often the origin of the dispute. However, it is also a difficult problem to solve. For the owner, he is paying for a “right software.” However, there are often hardships for the developers who are entrusted, because they are given instructions to “act the software according to the precise functional description of the owner.” “Correct or not” is not their ultimate responsibility. Whether or not “correct” usually has to wait until after the online, the customer can know according to the user’s actual measurement response (although the developer is often the development stage can usually guess the group of people who failed). However, this is never within the responsibility of the contract.

STEP 1: Problem Definition

How did this happen, why did it become like this? Let us have a look at some of the features of IT project to help us sort out the problems.

In the IT project, the following points are different from the general project:


To read entire paper, click here


Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Wang, H. (2018). Using Multi-Attribute Decision Making to Define, Prioritize and Manage Software Requirements, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December). Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Wang-define-prioritize-manage-software-requirements.pdf

About the Author

Haoyu Wang

Paris, France


Haoyu Wang
, Chinese, 23 years old, major in Project and Programme Management & Business Development (PPMBD) at Skema Business School in Paris, France. He has a background in business and IT education.

Before coming to France, Haoyu completed his studies at ZhaoQing College in China and hold a bachelor’s degree in the Internet of Things. Haoyu has been working for ‘Network Information and Security Research Institute’ (China) and ‘Internet of Things Collaborative Innovation Center Embedded Systems Application Institute’ (China) for many years. During this time, he assisted in the completion of the ‘SMS-based smartphone virus propagation analysis and simulation system research’ and the ‘Unmanned Helicopter Quadrotor,’ ‘WiFi student attendance system.’ From 2015 to 2016, Haoyu hosted the provincial assignment tasks ‘climbing plan’ and ‘Challenge Cup.’ Finally, the task is perfectly delivered with ‘small block type wireless LED display design’ and ‘smart home remote monitoring system development.’ After that, he assisted the professor in publishing an article entitled “Spi / Uart and Zigbee Protocol Conversion Module Design” in the IoT Journal. In 2016, he became an executive intern at Hong Kong AXA Insurance Company. Participate in the ‘fund selection plan and solve the difficulties and countermeasures of financial planning in mainland China.’

Haoyu has the potential to be a promising project manager. At the same time, he has great enthusiasm and interest in the IT field.Haoyu is now working on a master in sciences in Skema business school.He lives in Paris now and can be contacted at [email protected]  or https://www.linkedin.com/in/haoyu-wang-0a21b1161/


[1] Pulse of the Profession | Project Management Institute. (November 11). Retrieved from https://www.pmi.org/Pulse

[2] Sweeney, M. (2015). 3 Reasons Why Software Development Projects Fail – Clearcode Blog. Retrieved from https://clearcode.cc/blog/why-software-development-projects-fail/


Using Islamic Law

for Alternative Dispute Resolution: Is Sharia Sufficient?



By Abdul Wahid

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France



The importance of adequate mitigation of disputes between two opposing parties is hugely important in any circumstance, and in particular in business. With more than 1.6 billion followers and a steep history, the Islamic faith has a long-held tradition of resolving disputes without formal court proceedings. The goal of this paper was to explore whether or not the principles of Dispute Resolution advocated by Islam was sufficient when comparing to those found in Western Law.

Comparing the Islamic principles and processes of Dispute Resolution against a baseline from English Common Law, and using a MADM Dominance Analysis, the two legal systems were judged on how they suggest disputes can and should be resolved. It was found that Sharia Law is more than adequate in its instructions on how to resolve a number of disputes. It was clear that Sharia law is not at odds with Western legal principles but can be modernized to further improve.

Keywords: Disputes, Dispute Resolution Methods, Sharia, Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation & Arbitration Guidelines, Resolution Benefits


The nature of all businesses is the desire to build capital & gain prosperity, and therefore any such obstacle to achieving this is strongly undesirable. It can be suggested that the key to attaining this success lies in the smooth relationships between all parties.  Nonetheless, within any realm of life, especially within the business world, disputes and claims arise, and inevitably they result in great losses, both in terms of time and, more importantly, lead to unnecessary costs.

Traditionally the approach to resolving disputes between any parties who are in disagreement has been to proceed to litigation. However, as this formal process itself can unarguably be time-consuming and costly, alternative approaches have been explored and developed.

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is a broad term referring to any method of resolving disputes outside of litigation. Typically, ADR processes involve mediation, arbitration and conciliation. Its origins, especially the concept of arbitration, goes back to the great Ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, and references to arbitration in issues relating to commerce can also be found in biblical passages. Whilst ADR has been used for centuries, it has gained a steadily increasing popularity throughout the 20th century as an alternative to the litigation process and now is often the mandatory pre-cursor to seeking formal action in the courts.

While ADR has observed somewhat of a renaissance as an alternative access to justice, ADR’s underlying processes have formed the principals of dispute resolution for many early civilizations’ societies, one of which is the Islamic civilization.

Sharia, or Islamic law, is the religious law that forms part of the Islamic faith. Deriving from the main principles of teachings of Islam, particularly the Holy Qur’an and Hadith (sayings and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad), sharia “produces criminal and civil law, religious mandates and personal codes of conducts” for which society can be governed.

Step 1 – Problem Definition

In the 1400-year existence of Islam, Muslims have consistently focused on reaching consensus between disputing parties; the overriding premise has been that compromise has always been preferred over confrontation.

With its long history of using ADR-type methods to come to amicable solutions to their differences, this paper will explore whether or not the principles, practices and processes that underpin Dispute Resolution in Sharia match up to those we use in the 21st century. Additionally, considering that the duration these methods have been used, it is vital to explore whether or not anything can be gleaned from them to further improve the ADR processes we implement in the West today.

In a world, where the tide of Islamophobia continues to rise, and one where people are increasingly, and unknowingly, becoming ever more afraid of Sharia and ultimately Islam and Muslims, the intent of this paper is to bridge the gap and see if, and how, we can learn from its principles to improve our very own methods of Dispute Resolution.


To read entire paper, click here


Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Wahid, A. (2018). Using Islamic Law for Alternative Dispute Resolution: Is Sharia Sufficient? PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Wahid-sharia-law-for-alternative-dispute-resolution.pdf

About the Author

Abdul Wahid

Paris, France



Abdul Wahid graduated from the MSc Project and Programme Management & Business Development student at SKEMA Business School with a 3.9 GPA including receiving a grade of 90% for his Thesis on Social Mobility. Prior to this he graduated from Birkbeck, University of London in 2013, and holds a BSc (Hons) in Psychology.

He currently is employed at France’s largest bank in a role as Relationship Manager; prior to this he worked in the Financial Services and Insurance sector, at two of the largest financial institutions, The Royal Bank of Scotland Group and Lloyds Banking Group in his home country of the United Kingdom. He now resides in Paris, France and can be contacted at [email protected].



Cost of Creating Winning Proposals

for Oil and Gas



By Abhinav Sharma

SKEMA Business School

Lille, France



Cash flows from projects are the lifeline for all contractors, in this age of competition and reverse auction processes across contracting increases the pressure on contractors to keep margins lower and costing as close to reality as possible. There are multiple approaches which can be used for the estimation of project cost, but with so many options to choose from it becomes difficult to select only one estimation and just rely on it. Some methods just take the historical input which are not time consuming and can be automated to come up with estimation whereas there are other methods which need more effort from the side of the contractor but give results which are close to real costs if something extraordinary event does not take place. As per AACE guidelines 0.005% of the total cost of project is the optimum cost of estimation for the project, this number comes up to be very low for the second kind of estimation which includes all the plausible scenarios for the project. This paper is an attempt to evaluate multiple methods on this criterion and come up with the probability of winning a project based on the estimation, an imaginary scenario with real numbers as possible are used but a real project is more complex and need more input for evaluation. The probability of winning a bid is the highest in the Definite Estimate as per the analysis. Further, comprehensive research is required to come up with exact time and cost parameters which is out of scope of this research paper.

Keywords:      Bidding, Oil and Gas, Construction, Proposals, Cost, EPC, Outsourcing, Optimum bidding, Cost of Bidding, Winning Bids

  1. Introduction

Energy need of the world is growing immensely with each passing year[1]. Oil and Gas are still among the key energy resources of the world[2]. Each O&G project involves resources and capabilities of people from multiple disciplines. Many different companies across the globe come together to make these projects successful. Engineering Procurement and Construction companies are the first to carry out the estimations for these megaprojects. Many small vendors and contractors are used to carry out the last leg construction of these projects.

With such scale of projects, there is always the possibility of miscommunication and misinterpretation of expectations. The stakeholder to suffer the most because of these issues is the contractor because the livelihood of these contractors is based only on the cash flows from projects. A small misjudgment in bid calculation may lead to the death of such contractors.

A question arises from complexities of these projects; How long should be given to these contractors to make an optimum bid which keeps every stakeholder happy?

There are many assumptions during bid phase of the project[3], which results in contractors using different ways of tackling with uncertainties. Some contractors use the “Magic Number”[4] technique, where they multiply an arbitrary number based on experience with each calculated cost to come up with the final bid price. On the other hand, some contractors dig down to each activity and price the bid based on the calculated cost of each of these activities. The first kind of estimation is quick but may result in very wage bid for large projects whereas the second kind of estimation takes more time but is close to actual cost + profit for the project. There is also a question of the Cost of drafting the bid proposal; these proposals may take hours or months to draft depending on the complexity of projects and type of proposal.

This paper is an attempt at understanding the reasonable time frame and cost which is optimum for all the stakeholders of projects. A study of the type of proposals, the complexity of projects and historical bid errors would help in shedding light on these complex questions.

  • Objective statement

What is optimum time and cost associated with a winning proposal?

  1. Firstly, evaluating present types of methods used for making proposals based on guidelines given in AACE Education Board Skills and Knowledge document.
  2. Secondly, understanding the cost associated with each method.
  3. Thirdly, assessing the cost to benefit ratio for each method and present optimum time and cost associated with a winning proposal.


