Project Management Update from Buenos Aires


Projects to improve the quality of life for Argentines, latest from PMI chapters in Argentina, PMI Regional Meeting (Report from Argentina)

By Cecilia Boggi, PMP

International Correspondent

Buenos Aires, Argentina


Last March, in Argentina, the historical record has been beaten, both in the consumption of road asphalt, with 53,466 tons, and in Portland cement, with 1,032,119 tons.

In both cases, the main buyer is the State and its destination is the public works, including roads and highways, airport runways, street paving, housing, housing developments, hydraulic works, among other projects.

According to the Minister of Transport of the Nation, Guillermo Dietrich, “Never in the history of the country there were building so many kilometers of highway at the same time.” The road plan foresees the construction of 2,800 km of freeways, 3,200 km of safe routes and more 11,000 km of pavements to be completed by 2019.

Other projects that are being developed at the national level are the works to provide potable water and sewage to the many inhabitants of the country who do not yet have this service, as well as the construction of houses and the urbanization of precarious settlements.

At the same time, it is planned to bring broadband Internet to 1300 localities in the interior of Argentina through the fiber optic network that will increase by 33,000 kilometers in two years, benefiting millions of Argentines. This will allow to eliminate the differences of the access to Internet in the great urban concentrations and the deeper interior of the Argentine Republic.

In all cases, they are projects to improve the quality of life of Argentines.


To read entire report click here for (English) or (Spanish)


About the Author


International Correspondent

Buenos Aires, Argentina



 Cecilia Boggi, PMP is founder and Executive Director of activePMO, giving consulting services and training in Project Management and Leadership skills in Argentina and Latin America.

After graduating with a degree in Computer Science Engineering from Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, she has managed software development projects and PMO implementation projects for more than 20 years both in the government and private sector. Cecilia has an Executive Master in Business Administration from Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, Spain and also has graduated from an Executive Program in Business Management at Universidad del CEMA. She holds the Project Management Professional (PMP®) credential since 2003, is certified as SDI Facilitator from Personal Strengths©, is a Professional Executive Coach accredited by Association for Coaching, UK, and alumni of the PMI Leadership Institute Master Class 2012.  Ms. Boggi is Past President of the PMI Buenos Aires Argentina Chapter, and is a founding member of the PMI Nuevo Cuyo Chapter and PMI Santa Cruz Bolivia Chapter. She has been designated by PMI in the role of Mentor of Region 13, Latin America South, for the years 2014-2016.  Cecilia has participated in the development of PMBOK® Guide 5th Edition, leading the Chapter 9, Human Resource Management, content team and she is professor of Project Management and Leadership in some Universities and Institutes in Latin America.

She can be contacted at [email protected] and www.activepmo.com

To view other works by Cecilia Boggi, visit her author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/cecilia-boggi/.



Welcome to the April 2017 PMWJ

A Devil’s Advocate: Agile from a distance, the big waterfall world, and Welcome to the April 2017 PMWJ

David Pells

Managing Editor

Addison, Texas, USA


Welcome to the April 2017 edition of the PM World Journal (PMWJ). This 57th edition continues to reflect the international nature of this publication; 20 original articles, papers and other works by 23 different authors in 12 different countries.  News articles about projects and project management around the world are also included. Since the primary mission of this journal is to support the global sharing of knowledge, please share this month’s edition with others in your network, wherever in the world they may be.

Since last August, on the recommendation of several international advisors, I have used this opportunity to mention important trends or issues that I see as journal editor.  This month I want to discuss agile project management, one of the hottest topics in the project management professional field, and especially within PMI and its large segment of membership in information systems, software and technology industries.

Last month in this space I discussed the growing relevance of categorization, context and typology of projects – that is, the importance of fully understanding one’s project in order to apply the most appropriate project management principles, processes and expertise.  In my opinion, nowhere is that context more relevant than in the application of agile approaches.

It seems to me that agile is often presented as a general alternative to more traditional (waterfall) project life cycle-based processes. I have recently also been informed that “agile” will permeate many sections of the next edition of PMI’s Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide).  If this is true, the implications and potential impact are significant.  But is this a good idea?  Are the interest in and applicability of Agile as widespread as it is made out to be? What has been heard on the topic from those in organizations and industries where traditional “waterfall” project life cycles and project management approaches, methods and processes are widely used?

A Devil’s Advocate

According to Wikipedia, the Advocatus Diaboli (Latin for Devil’s Advocate) was formerly an official position within the Catholic Church: one who “argued against the canonization (sainthood) of a candidate in order to uncover any character flaws or misrepresentation of the evidence favoring canonization”. In common parlance, the term devil’s advocate describes someone who, given a certain point of view, takes a position he or she does not necessarily agree with (or simply an alternative position from the accepted norm), for the sake of debate or to explore the thought further. [1]

I believe that “devil’s advocate” is one of the most important concepts in program risk management and governance.  It may often be the only way to protect against “groupthink”.  Again referring to Wikipedia: Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints by actively suppressing dissenting viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences. [2]

I learned the value of these concepts during my second term on the PMI board of directors in 2002 when I saw fellow board members sometimes voting with the majority without fully debating an issue or decision.  I found myself playing devil’s advocate simply to raise questions and force more discussion, when I thought a pending decision might be important.  At the time, there was even a policy that PMI board members must “speak with one voice”, which I found both disheartening and even somewhat frightening.  Rather than empower leaders, there was a tendency to silence dissent (or criticism).

Now playing devil’s advocate again, are the PM professional world, academic researchers, organizations and many in the field of project management getting carried away with the “Agile” concept?  Is it as widely applicable or used as implied in the many articles and papers on the topic?  How important is the move towards Agile, how many executives care and in how many organizations and industries does it really apply?  Why are those who do not use Agile so silent on this topic?


To read entire paper, click here


About the Author

David L. Pells

Managing Editor, PMWJ
Managing Director, PMWL



David L. Pells is Managing Editor of the PM World Journal (www.pmworldjournal.net) and Managing Director of the PM World Library (www.pmworldlibrary.net). David is an internationally recognized leader in the field of professional project management with more than 35 years of experience on a variety of programs and projects, including engineering, construction, energy, defense, transit, technology and nuclear security, and project sizes ranging from thousands to billions of dollars. He has been an active professional leader in the United States since the 1980s, serving on the board of directors of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) twice.  He was founder and chair of the Global Project Management Forum (1995-2000), an annual meeting of leaders of PM associations from around the world.

David was awarded PMI’s Person of the Year award in 1998 and Fellow Award, PMI’s highest honor, in 1999. He is also an Honorary Fellow of the Association for Project Management (APM) in the UK; Project Management Associates (PMA – India); and Russian Project Management Association.  Since 2010 he is an honorary member of the Project Management Association of Nepal.  From June 2006 until March 2012, he was the managing editor of PM World Today.  He occasionally provides high level advisory services for major programs, global organizations and the U.S. federal government.  David has a BA in Business Administration from the University of Washington and a Master’s degree in business from Idaho State University in the USA.  He has published widely, spoken at conferences and events worldwide, and can be contacted at [email protected].

To see other works by David Pells, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/david-l-pells/



A Digitalization Project for a Changing Society


Managing and Working in Project Society

By Mats Ragnarsson and Rolf A. Lundin, PhD



Every year the Swedish Project Academy chooses “The Project Manager of the Year” as one of many ways to promote and develop project work by awarding good practices. The functions of the academy have been alluded to in a previous article in PM World Journal (Lundin & Söderholm, 2012). The award has been given every year since the project academy started in 1994. When the decision is made on the recipient to receive the award, the criteria are: exerted leadership, project results, project scope, complexity and fresh ideas. It is significant that it is project leadership rather than project management that is rewarded!

Chosen for 2016 were two persons, one female and one male: Charlotte Dingertz and Claes Johannesson who both are working for the local government of Stockholm connected to public schools. The fact that two persons received the award for the same project is in a way significant for this part of the world, where leadership is not considered to be concentrated to one person only. The project has been called ”Digitalization for Better Learning”.

The young students at school today will be working in other ways and with other things than previous generations. There will be new and fundamentally changed occupations driven by the adaptation to project society and the connections to digitalization. And the new generation is in need of modern ways of teaching.

The winners this time have been in charge of a major project (or possibly a number of projects) to increase the potential of teachers to use digital means and methods to improve their work in teaching to promote profound changes in the way students learn in preparing for future needs.

The project was started in 2013 with the purpose to improve and to utilize the inherent capacities that digitalization provides for pre-university education in the Stockholm area ranging from primary schools to secondary schools. This far, the project has been very successful in the sense that for instance the secondary schools in general have increased their competence level by 35% in the digital area (according to a measurement instrument developed within the project). This was achieved only two years after the new tool was developed.

Headmasters and teachers of 180 schools were involved (and in total 12 000 employees in the school system in Stockholm)By introducing web based tools, by working out action plans and very concrete actions, by direct communication to those involved and through more than 300 visits to school sites, good and tangible results have been reached. The tools and the procedures used have demonstrated the strength of the collegial learning for the future development of the schools. The tools are unique and have renewed the thinking related to changes of the school system. One headmaster has officially described the entire venture as “the best thing ever happening in the Stockholm school system”.