To read entire paper, click here


Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Sharma, A. (2018). Cost of Creating Winning Proposals for Oil and Gas, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Sharma-cost-of-creating-winning-proposals-for-oil-and-gas.pdf

About the Author

Abhinav Sharma

Lille, France



Abhinav Sharma is a student of Post Graduate Program in Management offered by Indian Institute of Management, Trichy. He was an exchange student at Skema Business School, Lille in 2017. He has 38 months’ work experience with Weir Minerals India in Mining Equipment design and Oil and Gas piping design. He finished his internship with Deloitte USI where he worked on implementation of ERP systems for High-Tech industry. Abhinav can be contacted at [email protected]


[1] See EY publication on Spotlight on Oil and Gas Megaprojects http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY-spotlight-on-oil-and-gas-megaprojects/$FILE/EY-spotlight-on-oil-and-gas-megaprojects.pdf

[2] See EY publication on Spotlight on Oil and Gas Megaprojects http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY-spotlight-on-oil-and-gas-megaprojects/$FILE/EY-spotlight-on-oil-and-gas-megaprojects.pdf

[3] See EY publication on Joint Ventures for Oil and Gas Megaprojects http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/ey-joint-ventures-for-oil-and-gas-megaprojects/$FILE/ey-joint-ventures-for-oil-and-gas-megaprojects.pdf

[4] See Guide to bidding by Steven E Moore http://www.irrisoft.net/news/newsletters/january2010/Guide to Bidding.pdf



Is Estimating the Cost of a Mobile Application Development

really so Easy?



By Shuchi Sethi

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France



The traditional information systems are undergoing a rapid transformation as per the environmental needs, and undergoing an adaptation process. But many mobile application development projects are failing because of inaccurate cost estimation. The paper addresses the problems of the different methods of cost estimation that can be used for mobile application development as well as which method gives the most efficient and accurate cost estimate. Different methods give different results basis the attributes and the method which abides by the maximum attributes gives the most accurate cost estimation. The following methods were used in the research namely Expert Judgement (Delphi technique), COCOMO II, Estimation by Analogy, Top-Down Approach and Bottom-Up Approach. However, a single method isn’t sufficient to solve the purpose, hence, the best method to follow is by combining two or more alternatives which would give us a HYBRID method, which has also been proven with the help of the Additive Weightage MADM Technique.

Cost estimation is a tedious task and each method has its own pros and cons, and satisfies a different criterion depending on the requirement of the mobile application which is being worked on. Therefore, we finally can conclude that no one single method can satisfy all the project’s requirements and give an accurate cost estimation.

Keywords: Cost Estimation, Mobile application development, Software cost Estimation, time estimation, Delphi technique, IT project, Project success, COCOMO II model, MADM methodology


Ever wondered the overshooting costs of projects in the world of today, especially in the field of IT. As per an article in Harvard Business Review, “it was revealed that, one in six IT projects has a cost overrun of 200%,” which is a quite high rate of failure for estimation.

Cost estimate is quantitative assessment of forecasting cost and analysis of the work required by the design documents. Cost estimation is used for evaluating individual component values and thereby estimates the total value of the project. It is a continuous process which is carried out throughout the project’s life starting from planning stage.

The cost estimation of a mobile application development starts with the reviewing of concepts with designers and developers, and identifying the size of the app. Then the time schedule is forecasted which is needed for design, development and QA. These steps are bifurcated as Design Estimate, Development Estimate and QA, Testing and Debugging Estimate. On the basis of these steps, Project Cost is estimated.

The cost of developing a mobile application is based on many factors like complexity, features and the platform. Of this, the most important factor which contributes to accurate cost estimation is the complexity of the app. As a general thumb rule, the cost of building a mobile app usually moves up the scale the more robust and complex it is. Another factor which contributes to the cost estimation is the platform, for which the mobile application is being developed for. The Android version of the app usually costs more than the iOS version. Also, the features added to the app, adds more cost.

  1. Problem Definition

Cost estimation is considered to be one of the most challenging tasks in project management. It depends on accurate effort estimation and time estimation for development of mobile application development projects. The development of a mobile application process includes size of the mobile app, effort estimation, project schedule, and overall cost estimation of the project.

There are many methods for estimating the cost of a mobile app project, but only few gives the accurate results. Inaccurate cost estimation is one of the major reasons of a project’s failure.

There are adverse consequences of inaccurate Cost Estimation techniques:

  1. Profitability- Inaccurate cost estimation will impact the profitability of the project. If cost is overestimated or underestimated, profit will be understated or overstated respectively.
  2. Inefficient Distribution of Resources- An inaccurate allocation of resources also results in inaccurate estimation of cost which results in over or under utilization of resources affecting the productivity of the project.
  3. Poor Decision Making- Inaccuracy in cost estimation causes inaccurate financial information which also effects in making poor decision-making processes which affects the projects. These incorrect figures may result in unnecessary or detrimental effects on the project and the organization, ultimately affecting the profitability.

In this context, it can be summarized that the research is addressing the problem of:

  1. What different methods can be used to do mobile app development cost estimation?
  2. Which method gives the most efficient and accurate cost estimate?


To read entire paper, click here


Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Sethi, S. (2018). Is Estimating the Cost of a Mobile Application Development really so Easy?, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Sethi-estimating-the-cost-of-mobile-app-development.pdf

About the Author

Shuchi Sethi

Delhi, India



Shuchi Sethi, student of SKEMA Business School, France is pursuing “Masters in Project and Programme Management and Business Development”. She is certified in AGILEPM Foundation, PRINCE2 Foundation, Lean Six Sigma Green Belt, CAPM and ISTQB- Foundation Level. She originates from Delhi, India where she studied B. Tech (Electronics and Communication) from Banasthali University. She has an experience of over 5 years working as Sr. Test Engineer at HCL Technologies. You can contact her on her email at [email protected], and also on LinkedIn at 60a32430.



Contract Lifespan Management

for Data Processing Projects



By Mamtha Manoharan

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France



Data processing projects has more impacts has technology became  easy to every common individual, every one of us has the experience of providing our personal information to any of domain in ways to get some befits of outputs,  all these information in detail will be discussed in analyzing article below where this paper will help you to have an clear picture how data in processing hub are treated in different terms with particular agreement between customer, who provides information to data processing system or hub handle this data processing system, where this paper helps everyone getting awareness that how to provide data to processing hub with full involvement to the entire project so that data can be managed in secure cycle at process of data and even after the processed out in this shade this paper will take you in to the analysis that concludes whether data provided are managed to be in secure cycle, how long it’s secure any new terms in agreement can be implemented make the agreement more effective to make the data in secure stage even after the termination of agreement followed in data processing project, it will also help customer and data processor to understand their responsibilities rather common responsibilities in managing the data in secure stage as security issues lack on information technology built it’s methodology.

Keywords: Contract lifecycle management, DPA – Data Processing Agreement, processing of data, Transferring of data, limitation in data processing. Act of DPA.


Data processing refers to the process of operations or an organized collection of facts and information, such as records on organization, customers or an individual, the forms of data processing set serve many of business settling where they are specifically adapted for Administrative, Commercial, financial, Managerial and supervisory, to process commercial data such as stock control, payroll production, keeping track of orders, producing Invoices, monitoring payments and withdrawal, processing application forms.

As technology grows data are processed and monitored by the computer system as electronic data processing (EDP). Where the data processing cycle is of three stages as

  • Process, collect and enter the data.
  • Process and store the data.
  • Then output the information.

There is a vast growth to a technology simultaneously there is a security issues and major problems lacks to the technology, here considering data processing are a few question arising: Is any third part uses our data , who process the data, who has rights to process the data and how rights are down by other parties to process on data to all this minor questions there is contractual term has been followed by numerous data processing solution and companies who deals a big technology on a business hub of processing data where there is one contractual term exist between data processing framework system that is Data Processing Agreement (DPA) where this DPA is signed between data provider (customer) and data exporter that is controller to data processor, controller is one who instructs the data processor on processing the data, which data has to be processed and transferred on the basis of agreement terms signed between the provider and data controller, controller has the responsibility on access to the data within in the control limitation and processor is responsibility for transferring the data across the cloud in information technology and make sure the access of other third party only to the relevant information rather than all information provided by the customer.

  1. Problem Definition

Where system of data contains most of personal information on individual, increases significant

disadvantages in balance of self and data system. The user gives personal information for record keeping system in purpose to exchange some rights, liberty, privilege, benefit assurance of civil liberty and opportunity and the user expectation are that information will be used for purpose or need for what they provided, certainly not in a way to detriment as they are not excepted to be annoyed, pressured or harmed by the information provided, in this situation to be aware on data or information provided should be properly authenticated towards privacy and security issues, this article helps to analysis termination of data processing agreements and lifetime of data processed under agreements, where this analysis helps to conclude:

Whether data processed under the cycle are managed to be secure even after termination of agreement?


To read entire paper, click here


Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Manoharan, M.l (2018). Contract Lifespan Management for Data Processing Projects, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December). Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Manoharan-contract-lifespan-management-for-data-processing-projects.pdf

About the Author

Mamtha Manoharan

Paris, France



Mamtha Manoharan is a student of MSC. Project & Programme Management and Business Development from AACSB accredit SKEMA Business School, Paris. With nearly 7 years of work experience in Information technology and Customer management, Miss. Manoharan has experience in private sector. She has a Master’s Degree in Software and Informatic Engineering, and worked in IT corporate with various projects leading a team. She has many excellence performance awards under his belt from his previous employers. She resolved technical issues for EMC customers and practices techniques on project management to be in advanced professional level to reliable projects.  Mamtha can be contacted at [email protected].



Pros and Cons of Using Local Content

for Renewable Projects



By Sumit K. Chauhan

SKEMA Business School

Lille, France



Renewable projects are picking up pace around the world, in developed as well as developing countries. In such projects, developing countries are imposing local content sourcing requirements to protect their markets in the short term and advance their markets for supporting the growth in long term while it has been continuously opposed by developed countries by being cited as a violation of the free trade practices of WTO. Therefore, this paper is developed to analyze the issue of local content requirements (LCR) and uses multi attribute decision making to compare different alternatives such as 0% LCR, <50% LCR, >50% LCR and 100% LCR. Based on this analysis, the author will reach a conclusion on which alternative will serve the best for a nation keeping in mind the short-term benefits as well as long-term effects of adopting such a policy.

Keywords: Indo-US Solar Dispute, Renewable Energy, Local Content Requirements (LCR), Environmental Exceptions, World Trade Organization, Free Trade Issues, Paris Climate Agreement.


The world has been dependent upon fossil fuels for a long time for producing electricity. But now renewable sources of energy have been picking up for electricity production and investment in all countries is flowing in this sector. Earlier many, developing and under developed, countries have been largely dependent upon fossil fuels for electricity generation, given the high initial investment and cost of producing electricity through renewable sources of energy. But nowadays, given that cost of producing energy through renewable sources is decreasing and becoming more viable, countries are moving towards renewables.

A case in point is India which had set ambitious target of achieving 57% of total electricity capacity to come from non-fossil fuel sources by 2027. But an underdeveloped solar market in its home country has led to increasing reliance on foreign market for buying solar products. This led to high costs of buying in short term as well as long term. Therefore, to build a domestic market and reduce its reliance on imports, India has put domestic content requirements (DCR) restrictions in renewable projects. This will boost the local market and therefore support the government in long term, if not the short term, and achieve its objective of reducing emissions in a quick and inexpensive manner. However, this support for local market is viewed by US as giving undue advantage to home players and has been cited as a violation of free trade law of WTO which can impact India in terms of loss of trade and foreign investment in other sectors.

This raises the question of whether the underdeveloped countries should use such restrictions to develop local markets or should they avoid such actions to not lose out in other areas due to trade restrictions. Therefore, this paper seeks to analyze the impact of domestic content requirements (DCR) in renewable projects and the extent to which a country should use such restrictions.


STEP 1:  To analyze the percentage of local content requirement that would best serve a nation, Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) has been used. Since the attributes are quite subjective this analysis method would be the best to use. We plan to compare the local content requirement ranging from 0% to 100% divided into four scenarios. By using the MADM methods, we will able to find out the best option for enforcing local content requirements in renewable projects.


To read entire paper, click here


Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Chauhan, S. K. (2018). Pros and Cons of Using Local Content for Renewable Projects, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Chauhan-local-content-for-renewable-projects.pdf

About the Author

Sumit Kumar Chauhan      

Calcutta, India



Sumit Kumar Chauhan is an MBA student in Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, India. He graduated from Delhi College of Engineering, India and holds a bachelor’s degree in Computer Engineering. He has worked for a total of 3 years in SAP Labs as an Associate Developer and in ZS Associates as a Business Analyst. He studied in France on a student exchange program and can be contacted at [email protected].



Effective Tactics for Delay Analysis



By Pratyush K. Chaturvedi

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France



This study aims at investigating the main cause of delays within Oil & Gas & Construction EPC Projects. TIA (Time Impact Analysis) is a schedule delay analysis technique to claim the contract time extension and cost due to the delays which are not the responsibilities of the contractor. The time for performance (Plan vs Actual) of a project is usually important for both the contractor and Employer (Owner/Client). The purpose of project delays is making right decisions on potential times and cost claims for both parties. This study shows the impact of delays within FEED (Front End Engineering Design) and execution phase on overall duration of the project. The requirement for performing TIA is that schedule must have recently updated and approved Critical Path method schedule.

Keywords: Oil & Gas Projects, EPC Projects, Delay Analysis, Cost Claims, Extension of Time, Scheduling, Critical Path Method (CPM), Extension of Time (EOT), Owner & Contractor, Vendor, Claim, Baseline Schedule


A Time Impact Analysis (TIA) is a modeled method of analysis to aid in supporting a request for an extension of contract time. As defined by AACE RP 52R-06, “TIME Effect Examination is connected in Oil and Gas and Development Industry. The TIA id ‘forward-looking’ planned timetable investigation procedure that adds a displayed delay to an acknowledged contract calendar to decide the conceivable effect of that deferral to the undertaking culmination.” On the other hand, “ACE RP 29R-03, FORENSIC SCHEDULE ANALYSIS-2011[1] (29R- 03), endeavors to characterize and portray review investigations.” This demonstrates some ‘Observational examination’s Method Implementation Protocols (MIP 3.3, 3.4, 3.5) are every so often called ‘Time Impact Analysis’ (TIA). Be that as it may, most investigators think about TIA as a ‘Demonstrated’ examination (MIP 3.6, 3.7) [Figure 1]. Under the portrayal of MIP 3.6, ordinarily referred to as ‘Affected As-Planned’, RP 29R-03 states: ‘MIP 3.6 can be utilized tentatively or reflectively’.

Figure 1. AACE RP29R-03 Forensic Schedule Analysis

What is PROSPECTIVE and RETROSPECTIVE analysis?[2]

RP 29R-03 defines prospective analyses as:

“Prospective analyses are performed in real-time prior to the delay event or in real-time, contemporaneous with the delay event. In all cases prospective analysis consists of the analyst’s best estimate of future events. Prospective analysis occurs while the project is still underway and may not evolve into a forensic context.”

RP 29R-03 defines Retrospective analyses as:

“Retrospective analyses are performed after the delay event has occurred and the impacts are known. The timing may be soon after the delay event but prior to the completion of the overall project, or after the completion of the entire project… In other words, even forward-looking analysis methods implemented retrospectively have the full benefit of hindsight at the option of the analyst.”

The Time Impact Analysis is performed while a venture is in running stage. The Time Impact Analysis additionally a procedure to be utilized by the Contractor as an inward strategy to assess changes to recuperate or enhance venture consummation for delays caused by the Contractor. According to individual late experience, many contracts concur that TIA ought to be arranged and submitted to quantitatively approve the Contractor’s ask for time augmentation. Once the span of time has been settled upon, at that point the additional time-related expenses of such a deferral can be resolved regarding the agreement.


To read entire paper, click here


Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Chaturvedi, P. K. (2018). Effective Tactics for Delay Analysis, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December). Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Chaturvedi-effective-tactices-for-delay-analysis.pdf

About the Author

Pratyush Kumar Chaturvedi

Uttar Pradesh, India



Pratyush K Chaturvedi, is a certified holder of AgilePM Foundation and PRINCE2 Foundation with an extensive experience of over 9 years in Project Management and Project Controls as a planner, scheduler, budget & cost control in Oil & Gas, Power Plant and construction industry. At present, he is pursuing a Masters in Project and Programme Management and Business Development from SKEMA Business School, Paris. He originates from Uttar Pradesh, India where he completed his graduation with a Bachelor Degree in Information Technology (2006) from Uttar Pradesh Technical University. Previously, he has worked for Punj Lloyd Limited in India, Qatar and Indonesia as a planning engineer; followed by Corrtech International Pvt. Ltd., India as a senior engineer; after that he worked with PT. Timas Suplindo, Indonesia as a Lead Project Control Engineer; recently he worked with PT. Visacall Jaya Abadi, Indonesia as a Project Planner.

Pratyush can be contacted at mail [email protected] and at linked 5355b61a.

[2] THE USE (OR MISUSE) OF A PROSPECTIVE TIME IMPACT ANALYSIS PROVISION IN A FORENSIC ARENA: A CASE STUDY. (2017). Navigant.com. Retrieved 26 November 2017, from https://www.navigant.com/-/media/www/site/insights/construction/2017/gcon_ifh_theuseormisuseoftias_tl_0617.pdf



Bridging the PM Competency Gap 3



Book Title:    Bridging the PM Competency Gap: A Dynamic Approach to Improving Capability and Project Success
Author:  Loredana Abramo, PMP & Rich Maltzman, PMP
Publisher:  J. Ross Publishing
List Price:  $37.95
Format:  294 pages, hardcover
Publication Date: 2017
ISBN-13: 978-1604271409
Reviewer: Abdullah Abuzaid, PMP
Review Date: October 2018



Bridging the PM competency GAP by Abramo & Maltzman is a book to help personnel involved in project management activity to build their competency and fill gaps in project management.  It will help effectively manage projects, communicate with stakeholders and build personal/soft skill; it is a book that complies with the Project Management Book of Knowledge. In addition it presents and elaborates more about approaches to establish a continuous learning environment for advancing PM competency

Overview of Book’s Structure

The book’s structure draws a logical sequence analogy for any new engagement into an activity or project, with below contents:

  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1: Problem Statement: In Other Words, The Gap
  • Chapter 2: Wanted: Bespoke Strategic Approach
  • Chapter 3: Know Thy Audience
  • Chapter 4: Options
  • Chapter 5: Planning Your Bridges
  • Chapter 6: Time to Deliver!
  • Chapter 7: Indicators of Success – How Do You Know if Your Bridge Is Built and Working?
  • Chapter 8: The Feedback Loop and Improving the Bridge
  • Chapter 9: Leveraging Expert Judgment Chapter 9 Ready, Set… Exam Success
  • Appendix 1: Select References and Useful Links
  • Appendix 2: A Competency Survey of 250 Project Managers
  • Appendix 3: Details of the 4-D Approach Applied to PM Competency
  • Appendix 4: Case Study: Philips Excellence Project Management


The book highlights an important concept in project management – personal success factor (continues learning). As mentioned earlier the book describes a good sequence to overcome a challenge or solve a problem.


To read entire Book Review, click here


About the Reviewer

Abdullah Abuzaid, PMP

Dallas, Texas




Abdullah Abuzaid, PMP is a Business Development Manager with vast experience in project management, business analyses & business development in telecom world. Abdullah has a Bachelor’s degree in electronics & communication engineering, he has Project Management Professional (PMP) certification, and he is a member of the Dallas and the Fort Worth chapters of the Project Management Institute (PMI).  He can be contacted at [email protected]


Editor’s note:  This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Dallas Chapter. Authors and publishers provide the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Dallas Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library.  If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact [email protected].