To read entire article, click here


Editor’s note: This series of articles from members of the Swedish Project Academy is based on the theme and concepts in the book Managing and Working in Project Society by Rolf A. Lundin, Niklas Arvidsson, Tim Brady, Eskil Ekstedt, Christophe Midler and Jorg Sydow, published by Cambridge University Press in 2015.  The book won the PMI David I. Cleland Project Management Literature Award in 2016. Check back next month for another article in this series.


About the Authors

Mats Ragnarsson

Gothenburg, Sweden


Mats Ragnarsson
has 30 years of experience in project management. He spent 11 years as project manager in product development for all kinds of projects, ranging from small projects to large and complex projects involving more than 350 people. The remaining 19 years have been spent as a consultant for Wenell Management, where he has worked on international assignments for SKF and AstraZeneca.  He is a coordinator for the research committee at the Swedish Project Academy, an academy that stimulates research and awards the Project Manager of the Year in Sweden.

Mats also has a history as a reserve officer in the Swedish Navy and is very interested in the ocean and boating.

Mats is author of the books:

Leading in Uncertain and Complex Projects – Supporting structures for self-management (Mats Ragnarsson and Lars Marmgren) and

Organizing Projects – From a mechanical to an organic perspective (Mats Ragnarsson and Lars Marmgren)


Rolf Lundin, PhD

Jönköping International Business School

Jönköping, Sweden



Rolf A Lundin is a professor (em.) of Business Administration at the Jönköping International Business School (JIBS) and a Courtesy Professor-in-Residence at the Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).  He received his PhD in 1973 at the University of Chicago (now the Booth Business School) in Management Science.  He has been a full professor since 1978, first at the business school of the University of Umeå (in northern Sweden), where he was also the founding dean of that school.  In 2001 he was recruited to dean JIBS.  He stepped down as dean in 2007.  Since then he has been affiliated with the Media Management and Transformation Center.  He has several publications in the management of projects and temporary organization area and is currently serving on the board for the PMI Global Accreditation Center which is working with accreditation of project management educational programs around the world.  His current research focus is on the use of projects in media industries.

He is the lead author of the monograph Managing and Working in Project Society: Institutional Challenges of Temporary Organizations, published in 2015 by Cambridge University Press winning the 2016 PMI Book of the Year award.  Rolf is active in the Swedish Project Academy. He can be contacted at [email protected]


Clean and Sustainable Energy Supply for Africa leveraged with PPM


By O. Chima Okereke, PhD

Herefordshire, UK and

Port Harcourt, Nigeria



  1. Introduction

Clean and sustainable energy supply could be obtained from renewable energy sources such as Geothermal, Hydropower, Biomass, Wind and Solar. Africa is rich in a lot of these energy sources. The World Bank reports that the renewable energy potential for Africa could provide more than 170 gigawatts of additional power generation capacity; this is more than double the current power-generation capacity in the continent. Such renewable projects could avoid the production of some 740 million tons of carbon dioxide annually. The total cost of such projects is estimated at $157 billion. The projects are said to be economically viable if carbon revenues are added, explains Massaba Thioye, World Bank senior energy specialist [1].

The natural question that should follow is whether Africa needs the renewable energy supplies and also their off-grid small scale implementations. Where and how does project management come into this vision for helping to solve Africa’s energy problem?

Answers to these questions are to be explored in this paper. Its main sections are as follows:

  1. Introduction
  2. Abundance of renewable energy sources in Africa
  3. Necessity for the renewable energy supply
  4. Problems
  5. Some- Developments
  6. Suggestions
  7. Concluding Remark

2. Abundance of renewable energy sources in Africa

A few examples of the abundant renewable energy sources in Africa are listed in the next paragraphs:

  • Africa’s economically feasible hydropower potential of 45 GW is nearly one-tenth of the world’s total capacity, says Lucio Monari, the World Bank’s energy sector manager for sub-Saharan Africa. “Less than 10 percent of this potential is being used at present.  He explains: “More than 60 percent of Africa’s hydropower potential is concentrated in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Ethiopia, but alone they cannot afford the multi-billion-dollar investments needed to unlock it”.
  • The geothermal potential in the Rift Valley covers 10 countries from Ethiopia to Mozambique. It has the capacity to provide more than 15 GW, enough to electrify 150 million households.
  • Wind and solar energy will deliver affordable and dependable electricity across the continent on large grids and micro-grids, in large cities and in small rural villages [2]. Mr Leggett of IRENA considers solar energy vital to Africa’s future; along with wind, it is the continent’s most abundant renewable resource, and currently supplies less than 1 percent of Africa’s electricity.

3. Necessity for Renewable Energy Supply

African nations are chronically short of power. The installed electrical generating capacity for sub-Saharan Africa – excluding South Africa – is said to be about the same as that of Spain. This shortage represents one of the most severe constraints on growth and economic development across the region [3].


To read entire paper, click here


About the Author

O. Chima Okereke, PhD, PMP

Herefordshire, UK


Dr. O. Chima Okereke, Ph.D., MBA, PMP is the Managing Director and CEO of Total Technology Consultants, Ltd., a project management consulting company working in West Africa and the UK.  He is a visiting professor, an industrial educator, a multidisciplinary project management professional, with over 25 years’ experience in oil and gas, steel and power generation industries. For example, On December 26th 2013, he completed an assignment as a visiting professor in project management; teaching a class of students on Master’s degree in project management in the Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia.  In August and September 2013, he conducted an innovative, and personally developed training programme for seventy six well engineers of Shell Nigeria to enhance the efficiency of their operations using project and operations management processes.

Before embarking on a career in consulting, he worked for thirteen years in industry rising to the position of a chief engineer with specialisation in industrial controls and instrumentation, electronics, electrical engineering and automation. During those 13 years, he worked on every aspect of projects of new industrial plants including design, construction and installation, commissioning, and engineering operation and maintenance in process industries.  Chima sponsored and founded the potential chapter of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, acting as president from 2004 to 2010.

Dr. Okereke has a Bachelor of Science Degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Lagos, and a PhD and Masters in Business Administration (MBA) degree from the University of Bradford in the UK.  He also has a PMP® certification from the Project Management Institute (PMI®) which he passed at first attempt.  He has been a registered engineer with COREN in Nigeria since 1983.  For many years, Total Technology has been a partner for Oracle Primavera Global Business Unit, a representative in Nigeria of Oracle University for training in Primavera project management courses, and a Gold Level member of Oracle Partner Network (OPN. He is a registered consultant with several UN agencies.  More information can be found at http://www.totaltechnologyconsultants.org/

Chima is the publisher of Project Management Business Digest, a blog aimed at helping organizations use project management for business success.  Dr. Okereke is also an international editorial advisor for the PM World Journal and PM World Library. He can be contacted at [email protected]   or [email protected] 



The Performance of Projects and Project Management


Book Title: The Performance of Projects and Project Management: Sustainable Delivery in Project Intensive Companies     
Editor: Laurence Lecoeuvre
Publisher: Routledge
List Price: $119.95       
Format: Hard cover, 230 pages
Publication Date: October 2016    
ISBN: 978-1472421890
Reviewer: Catherine Cockrell, Ph.D., PMP    
Review Date: March 2017



Change is a constant in the global business environment today, and projects are the method by which organizations successfully implement change. How might the value of projects in organizations be sustainable in terms of risk, project governance, project teams, and project standards? Laurence Lecoeuvre addresses these issues of sustainability by forming a project team of the best and brightest minds in project management thought leadership. Faculty members of SKEMA Business School in France, along with invited colleagues and experts in the field, are the authors of this collection of case studies and organization experiences. The result is a complementary set of ideas contributing to the knowledge of project management performance.

Overview of Book’s Structure

The authors chose four critical topics of importance to the performance of projects and project management: risk, governance, project teams, and methodology. The result is a delightful collection of research manuscripts exhibiting diverse and current perspectives on the four sustainability topics.

The book is structured in four parts corresponding to the four topics. Each of the four parts contains chapters formatted as research manuscripts; i.e. a journal papers. Each of the papers has an introduction, abstract, literature review, case study (or methodology), discussion, conclusion, and references.


A topic critical to understand before embarking on any project is addressed in Part I: What are the project risks? Daniel and Turner suggest the “VIO approach” (i.e., Vision – Implementation – Organization) for complex projects that introduce risk in the company. Gareis and Gareis realize the importance of change management in the project process and present “OneManagement” as an approach to integrate management perspectives. Delafenestre and Lecoeuvre address the specific complex risk issues relating to supply chain management and how combining the issues with project risk management improves the performance of a company. The SCOR, PMBOK, and PRINCE models of risk management are analyzed and a new model is proposed: the “Model of Sustainable Risk Management”, based upon case study.