December 2018 PM Update from Istanbul

AFTER 2018: PMI Turkey Chapter, Istanbul Project Management Association (IPYD), Turkish Professional Project Managers’ Institute (TPYME)



By İpek Sahra Özgüler

International Correspondent

Istanbul, Turkey



When I look back on the year that is about to finish, I see that PMI Turkey has organized many events for our members, volunteers and project management professionals.  This was a good year; next year will be better.

Let’s go back and see what we did this year:

  • By the PMI 2.0 journey; we have determined our mission, vision, strategy, brand, and
  • We organized monthly activities in Ankara, Izmir, and
  • We organized a 2-day summit with the theme “Learning Organizations” in Ankara;
  • We organized a 2-day summit with the theme “Project Management in Industry 4.0” in Istanbul;
  • We organized workshops for only our members.
  • We organized Networking Activities.
  • We organized IPM Day celebrations with other project management associations in four cities.
  • We have translated PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) 6th Edition and Agile Practice Guide into Turkish under the sponsorship of Türk Telekom.
  • We have created a book-reading club to come together with our members on non-business matters.
  • We created a Project Knowledge blog.
  • This year, we had a C-Level meeting with Murat Bıçak, Senior Vice President of PMI Global, who was our keynote speaker at Istanbul PMSummit.
  • For the first time, we applied to two European Union projects, one in cooperation with 3 European PMI Chapter (Bulgaria, France, Slovenia).
  • We had the opportunity to be introduced at CNN Turk screens as PMI TR. We were the guest of Cem Seymen’ s program “Another World is ”
  • We have published the Project Management World magazine four
  • We went to universities and made PMI TR presentations.
  • We gave CAPM training to senior students.
  • We provided the PMIEF (PMI Education Foundation) training for primary and secondary school teachers. This education is about how to explain project management to children.
  • We represented our country in global PMI congresses and made presentations.
  • We held meetings with the sponsors and found sponsors to do items above.
  • While doing all this, we have ensured the fiscal discipline of our Chapter in a crisis environment.

We carried out all of the above items with PMI TR volunteers.

Reported By Suleyman Cavusoglu,
PMI TR Chapter President


To read entire report, click here


How to cite this report: Özgüler, I. S. (2018). Title, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at: https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Ozguler-Turkey-report.pdf

About the Author

İpek Sahra Özgüler

Istanbul, Turkey


İpek Sahra Özgüler
graduated from the Istanbul University with the Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Engineering and from Middle East Technical University with an MSc degree in Software Management. She became a certified PMP in January, 2012 and a certified SCRUM Master in 2014. She works as international correspondent at PMWJ. Before joining PMWJ, she worked for global multinational companies and leading local companies such as Coca Cola, Deloitte, Turkcell Superonline,Havelsan and TAV IT.  Over the years, she has gained extensive experience in managing various medium and large scale projects, programs and portfolios.

Her article named “When I Decided to Develop Multi Processing Project Manager’s System” was published in the book “A Day in the Life of a Project Manager”.  She has published several articles in the PM World Journal and one in PMI’s PM Network magazine. Ipek is actively involved in sailing, writing and discovering new cultures.  She can be contacted at [email protected].

To see other works by İpek Sahra Özgüler, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/ipek-sahra-ozguler/



December 2018 PM Report from São Paulo

PMI São Paulo Chapter celebrates its Twentieth Anniversary



By Mauricio Lopes

International Correspondent

São Paulo, Brazil


It was held on November 10th the celebration of the twenty years after the founding of the PMI São Paulo Chapter.

In the 1980s, Brazil had a project management movement called GEGE (Study Group of Project Management) and even a PMI chapter, for a few years.

The history starts In the mid-1990s, through the combination of several initiatives such as São Paulo University.with Professor Guilherme Ary Plonsky, CENGEP with Prof. João Carlos Boyadjian, Engineering Institute with Engineer Mauricio Lopes, and the leadership of Marcio Prieto and other professionals from different areas was officially constituted in 1998, the PMI São Paulo Chapter.

Counting professionals and entity from several areas, such as Engineering and Construction, IT, Telecommunications, Oil and Gas, consulting, the PMI chapter of São Paulo was established in 1998.

Since its foundation the events and seminars have aroused great interest and the number of members has grown exponentially. Already in its second year of existence it received a PMI award as the Chapter that had grown the most during the period.

Current president Alex Urbano and former presidents Paulo Afonso, Paulo Sabbag and Guilherme Ary Plonski


To read entire report, click here


How to cite this report: Lopes, M. (2018). Project Management Report from São Paulo, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XI – November.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-dec2018-Lopes-brazil-regional-report.pdf

About the Author

Maurício Lopes

São Paulo, Brazil



 Maurício Lopes, PMP is a Project Management Specialist. He is a PMP certified in 2000. He is a civil engineer with MBA in Project Management. He was one of the founders of the São Paulo PMI Chapter and Financial Director, Administrative Director, member of the Steering Committee from 1998 to 2003. He was vice-coordinator of the Project Management Division of the Engineering Institute of São Paulo from 1998 to 1999. Since 2004 Maurício Lopes has been speaking in project management courses for CPLAN, FATEC, INPG, IETEC and FIA. He has 20 years of experience in project management with main focus in the engineering & construction area.

Currently, Mauricio is associate director of M2L Project Management (www.M2L.com.br), a company specialized in project management consulting and implementation operating in over 40 large engineering & construction projects. Maurício Lopes is author of articles for Revista Grandes Construções, a magazine specialized in engineering & construction, and he has the main characteristics related to project management – lean, practical and systematic ways.

Mauricio is an International Correspondent for PM World in Brazil and can be contacted at [email protected].

To view other works by Mauricio Lopes, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/mauricio-lopes/



December 2018 PM Update from Buenos Aires

International Congress PMI Tour Cono Sur 2018 (Project Management in Argentina)



By Cecilia Boggi, PMP

International Correspondent

Buenos Aires, Argentina


Since 2005, every November it has place into southern Latin America Region the already famous PMI Tour Cono Sur (PMI Southern Cone Tour).

This international Congress, organized by Project Management Institute Chapters from the Southern Countries in Latina America, is the largest meeting on leadership and project management in the region and brings together international experts who share the latest international trends in leadership, project management and the impact of projects on business and organizational strategies.

This important event arose in 2005, due to the need to boost the interest of the Project Management in the region and the collaboration between the chapters. The First PMI Tour Cono Sur was organized by PMI Buenos Aires Argentina Chapter, PMI Santiago Chile Chapter and PMI Montevideo Uruguay Chapter, holding coordinated conferences in the three cities, with the participation of representatives from each chapter of the three countries. This experience was so successful that the event expanded to Peru in 2008, Paraguay and Bolivia in 2009.

The 2018 edition of the PMI Tour Cono Sur included events in 15 locations, under the theme “Manage, adapt and reinvent the world through projects“.

With respect to the PMI Argentine Chapters, the Tour Cono Sur is held in the cities of Buenos Aires since 2005, in Mendoza since 2008 and the cities of Cordoba and Rosario were added in 2016.

This year the Tour began in Mendoza, organized by the PMI Nuevo Cuyo Chapter on November 2nd and 3rd. Being the province of Mendoza internationally recognized for the quality of its wine, especially the Malbec variety, the place chosen for the PMI Tour Cono Sur 2018 was “La Enoteca”, former School of Vitiviniculture turned into a museum, considered as cultural heritage and emblem of the world of wine, theme which was central to the event.

Exhibitors of great experience, such as Victor Villar, Leonor Viturro, Jorge Moreno, Gustavo Albera, Fernando Bolado, among others, have provided to the audience their theoretical and practical knowledge of current issues in project management.

Additionally, exhibitors from different wineries were invited to share their experience in the management of wine industry projects, very much in keeping with the theme of the Congress.

Photo: Volunteers and Speakers of the PMI Tour Cono Sur Mendoza 2018

Traditionally, the PMI Tour Cono Sur in Mendoza combines the conferences with an Outdoor workshop that, on this occasion, was held at Espacio Lares, which stands out as a place surrounded by nature. The workshop was facilitated by Adriana Cibelli, PMP, vice president of the PMI Buenos Aires Chapter, who developed a very interesting dynamic combining leadership with wine.


To read entire report click here for (English) or (Spanish)


To cite this article: Boggi, C. (2018). December 2018 Project Management Update from Argentina, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December). Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Boggi-argentina-regional-report-english.pdf

About the Author


International Correspondent

Buenos Aires, Argentina




Cecilia Boggi, PMP is founder and Executive Director of activePMO, giving consulting services and training in Project Management and Leadership skills in Argentina and Latin America.

After graduating with a degree in Computer Science Engineering from Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, she has managed software development projects and PMO implementation projects for more than 20 years both in the government and private sector. Cecilia has an Executive Master in Business Administration from Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, Spain and also has graduated from an Executive Program in Business Management at Universidad del CEMA. She holds the Project Management Professional (PMP®) credential since 2003, is certified as SDI Facilitator from Personal Strengths©, is a Professional Executive Coach accredited by Association for Coaching, UK, and alumni of the PMI Leadership Institute Master Class 2012.  Ms. Boggi is Past President of the PMI Buenos Aires Argentina Chapter, and is a founding member of the PMI Nuevo Cuyo Chapter and PMI Santa Cruz Bolivia Chapter. She was PMI’s Mentor for Region 13, Latin America South, for the years 2014-2016.  Cecilia participated in the development of PMI’s PMBOK® Guide 5th Edition, leading the Chapter 9, Human Resource Management, content team; she is professor of Project Management and Leadership in some Universities and Institutes in Latin America.

She can be contacted at [email protected] and www.activepmo.com

To view other works by Cecilia Boggi, visit her author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/cecilia-boggi/.



December 2018 PM Report from Italy

Project Management in Italy: PM Expo 2018



By Massimo Pirozzi

International Correspondent

Rome, Italy



This third Regional Report focuses on PM Expo® 2018, the major Event in Italy dedicated to Project Management, which has been organized, in Rome, by the major Italian Association of Project Management, the “Istituto Italiano di Project Management” (Italian Institute of Project Management, ISIPM for short).