A key ingredient of project management sustainability is project governance. In Part II, Turner’s exposé on project governance outlines current thought on the project-oriented organization, governance, governance roles, and program and portfolio management. Gareis and Lecoeuvre introduce the criticality of top-down corporate governance of the project-oriented organization. Husby and Kilde address the environment in which a project-oriented company flourishes.


To read entire Book Review, click here


About the Reviewer

Catherine Cockrell, PhD

Texas, USA


Catherine Cockrell
, PhD, PMP is a proven leader in providing innovative business results in multiple industries, including retail, supply chain, manufacturing, education, and healthcare. She has deep experience in delivering IT strategic solutions, leading large enterprise and global teams, and bringing together business and technology to improve revenues, margins, and workplace productivity. Her specialties include IT Strategic Planning, Project and Portfolio Management, Global Team Building, and Business and Performance Assessment. Catherine holds a Ph.D. in Human Resource Development from the University of Texas at Tyler, Texas. Her research interests in this capacity include teams and team effectiveness, leadership, and organizational development. Catherine earned an MBA from the University of Texas at Tyler, as well a B.S. in Mathematics from Stephen F. Austin University in Nacogdoches, Texas.

Email address: [email protected]


Editor’s note: This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Dallas Chapter. Authors and publishers provide the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Dallas Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library. PMI Dallas Chapter members can keep the books as well as claim PDUs for PMP recertification when their reviews are published. Chapter members are generally mid-career professionals, the audience for most project management books.

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact [email protected]



The Difference between Different Types of Projects


Robert Youker

(Formerly of the World Bank Institute)  

Maryland, USA


  1. Summary

As the Project Management profession moves into working on many different types of projects we are going to have to move to a new level in the project management body of knowledge and develop extensions that define the differences in requirements and approach for different kinds of projects such as construction, new product development, and information systems. This paper attempts start to define the unique characteristics of different types of projects as well as establish a typology or taxonomy of different kinds of projects. The classification is based on the product or deliverable of a project. A list (Exhibit 1) is developed of characteristics that define the difference between projects such as:

  • Degree of uncertainty and risk (construction vs new product development)
  • Level of sophistication of workers (construction, vs information systems )
  • Level of detail in plans (days or hours for maintenance vs months for research)
  • Degree of new technology involved (research vs administrative projects)
  • Degree of time pressure (maintenance or big event vs construction)

Exhibit 1 – Project Types and Characteristics

The paper then defines the essential characteristics of the basic differences between types of projects and outlines how the project management approach must vary for each different type of project. This will serve as a start toward developing one dimension of the needed extensions for the body of knowledge (BOK). A project management professional must know something about different types of projects and how the project management approach must differ for different types of projects. Filling out this taxonomy must be a high priority for the profession. Hopefully the profession can work together to share knowledge and come up with an agreed typology.


How should we categorize different types of projects? The dictionary defines typology as the study of types as in systematic classification. It defines taxonomy as the science, laws, or principles of classification. It defines classification as the systematic grouping into categories by shared characteristics or traits. The project management profession needs a classification system for different types of projects so that we may communicate effectively across the entire world. There are many different potential purposes for a system of classification. One useful objective for a list of different types of projects is to segment the market for marketing purposes. Another is to define the different management approaches needed for different projects. The system of classification might change based on the purpose. Another purpose would be to select the right project manager based on the requirements of a specific project.


To read entire paper, click here


About the Author

Robert Youker

World Bank (retired)
Maryland, USA


Robert (Bob) Youker
is an independent trainer and consultant in Project Management with more than forty years of experience in the field. He is retired from the World Bank where he developed and presented six week project management training courses for the managers of major projects in many different countries. He served as the technical author for the bank on the Instructors Resource Kit on CD ROM for a five week training course on Managing the Implementation of Development Projects. He has written and presented more than a dozen papers at the Project Management Institute and the International Project Management Association (Europe) conferences many of which have been reprinted in the Project Management Institute publications and the International Journal of Project Management (UK).

Mr. Youker is a graduate of Colgate University, the Harvard Business School and studied for a doctorate in behavioral science at George Washington University. His project management experience includes new product development at Xerox Corporation and project management consulting for many companies as President of Planalog Management Systems from 1968 to 1975. He has taught in Project Management Courses for AMA, AMR, AED, ILI, ILO, UCLA, University of Wisconsin, George Washington University, the Asian Development Bank and many other organizations. He developed and presented the first Project Management courses in Pakistan, Turkey, China and Africa for the World Bank.

A few years ago Mr. Youker conducted Project Management training in Amman, Jordan financed by the European Union for 75 high level civil servants from Iraq who implemented the first four World Bank projects in Iraq. He is a former Director of PMI, IPMA and asapm, the USA member organization of IPMA. Most recently he has been consulting for the US Government Millennium Challenge Corporation on project management training in Africa. Bob can be contacted at [email protected]

To see more works by Bob Youker, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/robert-bob-youker/



Proposals to Accelerate Advancement from Project Manager to Senior Executive


By the late Jean-Pierre Debourse, PhD, MSc

Lille, France


Russell D. Archibald, PhD (Hon)

Archibald Associates

San Miguel de Allende, Mexico


This paper presents a brief summary of the results of a research project titled “Project Managers as Senior Executives” and more detailed conclusions and proposals that focus on the actual and potential progression of project managers to senior executive positions.

Sponsorship and Conduct of the Research Project on which this Paper is Based

This research project was co-sponsored by the Project Management Institute (PMI), the ESC-Lille (France) Graduate School of Management, Fonds Régional de Garantie Nord-Pas-de Calais, and CEL.LAB Université du Littoral. The full research results are based on analysis of the pertinent literature, extensive interviews with 25 senior executives and 20 project managers from 6 countries, and 557 responses from 20 countries to a questionnaire in English and French consisting of 77 questions. The full report was published in two volumes by PMI in May 2011 and is available for downloading by PMI members at no cost at http://www.pmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Research-Completed-Research.aspx . On-line access to the resulting data banks is available to authorized researchers through PMI.

Purpose of the Research

The purpose of this Research Project was to provide documented answers based on published and empirical evidence to these fundamental questions: Are project managers becoming and can project managers become senior executives? If not, what can be done to allow them to climb the ladder? What are the odds? How can a project manager better design her/his career development to take advantage of these opportunities?”

The issues that were studied include:

The progression of project managers into upper management: reality or myth?

Project manager evolution: tacticians versus strategists (technical, managerial, leadership).

What project management competencies are essential for effective enterprise management in organizations?

Define career paths in project management (project manager to program manager, vice-president/general manager, CEO, other senior executive.)

What skills, competencies and experience should a project manager develop to be considered for these positions? Examples of areas to be considered are: tacticians versus strategists; business communication, MBA and other degrees.

What, if any, are “best practices” in developing and promoting project managers to become corporate leaders?

The research intentions were to differentiate the data in meaningful ways, and to identify and make recommendations by major industries and types of organizations, such as project-driven versus project-dependent organizations.


To read entire paper, click here

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English. This paper was originally presented and published at the 3rd International PMI Mexico PMTOUR 2011 Project Management Conference in June 2011. It was also republished in the January 2012 edition of PM World Today. It is republished here with permission of Russ Archibald.

About the Authors

Jean-Pierre Debourse, PhD

Lille, France


The late Jean-Pierre Debourse, PhD, MSc, was Professor Emeritus and Director of Research at the University of Littoral (ULCO) in Dunkirk, France. He was founder and Director of a research laboratory on Entrepreneurship and Project Management at ULCO, integrated in the LEM-National Scientific Research Center (CNRS) with team members from 7 universities; former Dean of the ESC Lille School of Management; and Professor Emeritus, the University of Lille. With over 40 years of experience in project management and project management education, he was a founder of one of the first PM Masters Degrees in Europe in 1979, a founder of the Regional Development Agency of the North-Pas de Calais Region, and former CEO of Fonds Régional de Garantie.


Russell D. Archibald

Archibald Associates
San Miguel de Allende, Mexico

Now 93, with careers spanning more than 70 years, Russ Archibald has had broad international experiences in piloting and designing aircraft, corporate engineering, operations, and program and project management. His three project management related careers have been Military/Aerospace (19 years), Corporate Engineer & Executive (17 years), and Management Consultant (34 years to date). Russ has consulted to a wide variety of large and small organizations in 16 countries, has trained thousands of people in project management, and has resided in the USA, France, Mexico, Venezuela, Panama Canal Zone, and Peru with Marion, his wife of 70 years. For the past 23 years they have resided in San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico.

Russ is founding member number 6 of the Project Management Institute/PMI. After presenting the first PMI paper in 1969 he was President of the PMI Southern California Chapter in 1991-2, founding member of the PMI Mexico City Chapter in 1996, and in 2006 was awarded the PMI Jim O’Brien Lifetime Achievement Award. A PMI Fellow and Certified Project Management Professional, he co-authored with Prof. Dr. Jean-Pierre Debourse the 2011 PMI research report Project Managers as Senior Executives. He was also a founding member in 1970 and is an Honorary Fellow of the Association of Project Management (APM/IPMA-UK).In 1967 he was co-author (with Richard Villoria) of Network Based Management Information Systems (PERT/CPM),Wiley, one of the first books to appear on project management.