 PM EXPO 2018

Istituto Italiano di Project Management (ISIPM) successfully organized, this year too, on October 26, in Rome, the main National Event in Italy dedicated to Project Management, which is PM Expo® 2018  https://www.pmexpo.it/ .

PM Expo® 2018, which focused on main theme “Innovation”, was a National record in terms of 1700 people who registered for the Event, and it had a very significant success, which was proven also by very high rates of Participant Satisfaction, and by many hundreds of congratulations that have been issued both directly, and via social networks. PM World Journal was the most welcome Media Partner of the Event.

PM Expo® 2018 was located in Auditorium del Massimo in Rome: available structures included the main hall with 800 seating capacity, plus three rooms, each one with an average of almost 100 seating capacity, plus spaces for several Sponsors and Exhibitors, plus spaces available for one of the most important issues of our Project Management Community, i.e. networking, plus spaces in the courtyard outside … for street food, pizza, and sandwich vans. Since the Public of PM Expo® is very diverse, including both professionals and students, employees and freelancers, civil servants and private employees, seniors and juniors, above location was important to support the “mixed formula” that ISIPM studied and applies to its major Events.  PM Expo® integrates, in a peculiar innovative way, Speeches by International and National Speakers, Round Tables, Workshops, Awarding of Prizes, Sponsors’ Speeches and Exhibitions, and even a Lottery for Participants and ISIPM’s Members. Nevertheless, let us go now into a summary of PM Expo 2018 Program.

The main theme of Innovation was directly addressed by three speeches in the International Session, and, further, by a Round Table: all of these events took place in the Auditorium Main Hall. In the International Session, Special Guests David Pells, Managing Editor of PM World Journal, and Darren Dalcher, Professor of Strategic Project Management at Lancaster University Management School, had two speeches that were appreciated a lot by the numerous audience, which were, respectively, “Innovation 360! Views from a PM Globalist”, and “Who killed innovation? … and what we can do about it”.


To read entire report, click here for (English) or (Italiano)


How to cite this report: Pirozzi, M. (2018). Title, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December). Available online at: https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Pirozzi-3rd-Report-from-Italy-English.pdf

About the Author

Massimo Pirozzi

Rome, Italy



Massimo Pirozzi, MSc cum laude, Electronic Engineering, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Principal Consultant, Project Manager, and Educator. He is a Member and the Secretary of the Executive Board, a Member of the Scientific Committee, and an accredited Master Teacher, of the Istituto Italiano di Project Management (Italian Institute of Project Management). He is certified as a Professional Project Manager, as an Information Security Management Systems Lead Auditor, and as an International Mediator. He is a Researcher, a Lecturer, and an Author about Stakeholder Identification and Management, Relationship Management, Complex Projects Management, and Project Management X.0.

Massimo has a wide experience in managing large and complex projects in national and international contexts, and in managing relations with public and private organizations, including multinational companies, small and medium-sized enterprises, research institutes, and non-profit organizations. He worked successfully in several sectors, including Defense, Security, Health, Education, Cultural Heritage, Transport, Gaming, and Services to Citizens. He was also, for many years, a Top Manager in ICT Industry, and an Adjunct Professor in Organizational Psychology. He is registered as an Expert of the European Commission, and as an Expert of the Italian Public Administrations.

Massimo Pirozzi serves as an international Correspondent in Italy for the PM World Journal. He can be contacted at [email protected]

To see other works by Massimo Pirozzi, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/massimo-pirozzi/



December 2018 UK Project Management Round Up

BREXIT, Problem Projects, Rail Programmes, New Nuclear, Other Projects, APM Awards



By Miles Shepherd

Executive Advisor & International Correspondent

Salisbury, England, UK



It has been a long time since I did a round up of UK Project Management News and for that I apologise.  To make up the gap in coverage, this month we will look at rail industry projects, the energy scene including nuclear, some project politics and professional society news.  I suppose it is inevitable that we need to mention the topic on everyone’s mind these days – BREXIT, but this will be short and I’ll get it out of the way first.


The subject of UK leaving the European Union has occupied untold column inches in the press and almost interminable coverage in the broadcast media.  It is startling how little information has been imparted but we are not short of speculation, overwrought opinion and obfuscation.  At long last, we have what Project Managers would recognise as heads of terms, the first stage in long and complex negotiations.  This is currently the subject of much debate but almost no one seems to have read the 600 page document, nor is there much evidence of logical analysis.  Our political masters will vote in about 10 days-time on this and if, as seems likely, the “deal” is rejected by Parliament, it is difficult to see where we go next.  It will give us something to report next month!

One practical outcome of BREXIT is the exclusion of UK from some key joint projects.  The most prominent casualty from the EU perspective is UK’s withdrawal from the Galileo programme.  The EU have excluded UK from some key contracts and denied access to military signal traffic essential for missile guidance systems post BREXIT.  While this was all obvious well before the negotiations began, as it is the only position that could be adopted under EU law when UK becomes a “Third Party”, it is irritating as UK have funded large parts of the programme.  The UK line was “…they will realise they have made a mistake and shouldn’t push it”.  Recent comments in Brussels seem to have goaded Mrs May into reviewing the situation.  The Prime Minister has decided UK will develop its own satellite navigation system.  The strategic implications are significant both militarily and economically.

Other BREXIT news concerns fears over inward investment as several key manufacturers have delayed major investment decisions.  For instance, SMURFIT KAPPA, the largest cardboard box and packaging manufacturer in Europe has shelved plans to build a £50 million plant in UK.  Weatherspoons, the pub chain has threatened to axe EU beers and replace them with UK brewed alternatives.  This seems likely to have a significant impact on European supply chain firms such as Lavazza who currently sell in excess of 50 million cups annually through Weatherspoons pubs.  Clearly there will be casualties on all sides no matter how amicable the split becomes.


Three long term projects have caused ripples in the UK project world in the past few months.  First, the troubled IT system at TSB, reported in the early summer, has again failed.  The number of customers affected was much smaller than the original failure but the reputational damage continues to impact the bank.  The Financial Conduct Authority has been involved but the bank continues to operate and there have been no further occurrences.

Some projects just never die!  You will probably recall the so-called Garden Bridge project, supported by our lately resigned Foreign Minister when he was Mayor of London.  The latest dispute revolves around a requested £9 million payment to the project which was abandoned in August last year.  If paid, the taxpayer will have spent £46.4 million.  Legal opinion is divided but there is some concern that the Trustees may be called to account for agreeing a construction contract before substantial planning hurdles had been cleared and funding secured.


To read entire report, click here


How to cite this report: Shepherd, M. (2018).  July 2018 UK Project Management Roundup, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Shepherd-UK-project-management-roundup-Report.pdf

About the Author

Miles Shepherd

Salisbury, UK



Miles Shepherd is an executive editorial advisor and international correspondent for PM World Journal in the United Kingdom. He is also managing director for MS Projects Ltd, a consulting company supporting various UK and overseas Government agencies, nuclear industry organisations and other businesses.  Miles has over 30 years’ experience on a variety of projects in UK, Eastern Europe and Russia.  His PM experience includes defence, major IT projects, decommissioning of nuclear reactors, nuclear security, rail and business projects for the UK Government and EU.   Past Chair and Fellow of the Association for Project Management (APM), Miles is also past president and chair and a Fellow of the International Project Management Association (IPMA).  He is currently a Director for PMI’s Global Accreditation Centre and is immediate past Chair of the ISO committee developing new international standards for Project Management and for Program/Portfolio Management.  He was involved in setting up APM’s team developing guidelines for project management oversight and governance.  Miles is based in Salisbury, England and can be contacted at [email protected].

To view other works by Miles Shepherd, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/miles-shepherd/.



Finland Project Management Roundup for December 2018

Updates about Project Management Association Finland; PMI Finland Chapter; Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant; Hanhikivi 1 nuclear power plant; Helsinki’s Länsimetro extension; Raide-Jokeri light rail project



By Dr Jouko Vaskimo

International Correspondent & Senior Contributing Editor

Espoo, Finland



This roundup continues the coverage of Project Management Association Finland, PMI Finland Chapter, and the key projects currently going on in Finland.


Project Management Association Finland (PMAF), Projektiyhdistys ry in Finnish, is a not-for-profit organization, and the International Project Management Association (IPMA) Member Association (MA) in Finland. Founded in 1978, PMAF promotes the interaction, project-oriented thinking, and exchange and development of practical and theoretical knowledge among project management professionals with over 4000 individual and 200 organizational members.

PMAF promotes the development and dissemination of project and project management knowledge. PMAF members are able to enjoy information sharing, workgroups, development projects, project management forums, conferences and certification services PMAF provides. PMAF organizes two annual conferences: Project Days (Projektipäivät in Finnish) in early November, and 3PMO in early June. Please navigate to www.pry.fi/en , https://www.oppia.fi/events/3pmo/?lang=en and www.projektipaivat.fi for further information on PMAF and its main events.


PMI Finland Chapter is a not-for-profit organization providing project practitioners in Finland continuous learning, networking and community support. The Chapter was founded in 2005. Today, with more than 400 members, the chapter is increasingly recognized as place where its members can enhance their project management and leadership skills, as well as network with other project management professionals.

PMI Finland Chapter hosts a number of events such as Breakfast Round Tables, regular meetings taking place once a month in Helsinki and occasionally also in other locations. The chapter members have the opportunity to attend events for free or with a discount and the chapter sends its members a regular newsletter with localized content on project management. Additionally, the Chapter supports its members in their professional development and training.

PMI Chapter Finland organizes an annual conference in the spring. In 2019 the conference takes place on May 23rd, with an overarching theme “Inspire”. Please navigate to www.pmifinland.org and www.conference.pmifinland.org for further information on the PMI Finland Chapter and its main events.


The 1 600 MW Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant, originally contracted to be built by consortium comprising Areva and Siemens for Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) at Olkiluoto, Finland, appears to be facing a continuum of challenges in the testing which must be completed prior to proceeding with the reactor fueling. These challenges may require that the start of commercial operation is postponed further – from late 2019 to early 2020.

The delivery of Olkiluoto 3 power plant has been subject to a substantial number of challenges. In March 2018 an agreement was reached between TVO and Areva regarding the overruns in project budget and time schedule. According to TVO, Areva has agreed to compensate 450 M€ assuming the power plant is fully operational by the end of 2019. If the plant is not fully operational at that time, Areva will compensate a further 400 M€. As part of the agreement, both contractual parties have agreed to dispend any further judicial acts.


To read entire report, click here


How to cite this report: Vaskimo, J. (2018). Finland Project Management Roundup for November 2018, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-dec2018-Vaskimo-Finland-Project-Management-Roundup-report.pdf

About the Author

Dr Jouko Vaskimo

Espoo, Finland




Jouko Vaskimo is an International Correspondent and Senior Contributing Editor for PM World in Finland. Jouko graduated M.Sc. (Tech.) from Helsinki University of Technology in 1992, and D.Sc. (Tech.) from Aalto University in 2016. He has held several project management related positions with increasing levels for responsibility. Jouko holds a number of professional certificates in the field of project management, such as the IPMA Level C (Project Manager), IPMA Level B (Senior Project Manager), PMP, PRINCE2 Foundation, and PRINCE2 Practitioner. Jouko is also a Certified Scrum Master and SAFe Agilist.

Jouko is a member of the Project Management Association Finland, a founding member of PMI Finland Chapter, and the immediate past chairman of the Finnish IPMA Certification Body operating IPMA certification in Finland. Since October 2007, he has been heading the Finnish delegation to ISO/TC 258.

Jouko resides in Espoo, Finland and can be best contacted at [email protected]. For more information please navigate to www.linkedin.com/in/jouko-vaskimo-6285b51.

To view other works by Jouko Vaskimo, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/jouko-vaskimo/



A commentary on strategy formulation-related causes

of “project” failures in an organisational strategic context



By Alan Stretton, PhD (Hon)

Sydney, Australia



In a recent article in this journal (Stretton 2018k) I discussed causes of so-called “project” failures in an organisation strategic management context. It was found that over a half of these failures (which were mainly derived from Jenner 2015) were not directly attributable to project management per se, but to other entities, including top-level strategic and/or general management, strategic portfolio management, and particularly directors and/or managers responsible for strategy development.

Additionally, with only two partial exceptions, these causes of failure were primarily related to post-strategy formulation stages of organisational strategic management. In an earlier article in this journal (Stretton 2015a) I had identified some causes of “project” failure, additional to those in Stretton 2018k, which were particularly relevant to strategy formulation. This article comments on some aspects of these additional causes of failure.

But we start with the organisational strategic management framework to which these causes of failure relate.


The strategic framework I am using is from Stretton 2018k, shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1: The organisational strategic management framework from Stretton 2018k

The main reason I have been using an organisational strategic management framework to discuss causes of “project” failures is that it provides a context which appears to be relevant to most projects, irrespective of their type, origins, application area, etc. My reasoning has always been that projects are means to help the achievement of broader ends (e.g. Stretton 2016b,c,d,e).

Broader ends can be hugely variable, but if we represent them as an organisation’s (or equivalent body’s) strategic objectives, we appear to be covering most, if not all, types of broader ends. In associating projects with organisational strategic objectives, I have argued previously (e.g. Stretton 2017k) that, no matter how projects originate – i.e. whether in deliberate or emergent ways – sooner or later they become integral components of organisational strategic plans, and of their execution. The strategic framework is not a static one. In allowing for the addition of emergent strategic initiatives, the organisation’s strategies can, and should be, changed to respond appropriately to emergent factors in an increasingly dynamic external environment


In Figure 2 below I have abbreviated the strategic management framework of Figure 1 to its headings. Against this I have summarised the causes of failure listed by Jenner 2015, which were discussed in some detail in Stretton 2018k. I have added causes of failure from Stretton 2015a which most directly relate to Strategy formulation. These are indicated by solid bullet points. The hollow bullet points indicate additional causes I want to discuss.

Figure 2: Adding Strategy Formulation-related causes of failure to a summary of Jenner’s causes of failure

I had some difficulty finding a satisfactory way of grouping the causes of failure which appear to most directly relate to Strategy formulation. I think the main reason is that many of these causes also apply to later stages of the organisational strategic management framework. This is also the case with some of the causes from Jenner 2015 that I listed under Strategy development in Stretton 2018k, particularly Lack of effective engagement with stakeholders, and Unrealistic cost estimates and/or benefits forecasts.

Both of the latter appeared to me to be very applicable to the Strategy formulation stage (as well as execution stages), and I decided to use these as sub-headings to cover several of the causes of failure cited in Stretton 2015a. The remainder appear under the sub-heading Other external causes – all as shown in Figure 2.

I will now discuss these additional detailed causes of failure under the above three sub-headings.


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this paper: Stretton, A. (2018). A commentary on strategy formulation-related causes of “project” failures in an organisational strategic context, PM World Journal, Volume VII, Issue XII (December). Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Stretton-strategy-related-causes-of-project-failures-commentary.pdf

About the Author

Alan Stretton, PhD      

Faculty Corps, University of Management
and Technology, Arlington, VA (USA)
Life Fellow, AIPM (Australia)


Alan Stretton
is one of the pioneers of modern project management.  He is currently a member of the Faculty Corps for the University of Management & Technology (UMT), USA.  In 2006 he retired from a position as Adjunct Professor of Project Management in the Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia, which he joined in 1988 to develop and deliver a Master of Project Management program.   Prior to joining UTS, Mr. Stretton worked in the building and construction industries in Australia, New Zealand and the USA for some 38 years, which included the project management of construction, R&D, introduction of information and control systems, internal management education programs and organizational change projects.  He has degrees in Civil Engineering (BE, Tasmania) and Mathematics (MA, Oxford), and an honorary PhD in strategy, programme and project management (ESC, Lille, France).  Alan was Chairman of the Standards (PMBOK) Committee of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) from late 1989 to early 1992.  He held a similar position with the Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM), and was elected a Life Fellow of AIPM in 1996.  He was a member of the Core Working Group in the development of the Australian National Competency Standards for Project Management.  He has published over 190 professional articles and papers.  Alan can be contacted at [email protected].

To see more works by Alan Stretton, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/alan-stretton/.


Ineffective Risk Management

and the collapse of Carillion



By Robert J Chapman, PhD

Director, Dr Chapman and Associates Limited

United Kingdom


Risk management failings

As reported in the press, on 15 January 2018 Carillion plc, the British multi-national company declared insolvency and the Official Receiver started to liquidate its assets and contracts. The examination of company insolvencies provides valuable insights into failed corporate processes. These lessons are important not only for executives but also for construction managers, project managers, risk managers and advisers. At the heart of the collapse was an acute lack of understanding and management of risk by both the UK government[1] and Carillion itself [2]. The Carillion failure occurred against the backdrop of a growing interest in describing and defining measures of risk capacity and risk appetite. As described by Richard Barfield of PWC[3] “defined well, risk appetite translates risk metrics and methods into business decisions, reporting and day-to-day business discussions. It sets the boundaries which form a dynamic link between strategy, target setting and risk management”. When considered together, the Carillion behaviours described below portray a clear absence of operating boundaries based on a risk appetite statement and associated risk metrics. Despite the early warning signs that the company was running into significant difficulties, the company either had a poor perception of the risk it was facing or consciously ignored it. It would appear that it was not until the preparation of Carillion’s January 2018 transformation Group Business Plan that there was recognition that the group had “weak operational risk management” [4].


The company predominantly operated in low-margin industries[5] within highly competitive markets with inherent risks[6]. A large element of Carillion’s contracts were government construction and facilities management contracts. The collapse was the most spectacular corporate failure in recent memory. The company was described by the House of Commons as “an unsustainable corporate time bomb, characterised by the increasingly reckless pursuit of growth with scant regard for long-term sustainability or the impact on employees, pensioners and suppliers”[7]. The collapse attracted intense media coverage and triggered several Parliamentary investigations and inquiries. Once the background to the collapse became apparent a Parliamentary report commented “The mystery is not that it collapsed, but that it lasted so long”[8]. The accumulation of debt and an inability to reduce it caused concerns among Carillion’s investors, who had begun to divest themselves of shares towards the end of 2015.  For investors generally, perhaps the most striking observation of all was that “Carillion could happen again, and soon” [9]. At the time of its collapse, Carillion was the UK’s second largest construction company and second largest supplier of maintenance services to Network Rail. The insolvency left in its wake (i) a pension deficit of approximately £2.6 billion[10] (ii) 30,000 unpaid suppliers with the risk of getting little or nothing back[11] – on 30 June 2017 Carillion owed £2 billion to its suppliers, sub-contractors and other short-term creditors[12], and (iii) uncertainty with regard to approximately 420 contracts with the public sector[13] although other estimates placed the number at closer to 450. Carillion held contracts with the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Justice, Network Rail, HS2 Ltd and various hospitals. At the time of liquidation Carillion employed around 45,000 people of which 18,200 were located in the UK.

Carillion behaviours

The House of Commons report[14] was damming in its summary of the behaviour of Carillion’s board of directors. These behaviours all contained an element of risk that had a compounding effect.

Carillion’s rise and spectacular fall was a story of recklessness, hubris and greed. Its business model was a relentless dash for cash, driven by acquisitions, rising debt, expansion into new markets and exploitation of suppliers. It presented accounts that misrepresented the reality of the business, and increased its dividend every year, come what may.