Russ is co-author with his grandson Shane Archibald of Leading and Managing Innovation-What Every Executive Team Must Know about Project, Program & Portfolio Management(2nd edition CRC Press 2015, 1st edition 2013 also published in Italian, Portuguese and Spanish); author of Managing High Technology Programs and Projects (3rd edition Wiley 2003, also published in Italian, Russian, and Chinese), has contributed chapters to 15 books edited by others, and presented 88 papers at many PMI, IPMA and other conferences in many countries. He holds BS (U. of Missouri 1948) and MS (U. of Texas 1956) degrees in Mechanical Engineering. Russ was awarded an honorary Ph.D. in Strategy, Program, and Project Management from the Ecole Superieure de Commerce de Lille in Lille, France in 2005. See russarchibald.com. Russ can be contacted at [email protected]

To view other works by Russ Archibald, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/russell-d-archibald/



Finland Project Management Roundup for April 2017


Updates on Project Management Association Finland; PMI Finland Chapter; Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant; Hanhikivi 1 nuclear power plant; Helsinki’s Länsimetro extension; Raide-Jokeri light rail transit project

By Dr Jouko Vaskimo

International Correspondent & Senior Contributing Editor

Espoo, Finland


This roundup continues the coverage of Project Management Association Finland, PMI Finland Chapter, and the key projects currently going on in Finland.


Project Management Association Finland (PMAF), Projektiyhdistys ry in Finnish, is a not-for-profit organization, and the International Project Management Association (IPMA) Member Association (MA) in Finland. Founded in 1978, PMAF promotes the interaction, project-oriented thinking, and exchange and development of practical and theoretical knowledge among project management professionals with over 4000 members.

PMAF promotes the development and dissemination of project and project management knowledge. PMAF members are able to enjoy information sharing, workgroups, development projects, project management forums, conferences and certification services PMAF provides. PMAF organizes two annual conferences: Project days (Projektipäivät in Finnish) in early November, and 3PMO in early June. 3PMO 2017 focuses on Project, Program and Portfolio management offices, and takes place at Tampere on June 6th 2017. Please navigate to http://www.3pmo.fi/ , http://www.projektipaivat.fi/ and www.pry.fi/en for further information on PMAF and its main events.


PMI Finland Chapter is a not-for-profit organization providing project practitioners in Finland continuous learning, networking and community support. The Chapter was founded in 2005. Today, with more than 400 members, the chapter is increasingly recognized as place where its members can enhance their project management and leadership skills, as well as network with other project management professionals.

PMI Finland Chapter hosts a number of events such as Breakfast Round Tables, regular meetings taking place once a month in Helsinki and occasionally also in other locations. The chapter members have the opportunity to attend events for free or with a discount and the chapter sends its members a regular newsletter with localized content on project management. Additionally, the Chapter supports its members in their professional development and training.

PMI Chapter Finland has an annual tradition of organizing a conference in spring. In 2017 the conference will take place on May 10th, in Helsinki, with the overarching theme “Change”. Wärtsilä CEO Mr Jaakko Eskola, Kaidi CEO Mr Carl Haglund and IIL Senior Consultant & Coach Mrs Jane Morgan will be presenting at the event at HTC Helsinki. Please navigate to http://www.conference.pmifinland.org/ for further information on the PMI Finland Chapter annual conference, and to http://www.pmifinland.org/ for further information on PMI Finland Chapter.


The 1 600 MW Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant, originally contracted to be built by consortium of Areva and Siemens for Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) at Olkiluoto, is currently proceeding through the final stages of construction by Areva. The third nuclear power unit to be constructed at Olkiluoto is expected to provide full power in commercial power production in late 2018 if the remaining project goes as expected. Pre-production water trials are expected to start in April 2017; nuclear fuel is expected to be delivered to the plant in September 2017; the first fuel charge is expected to be loaded in the reactor in January 2018; the start-up is expected to be initiated in June 2018; the plant will commence commercial power generation in December 2018.

The Olkiluoto 3 project has suffered from a number of challenges throughout the lifecycle. An international court of arbitration settling Areva and TVO differences has published the final verdict on the differences between Areva and TVO. The project is currently nine years delayed from the original time schedule.


To read entire report, click here


About the Author

Dr Jouko Vaskimo

Espoo, Finland


Jouko Vaskimo is an International Correspondent and Senior Contributing Editor for PM World in Finland. Jouko graduated M.Sc. (Tech.) from Helsinki University of Technology in 1992, and D.Sc. (Tech.) from Aalto University in 2016. He has held several project management related positions with increasing levels for responsibility. Jouko holds a number of professional certificates in the field of project management, such as the IPMA Level C (Project Manager), IPMA Level B (Senior Project Manager), PMP, PRINCE2 Foundation, and PRINCE2 Practitioner. Jouko is also a Certified Scrum Master and SAFe Agilist.

Jouko is a member of the Project Management Association Finland, a founding member of PMI Finland Chapter, and the immediate past chairman of the Finnish IPMA Certification Body operating IPMA certification in Finland. Since October 2007, he has been heading the Finnish delegation to ISO/TC 258.

Jouko resides in Espoo, Finland and can be best contacted at [email protected]. For more information please navigate to www.linkedin.com/in/jouko-vaskimo-6285b51.

To view other works by Jouko Vaskimo, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/jouko-vaskimo/



April 2017 Report from Spain


An example of leadership: Letter from the new AEDIP president; Construction industry event organized by PMI Madrid Chapter on March 23rd 2017

By Alfonso Bucero

International Correspondent & Editorial Advisor

Madrid, Spain


An example of Leadership. Letter from the new AEDIP President to their membership





Dª Leticia Sauco Sevilla. Presidente

“Welcome to AEDIP”

Mrs. Leticia Sauco Sevilla, as a new AEDIP (Asociación Española de Dirección Integrada de proyectos de Construcción) President, is writing to her membership presenting her future vision about the association.

The vision that renews AEDIP from 1994 is the organization’s competitiveness in the national and international market for each economy cycle. Under the main influence of customer’s needs, services demand is changing constantly. The second force that generates a constant speed to our association is the technology force; that besides the capital’s flow there where investment opportunities exist, guides our organizations on continuous improvement, new risks assumptions, with the only aim of customer satisfaction.

The key difference between an AEDIP member and one Company that does not belong to AEDIP is the corporate social responsibility degree. AEDIP represents the common effort from a professional society represented by, as in our case, the most recognized firms that are aware of that and they invest to have in Spain and further, an efficient and effective quality service according to our century.

The future objectives for customer satisfaction are as follows

  • The radical understanding of building and infrastructure are an asset that needs to maintain its economic value in the market.
  • Any collaboration contract or any Alliance needs a reliable control of the maintenance during equipment amortization, it needs to determine the real replacement value and a hard management task to conquer social aims and objectives proposed by the promoter, besides the right risk management at the design and execution phase
  • Certifiable energetic efficiency is a problem in our society, in Europe and worldwide; and, thus, our buildings and infrastructures should be sustainable.
  • The “Building Information Modelling” BIM is a basic instrument on the hands of the Project Manager and the Promoter to make a more efficient process, the investment and the final asset. BIM will mean on the following years a radical cultural change in the collaboration process along the whole building and infrastructure life cycle; the parametric model demands changes in the process management. Changes need to be absorbed, educated and improved.
  • Training is the continuous task at the different organization levels that will accomplish its purpose with a right follow up from the Consulting team; the skill change based on knowledge is not enough, because the project is the vehicle that introduces the true change and contributes to sustainability in the society where building and infrastructure gives its service.


To read entire report, click here for (English) or (Spanish)


About the Author

Alfonso Bucero

Contributing Editor

International Correspondent – Spain



Alfonso Bucero, MSc, PMP, PMI-RMP, PfMP, PMI Fellow, is an International Correspondent and Contributing Editor for the PM World Journal in Madrid, Spain. Mr. Bucero is also founder and Managing Partner of BUCERO PM Consulting. Alfonso was the founder, sponsor and president of the PMI Barcelona Chapter until April 2005, and belongs to PMI’s LIAG (Leadership Institute Advisory Group). He was the past President of the PMI Madrid Spain Chapter, and now nominated as a PMI EMEA Region 8 Component Mentor. Alfonso has a Computer Science Engineering degree from Universidad Politécnica in Madrid and is studying for his Ph.D. in Project Management. He has 29 years of practical experience and is actively engaged in advancing the PM profession in Spain and throughout Europe. He received the PMI Distinguished Contribution Award on October 9th, 2010 and the PMI Fellow Award on October 22nd 2011. Mr. Bucero can be contacted at [email protected].