The use of the word ‘recklessness’ brings to the fore memories of Northern Rock. The House of Commons Treasury Committee inquiry held to identify the lessons to be learned from the failure of UK banks during the 2007-2008 financial crisis[15] identified that among the banks that ran into trouble, there was evidence of a direct correlation between risk exposure and leverage. As banks increased their borrowings, the risk of their inability to repay their borrowings due to a fall in income increased[16].  In its findings the inquiry acknowledged that those financial firms that showed the greatest appetite for rapid growth through leverage were amongst the heaviest casualties. Increased debt simply led to increased risk. An example was the British bank Northern Rock. It was the first British bank in 150 years to fail due to a bank run[17]. As stated in the inquiry report “the directors pursued a reckless business model which was excessively reliant on wholesale funding”. There are clear parallels between Northern Rock and Carillion particularly with regard to the extent of their borrowings.


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this article: Chapman, R. (2018). Ineffective risk management and the collapse of Carillion; PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Chapman-ineffective-risk-management-and-collapse-of-carillion2.pdf

About the Author

Robert J. Chapman, PhD

United Kingdom


Robert J Chapman
is an international risk management specialist and Director of Dr Chapman and Associates Limited. He is author of the texts: ‘Simple tools and techniques for enterprise risk management’ 2nd edition, published by John Wiley and Sons Limited, ‘The Rules of Project Risk Management, implementation guidelines for major projects’ published by Gower Publishing and ‘Retaining design team members, a risk management approach’ published by RIBA Enterprises. He holds a PhD in risk management from Reading University and is a fellow of the IRM, APM and ICM and a member of the RIBA. He has provided risk management services in the UK, the Republic of Ireland, Holland, UAE, South Africa, Malaysia and Qatar on multi-billion programmes and projects. Robert has passed the M_o_R, APM and PMI risk examinations. In addition he has provided project and risk management training in Scotland, England, Singapore and Malaysia. Robert is an external PhD examiner.

Dr. Chapman can be reached by email at [email protected].

To view other works by Robert Chapman, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/robert-j-chapman-phd/


[1] The Public Administration and Constitutional Affairs Committee report, “After Carillion: Public Sector Outsourcing and Contracting”.  https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmpubadm/748/748.pdf /09 July 2018

[2] Commons Select Committees web page www.parliament.uk , Carillion plc. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmworpen/769/76905.htm .  

[3] Richard Barfield/PWC Risk appetite – How hungry are you? https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/banking-capital-markets/pdf/risk_appetite.pdf

[4] Carillion plc , Group Business Plan, January 2018, p 6

[5] Unravelling a web of failures at UK outsourcer Carillion, Financial Times, https://www.ft.com/content/37f63372-58f3-11e8-b8b2-d6ceb45fa9d0, May 16 2018.

[6] UK Parliament (2018) House of Commons Hansard. Carillion. 12 July 2018. Volume 644. https://hansard.parliament.uk/commons/2018-07-12/debates/2D8B6F0E-B8C0-47C6-B9D0-D274EC5D72DD/Carillion

[7] House of Commons web page. www.parliament.uk , Carillion plc. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmworpen/769/76908.htm

[8] House of Commons, Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and Work and Pensions Committees. Carillion. Second Joint report from the Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and Work and Pensions Committees of Session 2017–19.

 16 May 2018, https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmworpen/769/769.pdf

[9]  Ibid

[10] UK Government. Commons Select Committee. Pension scheme trustees questioned on Carillion. 30 January 2018. https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/work-and-pensions-committee/news-parliament-2017/carillion-pension-trustees-17-19/

[11] BBC (2018) Carillion collapse: Insurers pay out £30m to suppliers, 25 January.

[12] ‘Trade and other payables’, p. 21 of the Carillion Interim financial statement for the six months ended 30 June 2017

[13] Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General, Investigation into the government’s handling of the collapse of Carillion, Session 2017–2019, HC 1002, p6.

[14] House of Commons, Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and Work and Pensions Committees. Carillion. Second Joint report from the Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and Work and Pensions Committees of Session 2017–19.

16 May 2018. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmworpen/769/769.pdf

[15] House of Commons. Banking Crisis: dealing with the failure of UK banks. House of Commons Treasury Committee, Seventh Report of Session 2008-2009, 1 May 2009.

[16] Chapman (2011). Simple tools and techniques for enterprise risk management. John Wiley and Sons Limited.

[17] The Guardian (2012). Financial crisis: timeline. The financial crisis, five years on: how the world economy plunged into recession. Patrick Kingsley, Tue 7 Aug 2012. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2012/aug/07/credit-crunch-boom-bust-timeline  



Project Management and Toastmasters

Understanding their synergy in developing knowledge and skills



By Raju Rao, PMP, SCPM, OPM3 Certified Professional

Chennai, India



After working for nearly two decades in project management training and consulting I was looking for a change of scenario where I could network with people with a general background. This is when I ran into Toastmasters and after visiting one club as a guest, promptly joined it. Since then it has been a very enjoyable and fruitful experience with them. I was also pleasantly surprised to find that the twin disciplines of communication and leadership espoused strongly by the Toastmaster community are in fact important areas of knowledge and practice in project management. So, the question arose, is there any synergy between Project Management and the Toastmaster way? What are the areas of commonality and differences? And how can the two benefit from each other?

Toastmasters and Project Management – Communication & Leadership

Toastmasters International considers itself to be the first-choice provider of dynamic, high-value, experiential communication and leadership skills development. Members improve their speaking and leadership skills by attending one of the club meetings. Leaders head families, coach teams, run businesses and mentor others. These leaders must not only accomplish, they must also communicate. By regularly giving speeches, gaining feedback, leading teams and guiding others to achieve their goals in a supportive atmosphere the Toastmasters platform provide a supportive and positive learning experience. This empowers members to develop communication and leadership skills, resulting in greater self-confidence and personal growth.

Some of the well-known standards and competency frameworks in Project Management include

The PMBOK® Guide 6th edn or the Project Management Body of Knowledge of the Project Management Institute or PMI. It lists ten knowledge areas of which Communication is one of them. Leadership is a part of Interpersonal and team skills which is one of the techniques for managing a team.

PMCDF 3rd Edn or the Project Management Competency Development Framework of PMI has identified the major skills required for Project Managers in the form of a talent triangle with Technical Project Management, Leadership and Strategic Business Management at the three apex points. The Leadership skills include among others dealing with people, being visionary, collaborative, optimistic and managing relationships. Most of the project manager’s time is spent in communicating and in the triangle it is considered part of this node.

ICB 4.0 or Individual Competency Baseline of the International Project Management Association or IPMA considers Communication and Leadership as part of People competencies .It includes elements like personal communication, relationships and engagement, leadership, teamwork, resourcefulness and negotiation. IPMA standards describe competence in terms of Knowledge and skills. These together would reflect abilities. Competence is the application of knowledge, skills and abilities to produce desired project results. In the Project Excellence Baseline or Model assessments are done to ascertain the level of competency achieved. Leadership is considered one of the criteria in People & Purpose area and Communication is evaluated as part of Project Management processes & resources area. In the Organizational Competency Baseline, which considers assessments from an organizational perspective, Leadership as an element and part of Governance, and Communication is part of People’s competency.

Toastmasters skills in Project Management – some observations

Many of the skills practised in the Toastmaster community find their place as knowledge and skills required in project management standards of PMI. Some examples are:


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this article: Rao, R. (2018).  Project Management and Toastmasters: Understanding their synergy in developing knowledge and skills, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December). Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Rao-project-management-and-toastmasters-advisory.pdf

About the Author

Raju Rao

Chennai, India




Raju Rao, PMP, SCPM, is a social entrepreneur and a project management evangelist. He is the Founder of the Forum for Food Recovery and Xtraplus Solutions, a PM consulting and training company based in Chennai, India. Mr Rao has a B.Tech degree in Chemical Engineering from the National Institute of Technology,Trichy,India; an Advanced PM certificate from Stanford University; and a certificate from IIM Calcutta. He has more than 40 years’ experience in engineering, process and project management and has been an active member of PMI for several years.He has held leadership positions in standards development ,developing systems for awards governance ,been a jury and has reviewed and mentored speakers for global congresses.Raju has been a President of South India section of AACE International.

Mr Rao has been a visiting and adjunct faculty for engineering and business schools in India. Raju is a member of Toastmasters International and has mentored speakers on behalf of PMI for the North American Global Congress held in 2018. He has presented numerous papers in global congresses and is the co-author of two books – Project Management Circa 2025 published by PMI and Organizational Project Management published by Management Concepts, USA. He has been an International Correspondent for PM World Journal. He is also involved in writing fiction and has recently authored a novelette ‘Triumph at Last ’.

Raju Rao lives in Chennai, India and can be contacted at www.xtraplus.in or [email protected]

To view other works by Raju Rao, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/raju-rao/



The Benefits of the Earned Benefit Framework

Counteracting the Common Causes of “Project” Failure


Applying Earned Benefit Management


By Crispin (“Kik”) Piney, PgMP, PfMP

Southern France


This article was triggered by Alan Stretton’s series of articles in the PM World Journal, and especially his latest one, in November 2018, entitled “Responsibilities for ‘project’ successes/failures?” On reading that article, I realized that the Earned Benefit Framework can – and should – be applied to counteract a number of the highlighted issues.

Introduction: What I Had Overlooked

I have just realized that, although the Earned Benefit Method insists on the importance of starting from the “why” of any endeavour,  (i.e., the intended benefit) before focussing on the “how” (i.e., the actions, tools and techniques), I have so far omitted to explain the basic, organizational benefits of applying this method. To date, I have explained the power of the method for providing all of the information required for effective realization of the forecast benefits along with the associated techniques and algorithms. However, if the organization is dysfunctional, the results of the techniques will also be worthless

The real “why” for applying the Earned Benefit Framework is to enhance project value and business success in a predictable and repeatable manner. As will be explained, one definite cause of failures in benefits-realted endeavours is the lack of tools and concepts specific to program management, allied, all-too-often, to the lack of the will for greater visibility. In addition, all such endeavours are carried out as if the use of project management concepts and tools will be sufficient for ensuring success. It will be shown that neither these project management concepts nor these tools are, in fact, adequate for achieving success in complex programs, and that the Earned Benefit Framework can provide the solution to these problems.

The current article will explain how the application of the Earned Benefit Framework along with the adoption of an Organizational Project Management model can counteract incomplete and unreliable organizational practices that seriously undermine the chances of project success.


Alan Stretton has given me permission to quote extensively from his recent article in PM World Journal [Stretton (2018)], and I would like to acknowledge his contribution to raising my awarenesss of the issues and for trusting me to make good use of his material.

Link to Previous Articles

Earlier articles in this series [Piney 2018b, Piney 2018c, Piney 2018d, Piney 2018e, Piney 2018f, Piney 2018g] explained how to apply the Earned Benefit cost and benefit evaluation algorithms to a representative case study.

The current article changes topic, away from the technical details of method, to concentrate on the organization as a whole.

In order to allow this article to be understood independently of the earlier ones in the series, some reminders are provided below, plus an overview of the case study,  prior to addressing the current topic of counteracting common sources of project failure.

Reminder on Benefits Realization Maps

A Benefits Realization Map (BRM) illustrates how to make the benefits happen. The BRM for the case study is shown in Figure 1.

BRMs can be developed in two passes, as follows:

Top-Down Strategy Decomposition

Once the anticipated benefits have been defined by the strategic sponsor, you need to determine all of the steps that are required for delivering this result, as well as their interdependencies, thereby allowing you to identify the necessary component projects (“initiatives”). The links from each logical step to the next are quantified based on their relative importance for contributing to realizing the benefits (the “contribution fraction” for the link).

The Benefits Allotment Routine (BAR) uses the forecast benefit value of the strategic objectives in conjunction with the link contribution fractions to calculate the contribution to the anticipated benefits of each node in the BRM. In particular, the BAR evaluates the contribution to the anticipated benefits of each component project.


To read entire article, click here


How to cite this article: Piney, C. (2018). The Benefits of the Earned Benefit Framework: Counteracting the Common Causes of “Project” Failure; Series on Applying Earned Benefits Management, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December). Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Piney-Benefits-of-the-Earned-Benefit-Framework.pdf

About the Author

Crispin Piney




After many years managing international IT projects within large corporations, Crispin (“Kik”) Piney, B.Sc., PgMP is now a freelance project management consultant based in the South of France. At present, his main areas of focus are risk management, integrated Portfolio, Program and Project management, scope management and organizational maturity, as well as time and cost control. He has developed advanced training courses on these topics, which he delivers in English and in French to international audiences from various industries. In the consultancy area, he has developed and delivered a practical project management maturity analysis and action-planning consultancy package.

Kik has carried out work for PMI on the first Edition of the Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3™) as well as participating actively in fourth edition of the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge and was also vice-chairman of the Translation Verification Committee for the Third Edition. He was a significant contributor to the second edition of both PMI’s Standard for Program Management as well as the Standard for Portfolio Management. In 2008, he was the first person in France to receive PMI’s PgMP® credential; he was also the first recipient in France of the PfMP® credential. He is co-author of PMI’s Practice Standard for Risk Management. He collaborates with David Hillson (the “Risk Doctor”) by translating his monthly risk briefings into French. He has presented at a number of recent PMI conferences and published formal papers.

Kik Piney is the author of the book Earned Benefit Program Management, Aligning, Realizing and Sustaining Strategy, published by CRC Press in 2018

Kik Piney can be contacted at [email protected].

To view other works by Kik Piney, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/crispin-kik-piney/



A Health Check for a Portfolio with Customer-Facing Projects


Project Business Management


By Oliver F. Lehmann

Munich, Germany



Project portfolio management for corporations doing customer projects to make a living has its specific challenges. Projects in crisis can impact the entire portfolio and jeopardize the existence of the company. The magic triangle on contractor-side is made of customer-happiness, profitability and liquidity.

A Project Portfolio in Need of a Turnaround

ArmyAnt, Inc.[1] is a company that performs projects for a major number of customers integrating hardware and software to complex working systems. Companies decide to buy and use their services due to ArmyAnt’s great experience from past projects and also to a thick folder with letters of reference and of gratitude from customers of previous projects.

ArmyAnt has many assets such as skilled people, know how, licenses and equipment that customers love to tap into and use them as project resources. ArmyAnt in turn loves to tap into customers’ financial assets and turned them into revenue and finally into profit. ArmyAnt was just a typical company bringing money home by performing projects for customers against payment under contract.

As any company that made its living from being a contractor for one or more customers, ArmyAnt worked inside a magic triangle of objectives, that included the happy customer, protection of the own liquidity, and profitability. Liquidity protects the presence of the organization, the happy customer as an incumbent and a reference allows it to be successful in the future, and profitability provides the resources to realize this future. The magic triangle is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Profitability of customer-facing projects is one corner of the “Magic triangle” of Project business management for vendors

However, in the recent past this profit topic turned out to become more and more a problem. ArmyAnt had started almost two decades ago as a one-man-one-customer provider. Archibald Ant, the founder of the organization, began doing customer projects as a self-employed service provider for his former employer, after his boss had to run a lay-off project, which affected many jobs including Archibald’s. While the company made him redundant, his no-more boss still wanted to use his competencies and experience. The solution was to assign work to him as a contractor instead of hiring him as an employee. The costs he incurred for the organization moved from the payroll to the procurement budget, a development that was welcomed by shareholders. Archibald found that somewhat strange, because as a contractor he was rather more expensive. So he started his little business, which soon proved to be highly profitable  for him.

Despite the profit, Archibald soon noticed the risk of having only one customer: The company could end business with him at any time and such a decision would leave him without income from one day to the next. His income was fully dependent on his single client, and when they had negotiations about fees and contractual conditions of business, he learned that the company was fully aware of his dependency.


To read entire article, click here


Editor’s note: This series of articles is by Oliver Lehmann, author of the book “Project Business Management” (ISBN 9781138197503), published by Auerbach / Taylor & Francis in 2018. See author profile below.

How to cite this article: Lehmann, O. (2018). A Health Check for a Portfolio with Customer-Facing Projects; Series on Project Business Management; PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Lehmann-A-Health-Check-for-Customer-Facing-Projects.pdf

About the Author 

Oliver F. Lehmann

Munich, Germany




Oliver F. Lehmann, MSc., PMP, is a project management author, consultant, speaker and teacher. He studied Linguistics, Literature and History at the University of Stuttgart and Project Management at the University of Liverpool, UK, where he holds a Master of Science Degree. Oliver has trained thousands of project managers in Europe, USA and Asia in methodological project management with a focus on certification preparation. In addition, he is a visiting lecturer at the Technical University of Munich.

He has been a member and volunteer at PMI, the Project Management Institute, since 1998, and served five years as the President of the PMI Southern Germany Chapter until April 2018. Between 2004 and 2006, he contributed to PMI’s PM Network magazine, for which he provided a monthly editorial on page 1 called “Launch”, analyzing troubled projects around the world.

Oliver believes in three driving forces for personal improvement in project management: formal learning, experience and observations. He resides in Munich, Bavaria, Germany and can be contacted at [email protected].

Oliver Lehmann is the author of “Situational Project Management: The Dynamics of Success and Failure” (ISBN 9781498722612), published by Auerbach / Taylor & Francis in 2016 and ofProject Business Management” (ISBN 9781138197503), published by Auerbach / Taylor & Francis in June 2018.

To view other works by Oliver Lehmann, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/oliver-f-lehmann/


[1] All names changed.



Overcoming Fear of Failure


Risk Doctor Briefing


Dr David Hillson, PMI Fellow, HonFAPM, FIRM

The Risk Doctor Partnership

United Kingdom


The fear of failure often stops us taking risks, because most of us think of failure as “A Bad Thing”. Reality is more balanced. The following ten key characteristics of failure show it includes both negative and positive aspects:

  1. Failure is natural. Failure is an intrinsic part of life, as illustrated by the natural laws of competition and survival of the fittest.
  2. Failure is universal. Failure can be found everywhere, affecting all facets of human existence, including both personal and corporate activities, in both private and business arenas.
  3. Failure is inevitable. Perfection is an illusion, 100% success is unattainable, and there will always be more failures than successes.
  4. Failure is pain. Failure nearly always has negative consequences, and it is usually unpleasant for those who experience it.
  5. Failure is opportunity. Failure offers us the chance to draw a line under the past and make a fresh start, stepping out into the future.
  6. Failure is learning. Failure teaches us where further effort would be wasted and encourages us not to repeat the same mistakes in the future.
  7. Failure is information. Failure is a definite result, a clear outcome, indicating what not to do in future.
  8. Failure is directional. Failure closes off some potential paths of action, and leaves others open or untried, encouraging us to try something different.


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How to cite this paper: Hillson, D. (2018).  Overcoming Fear of Failure, Risk Doctor Briefing; PM World Journal, Volume VII, Issue XII (December).   Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Hillson-overcoming-fear-of-failure.pdf

About the Author

Dr David Hillson HonFAPM PMI-Fellow CFIRM CMgr FCMI

The Risk Doctor




Known globally as The Risk Doctor, David Hillson leads The Risk Doctor Partnership (www.risk-doctor.com), a global consultancy offering specialist risk services across the world.

David has a reputation as an excellent speaker and presenter on risk. His talks blend thought-leadership with practical application, presented in an accessible style that combines clarity with humour, guided by the Risk Doctor motto: “Understand profoundly so you can explain simply”.

He also writes widely on risk, with eleven major books, and over 100 professional papers. He publishes a regular Risk Doctor Briefing blog in seven languages to 10,000 followers, and has over 4000 subscribers to the RiskDoctorVideo YouTube channel (www.youtube.com/RiskDoctorVideo).

David has advised leaders and organisations in over fifty countries around the world on how to create value from risk based on a mature approach to risk management, and his wisdom and insights are in high demand. He has also received many awards for his ground-breaking work in risk management over several decades.

To see other works previously published in the PM World Journal by Dr David Hillson, visit his author showcase at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/dr-david-hillson/