To see other works by Alfonso Bucero, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/alfonso-bucero/



The Devil’s Dictionary of Project Management Terms


By Crispin ‘Kik’ Piney



Originally published in 1906, The Devil’s Dictionary by Ambrose Bierce offered cynical definitions of terms of the “political” language of the period. This posting attempts to provide similar “helpful” definitions of project management-related terms.

Activity schedule A well-determined project timetable during which nothing you expected will probably occur
Agile development approach A palliative to keep the stakeholders patient during an extended trial-and-error exercise in the same way that tapas can be served as a way of making customers feel that a collection of snacks is equivalent to a real meal.
Agile Project Management A set of software product development principles based on good fellowship and poor governance.
Benchmarking A means of comparison with other companies, designed either to comfort your company in its mediocrity or to lord it over your colleagues for theirs
Body of knowledge The basis on which many standards are based. The challenge is to know when a body part is from a valuable discovery, from a sacred cow, or from a plague-pit.
Checklist A method of reviewing using ticks. A tick is a bloodsucking mite that can act as vector of disease. This is why you should be very careful to check on the originator of the list (whence its name, of course).
Chicken or egg situation At least in projects, this is a false dichotomy linked to gender confusion: most projects start as a monster cock-up, and at the end everyone gets egg on their face.
Consensus The process of gaining agreement by lowering everyone’s expectations until they match the average level of knowledge of the participants. Since this process discourages the participation of experts and encourages the masses, the average tends to reduce over time, with a predictable feedback effect. This is a favourite approach for politicians to ensure re-election but should be avoided in situations where the result is important such as medicine, wine-making and cookery.
Continuous improvement Policy of perpetually moving the goalposts in order to explain why the situation never seems to change.
Cost Performance Index A number inversely proportional to the size of begging bowl required by the project manager. See also “Schedule Performance Index”


To read entire paper, click here


About the Author

Crispin (Kik) Piney

South of France



After many years managing international IT projects within large corporations, Crispin (“Kik”) Piney, B.Sc., PgMP is now a freelance project management consultant based in the South of France. At present, his main areas of focus are risk management, integrated Portfolio, Program and Project management, scope management and organizational maturity, as well as time and cost control. He has developed advanced training courses on these topics, which he delivers in English and in French to international audiences from various industries. In the consultancy area, he has developed and delivered a practical project management maturity analysis and action-planning consultancy package.

Kik has carried out work for PMI on the first Edition of the Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3™) as well as participating actively in fourth edition of the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge and was also vice-chairman of the Translation Verification Committee for the Third Edition. He was a significant contributor to the second edition of both PMI’s Standard for Program Management as well as the Standard for Portfolio Management. In 2008, he was the first person in France to receive PMI’s PgMP® credential; he was also the first recipient in France of the PfMP® credential. He is co-author of PMI’s Practice Standard for Risk Management. He collaborates with David Hillson (the “Risk Doctor”) by translating his monthly risk briefings into French. He has presented at a number of recent PMI conferences and published formal papers.

Kik Piney can be contacted at [email protected]

To view other works by Kik Piney, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/crispin-kik-piney/



A viewpoint on guidelines for “non-traditional” projects


By Alan Stretton

Sydney, Australia



This viewpoint has been prompted by David Pells’ editorial article in the March 2017 issue of this journal regarding the growing importance of identifying categories, context and typology in project management, to help in adopting appropriate approaches to managing them. Pells pointed out that I have had an interest in developing such classifications. I also have an emergent interest in guidelines which have already been published for managing what I describe as “non-traditional” projects. This is the broad subject of this viewpoint, although the main focus is the question of how these might be related to “traditional” guidelines as they appear in project management bodies of knowledge and similar standards.

Problems with “one-size-fits-all” approaches

Current bodies of knowledge, competency standards and similar guidelines cover only certain types of projects. Pells noted that “there seems to be an emerging realization that the ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach [to project management] may not be enough”. My observation is that, for well over two decades, multitudes of writers have been saying that “one-size-fits-all” most definitely does not apply to project management. I think Pells’ quote from Russ Archibald summarizes the situation nicely, when he says, “…the discipline of project management has not fully recognized that these different types of projects often exhibit different life cycle models and require different methods of governance, prioritizing, planning, executing and controlling….”.

In particular, the most widely used project management standard, PMI’s PMBOK Guide, appears to perpetuate the “one-size-fits-all” perspective, when it claims that the knowledge and practices it describes “are applicable to most projects most of the time”. This has been refuted countless times. For example, quite recently Prieto 2015:119 put it this way in the context of large complex projects (his emphasis):

Large complex projects differ from those that comprise the traditional domain of projects as defined and served by the Project Management Institute and its Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). Remember its admonishment that PMBOK provides a management framework for most projects, most of the time. Large complex project appear to live outside these boundary conditions.

So, there is evidently wide-spread skepticism about the “one-size-fits-all” implication that project management standards tend to carry with them. This implication is contradicted by so many writers – and is also contradicted by the realities of practice, as many practitioners can attest, including myself.

Re-stating the reason for current standards being so important

However, current standards are still enormously important. This is primarily because, as Shenhar & Dvir 2007:7 (and many others) have pointed out, they provide sound and well understood foundations for basic training and learning about project management. In my view, this critically important attribute should be specifically spelt out by each standard. Accompanying this, any “one-size-fits-all” implications should be denied, with appropriate commentary about broader spectrums of project types – i.e. “non-traditional” projects.

Guidelines for managing “non-traditional” projects

Now, most of us who write about project management are well aware that several guidelines for managing various types of “non-traditional” projects have already been published in the wider project management literature. For example, I have quite often referred to Turner & Cochrane’s 1993 goals-and-methods matrix, with its recommended start-up and implementation techniques for four different types of projects, three of which are “non-typical”. There will be few writers indeed who do not know about the classifications of projects developed by Shenhar and colleagues since the early 1990s (more about these shortly when we discuss Shenhar & Dvir 2007). Readers of this journal will know of the many contributions by Bob Prieto on “non-typical” large complex projects, later consolidated into his book Prieto 2015. Agile is also a candidate for managing a particular type of non-traditional project.

Facilitating awareness of “non-traditional” project management guidelines?

It appears that, with the possible exception of Agile, most people who look mainly to traditional standards for guidance have little cause to be aware of the existence of the types of “non-traditional” project management guidelines exampled above. So, how could/should we promote pro-active awareness of the existence of such guidelines to people who use only traditional standards as guidelines?


To read entire paper, click here

Editor’s note: This paper is by Alan Stretton, PhD (Hon), Life Fellow of AIPM (Australia), a pioneer in the field of professional project management and one of the most widely recognized voices in the practice of program and project management.   Long retired, Alan is still tackling some of the most challenging research and writing assignments; he is a frequent contributor to the PM World Journal. See his author profile below.

About the Author

Alan Stretton, PhD

Faculty Corps, University of Management
and Technology, Arlington, VA (USA)
Life Fellow, AIPM (Australia)


Alan Stretton
is one of the pioneers of modern project management. He is currently a member of the Faculty Corps for the University of Management & Technology (UMT), USA. In 2006 he retired from a position as Adjunct Professor of Project Management in the Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia, which he joined in 1988 to develop and deliver a Master of Project Management program.   Prior to joining UTS, Mr. Stretton worked in the building and construction industries in Australia, New Zealand and the USA for some 38 years, which included the project management of construction, R&D, introduction of information and control systems, internal management education programs and organizational change projects. He has degrees in Civil Engineering (BE, Tasmania) and Mathematics (MA, Oxford), and an honorary PhD in strategy, programme and project management (ESC, Lille, France). Alan was Chairman of the Standards (PMBOK) Committee of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) from late 1989 to early 1992. He held a similar position with the Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM), and was elected a Life Fellow of AIPM in 1996. He was a member of the Core Working Group in the development of the Australian National Competency Standards for Project Management. He has published over 170 professional articles and papers. Alan can be contacted at [email protected].

To see more works by Alan Stretton, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/alan-stretton/.



Assessing Implementation capability of public programs


By Raju Rao, PMP, SCPM, OPM3 Certified Professional

Chennai, India


Why assess public programs?

Public projects and programs are being planned and executed around the world in various areas, e.g. education, healthcare, infrastructure, etc. A large part of these initiatives are funded directly or indirectly by the government and public financial institutions. In democratic societies it becomes imperative that the accountability of performance of these programs are assessed and reported back to the people who elected representatives to govern them.

But, is the information on performance of such projects being transmitted to the people? Often times, the layers of bureaucratic procedures and systems of governance impede direct communication between the elected lawmakers and the people. It is therefore not unusual that think tanks and activist organizations have sprung up to safeguard people’s interests.

The project management fraternity has a unique opportunity to contribute here. Project management associations have been successful in bringing together professionals with skills, experience and have provided the platform for professional development. Project professionals can evaluate public programs and assess if they have the capability to implement their vision and goals.

In this paper, public programs in India have been assessed and would serve as examples for a methodology where the input or data for the analysis is limited to published information. No attempt is made to interview concerned people or verify physically the facts, While this may not stand up to scrutiny in terms of academic rigour, it still provides an excellent opportunity to get professionals involved in assessing public projects and give their opinion on implementation capability. While the examples considered are only from India, the methodology will apply equally well to public programs in any other country and in this sense it is universal.

Programs and Missions

Various programs, missions and initiatives have been considered which were instituted In India by the government in 2014. Table 1 lists a number of such programs and missions. Eight of these have been considered as examples for analysis in this paper. These programs could be classified under two categories:

Enabling: e.g. make in India, Ease of doing Business, and JAM Trinity.

These are not ‘directly’ involved in meeting a need, deriving benefits or achieving a particular objective in a sector or domain but are supportive and act as ‘enablers’.

Direct: e.g. DMIC, Swachh Bharat Mission and eBiz.

These are ‘direct’ interventions intended to meet a need, derive benefits or achieve a particular objective in a sector or domain and may or may not get support from ‘enablers’.

The processes and skills required for above two types could be different for each, for e.g. an ‘enabler’ would require more focus on stakeholder management. If the program is ‘direct’ it would have larger financial outlays. Further, both the types could be a projectized / mission mode or program approach whereas others could be working in a non-project operational mode as in on a functional organization. While broadly they have been classified in two categories, in some cases there could be an overlap in they are implemented.


To read entire article, click here


About the Reviewer

Raju Rao, PMP

Chennai, India


Raju Rao
, PMP, SCPM, OPM3 Cert Professional is Founder and Principal consultant – Xtraplus Solutions, a PM consulting and training company based in Chennai, India. Mr Rao has a B.Tech degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Madras, India; an Advanced PM certificate from Stanford University; and a certificate from IIM Calcutta. He has about 40 years’ experience in engineering, process and project management and has been an active member of PMI for several years. He held leadership positions in both the 1st and 2nd edition projects of OPM3 and has been involved in development of several PMI standards and awards.

Mr Rao has been a visiting and adjunct faculty for engineering and business schools in India. He has presented numerous papers in global congresses and is the coauthor of two books – Project Management Circa 2025 published by PMI and Organizational Project Management published by Management Concepts, USA. Raju has been a President of South India section of AACE International and is the founder of the Indian Project Management Forum.

Raju Rao lives in Chennai, India and can be contacted at [email protected]

To view other works by Raju Rao, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/raju-rao/



Managing Remote Teams: Management Theories


By Ralph Moore MISM, PMP, PMI-ACP

Wyoming, USA


Managing remote project teams has many challenges due to the physical separation of the team. All members of a project team will be different and have their own specific needs. As the project manager, you should apply management theories regarding the type of employee and their needs. Applying the theories of Douglas McGregor, Frederick Herzberg, Abraham Maslow and David McClelland will improve team dynamics, communications and the overall project performance.

This article will examine McGregors’s X and Y Theory, Herzberg’s Theory: Hygiene Factor, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need and David McClelland’s Theory of Need in relation to managing remote project teams.

The success of a remote team will largely depend on the individual team members assigned to the team and the management style. The Project Manager will be required to trust the team and the individuals themselves. Having knowledge of McGregors’s X and Y Theory will be beneficial in one of the key aspects of managing a remote team, team selection. Managing a remote team with the X Theory will be very difficult. The X Theory “This assumes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working, and this encourages an authoritarian style of management. According to this view, management must actively intervene to get things done.” (MindTools, n.d.). Obviously, the X Theory will not be a good choice for managing remote project teams because management would not have the ability to intervene with the team due to being spread across a large geographical region and multiple time zones. The X Theory of management will work best with an on premise team.

Whereas, the Y Theory states, “This expounds a participative style of management that is de-centralized. It assumes that employees are happy to work, are self-motivated and creative, and enjoy working with greater responsibility” (MindTools, n.d.). The Y Theory of management will complement remote teams and facilitate the team to thrive and be successful. Once the decision has been made to implement remote teams, then the management must trust the employees and the team, which supports the Y Theory of management.

Once the remote project team is selected, as the Project Manager it will be important to the success of the team to understand the needs of the individuals that make up the team. Understanding and applying the theories of Herzberg, Maslow and McClelland will assist the Project Manager in meeting the needs of the team and the individuals that make up the team.

Herzberg’s Hygiene Factor plays an important part in the success of remote project teams. Remote employees do not report into the office each day and may start to feel disconnected. Understanding what is important in a position to the employees and being able to work with them to provide a good balance of working conditions, salary, personal life, working relationships, security and status will engage the team members.

Remote project teams will generally work from home, which for most team members will contribute to great working conditions. Team members will work from the comfort of their home, which will eliminate a daily commute to the office, which is a huge benefit to the team members. Working from home will also contribute to a good work and personal life balance.

The hiring manager, human resources and resulting negations from the employee, will generally determine salary. The goal is to provide a salary that is within industry standards. If this requirement is over looked and the salary is too low, this will cause a dis-satisfier and may lead to poor performance by the team member. Poor performance by just one team member can lead to poor team performance.

Working relationships are very important in business in general, but are extremely important when working with remote project teams. The team members are isolated and generally spend the day alone in a home office. The Project Manager should take action to have the team members engaged with each other. Examples could include:


To read entire article, click here


About the Author

Ralph Moore, MISM, PMP, PMI-ACP

Wyoming, USA



Ralph Moore is an experienced professional with more than 20 years in agile and traditional project management as well as roles in Information Technology, Engineering, Telecommunications, Military, Public Safety and Education.

Ralph has earned a Master of Information Systems Management (MISM) degree with a Concentration in Information Systems Tools, a Bachelor of Science Technical Management and an Associate of Science Electronic and Computer Technology.

Ralph has earned several industry certifications to include: PMI-Certified Project Management Professional (PMP), PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP), CompTIA Certified Security+, CompTIA Certified Network+, Electronics Technician Association Certified Network Systems Technician (CNST), Federal Communications Commission (FCC), General Radio Telephone License (GROL).

Ralph is a veteran of the US Navy and served three tours in the Persian Gulf. He maintained a TOP-SECRET clearance while in the US Navy. Ralph resides in the Rocky Mountain region, with his wife Tracy and their dogs. To contact – [email protected]



What has Taylor ever done for us?


Advances in Project Management

Scientific and humane management reconsidered

By Prof Darren Dalcher

Director, National Centre for Project Management
University of Hertfordshire


Pioneers pave the path for those who follow by shaping the discipline and defining the terrain. They also play a crucial role in surfacing and enshrining basic assumptions that permeate thinking and logic around the emerging discipline. As a leading pioneer in the development of management thinking, Taylor’s influence on the discipline of project management merits exploration and analysis in the context of the wider philosophy of management.

Fredrick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) is considered a principal innovator in industrial engineering, especially in relation to improving efficiency and utilising time and motion studies. He is particularly renowned for establishing the principles of scientific management, through the release of a monograph bearing that same title in 1911.

Taylor was born into a wealthy Quaker family from Philadelphia, yet started his professional life on the factory floor as an apprentice pattern maker. He became a chief engineer at Midvale Steel Works, before moving to the Bethlehem Steel Company, where he pioneered time and motion studies, analysing how each specific job could be done more efficiently. He was often seen walking around the factory floor with a stopwatch and note-pad, breaking down manual tasks into a series of components that could be measured (Hindle, 2008; p. 309). According to Drucker (1974; p. 181), Taylor was “the first man in history who did not take work for granted, but looked at it and studied it”. Moreover, Drucker also maintained that between them, Darwin, Ford and Taylor, were the makers of the modern world.

Taylor has been instrumental in the development of modern management. The Principles of scientific management was the first business book best seller. The text has inspired administrators and efficiency aficionados to adopt productivity-enhancing and waste-reducing procedures and measures. The influence of the book has endured for over a century and the many translations have been known to inspire the writing of Henri Fayol in France, the development of the movement for Scientific Management in the UK headed by Major Lyndall Urwick, who would later become Britain’s first professional management consultant, the efficiency and improvement schemes of Italy’s Mussolini, and the target setting advocated by Lenin for Soviet workers. While failure to meet explicit production targets may have directed Soviet workers to the gulag (Hindle; p. 310); the principles of scientific management remain at the core of modern management thinking underpinning a great deal of theory and concepts in administrative studies, work design, industrial era organisation, and decision theory.

A 1997 Fortune article noted that: ‘Taylor’s influence is omnipresent. It’s his ideas that determine how many burgers McDonald’s expects its flippers to flip or how many callers the phone company expects its operators to assist.’ (Farnham, 1997)

What’s the big idea?

According to the Economist Guide to Management Ideas and Gurus, scientific management was the first big management idea to reach a mass audience, as it swept through corporate America in the early years of the Twentieth Century, before spreading to continental Europe and the rest of the world. Moreover, The Guide also claims that a significant proportion of subsequent management thinking has been either a reaction to scientific thinking or a development of it (Hindle; p. 159).

The label ’scientific management’ is borrowed from the work of US lawyer and judge, Louis Dembitz Brandeis who described the need to coordinate enterprise to everyone’s benefit. Likewise, Taylor was a strong believer in increasing the total benefits and welfare of all participants.


To read entire article, click here


Editor’s note: The PMWJ Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Gower and other publishers in the Routledge family. Each month an introduction to the current article is provided by series editor Prof Darren Dalcher, who is also the editor of the Gower/Routledge Advances in Project Management series of books on new and emerging concepts in PM. Prof Dalcher’s article is an introduction to the invited paper this month in the PMWJ.


About the Author

Darren Dalcher, PhD

Series Editor
Director, National Centre for Project Management
University of Hertfordshire, UK


Darren Dalcher
, Ph.D. HonFAPM, FRSA, FBCS, CITP, FCMI, SFHEA is Professor of Project Management at the University of Hertfordshire, and founder and Director of the National Centre for Project Management (NCPM) in the UK. He has been named by the Association for Project Management (APM) as one of the top 10 “movers and shapers” in project management in 2008 and was voted Project Magazine’s “Academic of the Year” for his contribution in “integrating and weaving academic work with practice”. Following industrial and consultancy experience in managing IT projects, Professor Dalcher gained his PhD in Software Engineering from King’s College, University of London.

Professor Dalcher has written over 150 papers and book chapters on project management and software engineering. He is Editor-in-Chief of Software Process Improvement and Practice, an international journal focusing on capability, maturity, growth and improvement. He is the editor of the book series, Advances in Project Management, published by Gower Publishing of a new companion series Fundamentals of Project Management. Heavily involved in a variety of research projects and subjects, Professor Dalcher has built a reputation as leader and innovator in the areas of practice-based education and reflection in project management. He works with many major industrial and commercial organisations and government bodies in the UK and beyond.

Darren is an Honorary Fellow of the APM, a Chartered Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute, and the Royal Society of Arts, and a Member of the Project Management Institute (PMI), the Academy of Management, the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the Association for Computing Machinery. He is a Chartered IT Practitioner. He is a Member of the PMI Advisory Board responsible for the prestigious David I. Cleland project management award and of the APM Professional Development Board. Prof Dalcher is an academic advisor for the PM World Journal. He can be contacted at [email protected].

To see other works by Prof Darren Dalcher, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darren-dalcher/.



On the Psychological Aspect of Management


Advances in Project Management Series

By Fred Voskoboynikov

California, USA



People live and act in various groups and are influenced by various formal and informal leaders: parents, teachers, managers, coaches, commanders, and so on. Their personal traits and qualities, their behavior and life style as the dominant parties, have a strong impact on people’s mentality and play a significant role in their personal development. Many factors influence on the psychological environment in the workplace, but the strongest one comes from the manager. The way the manager relates to subordinates affects the whole nature of business communication and largely determines the group morals and the psychological atmosphere in the working environment. If the manager does not project a positive image it automatically transmits into the relations between the team members. The working environment becomes stressful, people become less inclined to cooperate with each other, they feel uncomfortable and morally vulnerable. That’s why managers should do everything possible to create an optimal psychological atmosphere in their respective production units.


Most of the attention in any organization is directed towards achieving financial goals, i.e. towards profitability. This is vital for the organization and well understood. However particularly for this reason people’s interests are not often on the priority list in organizations’ affairs. If that is the case, sooner or later such an approach will backfire and prevent the organization from functioning successfully in the long run. Hence, directing all possible efforts toward creating a positive psychological environment in the workplace is of a significant importance. To create such an environment without basic knowledge of psychology does not seem possible. To know people’s individual characteristics, their ability to work in a group environment as well as their values, goals and desires is just as necessary for managers as to possess the technical knowledge in the chosen field of activity. People are filled with thoughts and ideas and they want to experience satisfaction from their implementation. To achieve the desired objectives and maintain people satisfaction in the work place one must be prepared to think of them in human terms (Voskoboynikov, 2017).

Regardless of the type of organization and the field of activity general managerial functions are similar. In fact, management functions are considered to be universal. Managers plan and organize, coordinate and control, make decisions and handle physical, informational and financial resources, create and communicate, motivate and reward, and so on. However, all of this comes down to managing people. A bank manager does not manage safes and accounts, a construction manager does not manage construction equipment and materials, a ship captain does not hold the steering wheel himself but nevertheless gets to the desired destination by managing the ship’s crew.

In this brief article, we will consider some important factors of the psychological nature which should be taken into account in managers’ work with people.


To read entire article, click here

Editor’s note: The Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Gower in UK and by Routledge worldwide. Information about Routledge project management books can be found here.


About the Author

Fred Voskoboynikov

Northern California, USA


Fred Voskoboynikov
worked as an industrial psychologist in a civil engineering firm and taught ergonomics at Civil Engineering University in Odessa, Ukraine. He developed a course on psychological methods of management and gave related lectures and seminars to managers of industrial firms and organizations of Odessa and the Odessa region. He is an honorary professor of psychology at the Baltic Academy of Education (St.-Petersburg, Russia) and a regular contributor to the Academy’s periodic journal. Since immigrating to the United States he worked as a manager of construction projects in the San Francisco Bay Area. He combined his work with writing on the subjects matter of psychology of management, the psychology of individual differences and on some theoretical issues. His writings were published by Taylor and Francis Group in the proceedings of International Conferences on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics and in the collections of articles.

His most recent book The Psychology of Effective Management: Strategies for Relationship Building was published by Routledge in 2017.



Democratic Risk Management


Risk Doctor Briefing

Rasoul Abdolmohammadi, PMP, PMI-RMP

The Risk Doctor Partnership


Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill seemed to have a problem with democracy! He famously said “Democ­racy is the worst form of government, except for all those other forms that have been tried.” Greek philosopher Plato agreed, putting democracy near the bottom of his list of five types of government (Aristocracy, Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy, and Tyranny). Most people agree that democracy is a good thing, but does it relate to our professional lives? More specifically, is it possible to develop a democratic approach to Enterprise Risk Management (ERM)?

One key characteristic of democratic systems is decentralisation. This has been evident in government structures and policies since the nineteenth century, and it has also influenced the business world as a strategy for developing organisations and procedures. Is the same true of ERM? Many people view ERM as a centralising function in an organisation, enforcing a single “right way” to do risk management, and collecting and combining risk information to present to senior leaders in support of their overall management of the business. What would “Democratic ERM” look like? We should expect it to be characterised by decentralisation, in the following ways:

  • Organisation. ERM usually involves a central risk department with responsibility for overseeing risk management across the organisation, perhaps with a Chief Risk Officer in command. But this centralised approach can lead to non-realistic outputs, if the ERM function becomes detached from the rest of the organisation. Instead, everyone across the whole organisation should have responsibility for managing risk in their areas of responsibility. Risk practitioners should also be in place throughout the organisation to provide support and guidance to project, operational and functional teams. This more decentralised approach to managing risk is a feature of “Democratic ERM”, and will ensure that risk is managed at the right level, closest to where it affects the organisation.
  • Objectives. Risk is defined in relation to objectives. Decentralisation leads to the top-down development of a coherent hierarchy of objectives at multiple levels throughout the business, with lower-level objectives aligned to the strategic objectives of the overall organisation. It is then possible to manage risk at each level, linking risks to the objectives at that level. “Democratic ERM” coordinates the various levels of risk management, ensuring that common standards are applied, escalating risks as required. An ERM approach that only considers strategic objectives is more like dictatorship than democracy.


To read entire article, click here



About the Author

Rasoul Abdolmohammadi




 Rasoul Abdolmohammadi is an industrial engineer with more than 15 years project management experience including risk, time and cost management. He currently works as planning and scheduling specialist in Petronas. His risk experience includes developing, implementing and training project risk processes for a range of mega-projects in the oil & gas and construction industries (for the first time in Iran), including quantitative risk analysis using Primavera Risk Analysis. Rasoul has published his experiences in the book “Practical Project Risk Management Processes“, and he has presented on risk at international conferences.

He can be contacted at [email protected]



International Charity Project in Africa


The Local Implementation of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals by an International Charity Project in Africa

By Ian Brooks and Dr. Mario Kossmann

Bristol, England, UK


The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDG) framework was signed by virtually every nation on earth in 2015 and addresses topics ranging from environmental protection; via equal opportunities, education and the eradication of diseases; to overcoming famine, poverty, slavery and child labor. The UN SDG framework arguably represents – both in terms of its scope and its worldwide support – one of the most significant international frameworks in human history.

International projects should not only be aware of the UN SDG in general and the intended national implementations of the framework by the different countries in which each project operates; but they should ensure that they implement themselves relevant key goals of the framework and contribute to the achievement of the national commitments by the countries they operate in. Apart from helping to improve the world we are living in, this will help to significantly reduce project risks, secure funding opportunities from both governmental and non-governmental organizations, and bring about more sustainable solutions as project deliverables.

Using the example of a charity project that is concerned with the development of a local health care system in a deprived region of Cameroon, this paper illustrates a pre-emptive implementation of certain key aspects of the UN SDG framework at the local level, prior to and in support of the anticipated full implementation of the framework at the national level by Cameroon.


In September 2015, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by 193 countries (1). They represent a “a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity” (1) from 2015 to 2030. The SDGs build on the success of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which addressed the needs of Less Economically Developed Countries (2). The 8 MDGs set targets for key areas such as reducing extreme poverty & hunger and improving access to sanitation. The MDGs ran from 2000 to 2015 and have been described as “the most successful anti-poverty movement in history” (2).

Despite the significant improvement delivered towards the MDGs, we still live in a world where people experience hunger, suffer from air pollution and are disadvantaged by inequality. The SDGs go beyond the MDGs with a broader range of goals and apply to all countries, hence are often referred to as the ‘Global Goals’. The SDGs consist of 17 goals (shown in Figure 1) and 169 targets, providing more detail within each goal.

Cameroon was one of the countries which made significant progress towards the 8 MDGs but still faces major challenges in, for example, eradicating extreme poverty and reducing the burden of disease (3). The country restated its commitment to “Développement Durable” (Sustainable Development) and the adoption of the SDGs at the 70th session of the United Nations General Assembly (4).


To read entire paper, click here



About the Authors

Ian Brooks

University of the West of England
University of Bristol, UK


Ian Brooks
is a Senior Lecturer in Sustainable IT at the University of the West of England (UWE) and a Senior Teaching Fellow at the University of Bristol. The large part of his career has been in management consultancy and Green IT with PricewaterhouseCoopers and IBM. His last role with IBM was as their Sustainability leader on the IBM outsourcing contract with Defra (the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). He has an MSc in Environmental Consultancy from UWE and has embarked on PhD research on the use of the UN Sustainable Development Goals as Requirements in Software Engineering, also at UWE. Ian can be contacted at [email protected]


Dr. Mario Kossmann

Bristol, UK


Dr. Mario Kossmann
(ESEP) is an experienced Systems Engineer and Capability Integrator for Airbus, having previously worked for Blohm & Voss as Program Manager, Systems Engineer, Technical Manager and Consultant in Services Marketing. He has served as a naval officer with the German and French navies, and was awarded an MEng in Aerospace Technology from the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Munich (Germany), an MBA from the University of Warwick (UK) and a Ph.D. in Systems & Software Engineering from the University of the West of England. He is the author of the books ‘Delivering Excellent Service Quality in Aviation’ (Ashgate 2006) and ‘Requirements Management – How to ensure that you achieve what you need from your projects’ (Gower 2013), as well as numerous research publications in the fields of Systems Engineering, Software Engineering and Project Management. Mario is also a certified Project Manager and Expert Systems Engineering Professional (INCOSE). Mario has been involved in the ‘Mahola’ project (http://www.maholaproject.org/) as both Project Leader and Systems Engineer from the start of the project in December 2012. He can be contacted at [email protected]



On the Big Reverse and Professional Ethics


On the subject of the December PMWJ editorial titled “The Big Reverse: Politics, Anti-leadership and the Looming Threat to Professionalism” 

10 March 2017

Dear Editor,

In Response to David Pells’ Editorial titled “The Big Reverse: Politics, Anti-leadership and the Looming Threat to Professionalism and Welcome to the February 2017 PMWJ,” published in the February 2017 edition of the PM World Journal.

I commend the opportunity you took to cite the behavior of the US President to draw attention to leadership and ethics. During my many writings and presentations on the subject of ethics I have, as you did so effectively in your editorial, given emphasis to the relationship between ethics, trust, and leadership. Research has consistently shown that without ethics there can be no trust, and there can be no effective leadership.

I currently serve as the volunteer Chair of the PMI Ethics Management Advisory Group; our group is chartered with the responsibility to work as global advocates for PMI members and non-members regarding the PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. It is interesting to note that the PMI “Code” does not permit us to sit silently by if we become aware of unethical conduct; one of the mandatory standards states that “We report unethical or illegal conduct to appropriate management and, if necessary, to those affected by the conduct.” That Code further states that we require ourselves and our fellow practitioners to “not engage in or condone behavior that is designed to deceive others.” In other words, when we see behavior that is not honest, we must step in.

Thank you for stepping in.

Michael O’Brochta
Virginia, USA



On the Big Reverse


On the subject of the December PMWJ editorial titled “The Big Reverse: Politics, Anti-leadership and the Looming Threat to Professionalism” 

22 March 2017

Dear Editor,

I read with interest and some surprise the rather different, political editorial piece on the Big Reverse in February 2017. I thought I would leave it for a while – it has never been truer that “a week in politics is a long time”. Who can say what may be happening by the time this communication and other comments may have been published.

I was intrigued around the application of applying established professional ethics for project managers to senior political positions and personalities. In my view such national political leaders are judged by different criteria in the main – notably through their oath of allegiance when taking up office, and the constitution; by the perceptions of public or the electorate; and of their tax returns with other disclosures; and in the media – as well as expectations of being presidential or statesmanlike. These criteria apply in very different ways to professional project managers – if at all – and again with other professionals – in sport, entertainment, health and medicine, law and law enforcement, in the military.

Some may argue that project management, with its art, science and practice, is not a profession – it is a skill, trade, craft or vocation – but that does not stop it being provided professionally. I believe the profession of project management is much more than the (important) ethical aspects mentioned in the editorial piece. For example the Five Dimensions of Professionalism promulgated by APM can be summarised as:

  • Breadth – of knowledge – as in PM Bodies of Knowledge.
  • Depth – of competence – to suit size and complexity of projects.
  • Achievement – as recognised, appropriate qualifications and portfolios of experience.
  • Commitment – to continued professional development (CPD) to maintain and develop skills.
  • Accountability – by adhering to a recognised code of professional and ethical conduct.

It is not a matter of achieving three or four out of these five to be professional; nor applying them now and then. Constant, contextual awareness and application with vigilance is necessary. However this is not easy by any means.

While there is a cadre of fully-committed, full-time managers of projects who understand and undertake such PM professionalism there are also many who are part-time, some-time or one time – with many team members and project colleagues with similar partial involvements. Many people work on more than one commission at a time, and over time, with differing requirements and pressures on their duties and professionalism – within different combinations of contexts. And then there are the possible distractions, directions and (poor) benchmarks which can lead to temptations of inappropriate or less-professional actions or inaction – as highlighted in the article.

At the end of the piece a jumble of ten questions are thrown out for discussion. These are serious and important questions. They are worthy of consideration in calm and serious manners; as part of the serious journey of the development of project management and its professionalism. This journey is taking decades – but it is worth it. In my view it should not be diverted or over-alarmed by passing perceptions of the politics or politicians and the confusion in one country or another.

As we all know no one nation has a dominant position in the world – and that includes the world of project management. We all have our own contexts, circumstances and cultures within our nation states, as well as between our communities and across borders, sectors and industries.

Finally let us not confuse the various “leaderships” – as statesmen in politics; as figureheads in business and academia; as commanders in the armed services; as managers and captains within team sports; as sponsors of projects or programmes and portfolios; with the professional facilitation of successful teams by modest, competent, professional project managers. To adopt such simple comparisons would be unfortunate, misleading and possibly confusing – in my opinion.

It appears that overall on the political leadership and directions in USA that the international jury is still out – but then again it often is.

Best wishes.

Tom Taylor
London, UK



On Scaling and Tailoring Project Management


On the subject of the March 2017 Editorial on the Growing Importance of Categories, Context and Typology in Project Management

13 March 2017

Dear David,

I am very pleased that you are revisiting the issue of scaling and tailoring the project management effort to the characteristics of the project and its current managerial challenges.

This particular topic has been my absolute favorite for three decades. I believe it really poses a cornerstone in modern PM. First, the mindset of leading the project management (including planning, facilitating and evaluating PM) was brought up in 2002 in the National Competence Baseline for Scandinavia, the Scandinavian NCB.

Later, I presented more specifically the mindset and supporting methods in the book “Proactive Project Management”. It could be great for a further dialog if you would join in on one of my monthly webinars where I summarize the mindsets of the book. See the attached invitation.

The reason for me of building on your editorial is to give you the latest news concerning the issue of scaling and tailoring. During the last years of being the manager of IPMA Certification in Denmark, I have facilitated a process of extracting “four perspectives” of both refining the focus during certification as well as the focus during PM education and training.

The four key perspectives are: to be a performing PM practicing the methods; to be a reflecting PM who apply a meta view on the PM processes; to be a value creating PM focusing on creating the right conditions for performing the project process; and, to be a learning PM who continuously improves the process, methods and behavior. In the attached article, issued together with my successor as certification manager, we explain the four perspectives which have gained broad support from our certification assessors as well as training companies.

Am I right that this corresponds quiet well with the line of thinking in your editorial note?

PS: The book “Proactive Project Management” is near to be published in Spanish – I will let you know, when it happens during the spring. I attach an introducing flyer. If you would like to have a copy I ask you to confirm your post address.

Best regards

Morten Fangel
Hilleroed, Denmark