Welcome to the January 2017 PMWJ


Farms, Food and Project Management, the Trend that Isn’t and Welcome to the January 2017 Edition of the PM World Journal

David Pells

Managing Editor

Addison, Texas, USA


Welcome to the January 2017 edition of the PM World Journal (PMWJ). This 54th edition continues to reflect the international nature of this publication; 28 original articles, papers and other works by 35 different authors in 15 different countries are included this month. News articles about projects and project management around the world are also included. Since the primary mission of this journal is to support the global sharing of knowledge, please share this month’s edition with others in your network, wherever in the world they may be.

Since August I have been using this opportunity to mention new trends or important issues that I see as journal editor. This month I want to discuss the lack of a trend, what I see as a major shortfall in the project management professional world – the lack of attention to projects and project management in basic industries. Where are the case studies, models and bodies of knowledge for project management in agriculture, food production, housing, healthcare, education, security, transportation and other such industries? Many will argue that projects in those industries are covered by the general and generic project management models and standards produced by AIPM, APM, IPMA, PMI and other leading international bodies. In my opinion, that’s not good enough. And there’s another problem…

Farms, Food and Project Management and the Trend that Isn’t

My grandfather was a dairy farmer, working hundreds of acres, herds of cattle, multiple barns, farm equipment, seasonal changes and many projects. As a child, I visited his farm many times. I loved it! We also lived in a small town in the northwestern United States, actually just outside of town where we had some land, gardens, cows, chickens, horses, barns and work to do. We too had many projects, although I don’t ever remember them being called projects. It was just work to do. I left home for university at 18 and never returned to living in my home town. But I’ve never forgotten my background or my grandfather’s farm. In recent years, I’ve thought a lot about the types of projects that farmers have, especially in developing countries where agriculture is so important (and where international development banks continue to invest millions in agriculture).

My father was a school teacher, teaching elementary school for 30+ years. As a child, I also spent many hours with him at the school, both during and in between school hours. Over the years, I became familiar with class types and sizes, curricula, facilities maintenance, school buses (he also drove a bus – it was a small town), teacher salaries and benefits (or lack thereof), administrative issues, sports and extracurricular activities, homework, grading and many other school-related issues. Here again, as I got older and learned about project management, I often thought about education-related projects. Since education is a common topic in all towns and cities, especially now in the United States where public education is in generally poor condition, I’ve often wondered how project management could contribute more.

One uncle worked my grandfather’s farm, then worked for a local refinery. One uncle was a horse rancher, another was a logger, another joined the Air Force and became an expert computer-based missile systems mechanic. I’m one of the few in the family to go to college, to graduate with multiple degrees. Most members of my immediate and extended family have lived all their lives in small towns. Now it has occurred to me that little of what I’ve learned about project management is very useful to those family members and others with similar occupations or working in industries and enterprises based in rural areas. There’s probably not a single member of my family who knows what project management is, what a PMP certification means, what a PMO is, what the difference between a project and program is, or anything else that we spend all of our time in the PM profession talking about. And they don’t care!

During 2016, we saw a very tumultuous presidential campaign and election in the United States during which a majority of the population living in small towns, rural America, voted for a candidate who disparaged traditional government institutions and leaders as “elites”, trashed the media and more educated (and knowledgeable) leaders, and promised solutions for the people “left behind” by the global economy and the information age. Now it has also occurred to me that we in the project management profession may have also left those stakeholders behind. What do we do, say, publish or teach that benefits those living in small towns, on farms, in rural communities where big corporations don’t hire programmers, engineers and project managers? Where work and projects are in fields, barns, garages, schools, clinics and small businesses!

Sure, many of the projects are small, even micro-projects in many cases. But let’s back up a little; let’s consider projects or programs involving multiple farms, multiple schools, multiple hospitals, multiple roads and shops, multiple small businesses. What about programs or projects to help entire communities change, create jobs, improve lives? What about projects to transform entire industries? In America or in Europe, maybe not so common; in many African and Asian countries, these are the programs and projects that really matter.


To read entire paper, click here



About the Author

David L. Pells

Managing Editor, PMWJ
Managing Director, PMWL



David L. Pells is Managing Editor of the PM World Journal (https://pmworldjournal.net/) and Managing Director of the PM World Library (http://www.pmworldlibrary.net/). David is an internationally recognized leader in the field of professional project management with more than 35 years of experience on a variety of programs and projects, including engineering, construction, energy, defense, transit, technology and nuclear security, and project sizes ranging from thousands to billions of dollars. He has been an active professional leader in the United States since the 1980s, serving on the board of directors of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) twice. He was founder and chair of the Global Project Management Forum (1995-2000), an annual meeting of leaders of PM associations from around the world.

David was awarded PMI’s Person of the Year award in 1998 and Fellow Award, PMI’s highest honor, in 1999. He is also an Honorary Fellow of the Association for Project Management (APM) in the UK; Project Management Associates (PMA – India); and Russian Project Management Association. Since 2010 he is an honorary member of the Project Management Association of Nepal. From June 2006 until March 2012, he was the managing editor of PM World Today. He occasionally provides high level advisory services for major programs, global organizations and the U.S. federal government. David has a BA in Business Administration from the University of Washington and a Master’s degree in business from Idaho State University in the USA. He has published widely, spoken at conferences and events worldwide, and can be contacted at [email protected].

To see other works by David Pells, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/david-l-pells/



Ethics and Governance in Project Management


pmwj54-jan2017-shea-bookBook Title:   Ethics and Governance in Project Management: Small Sins Allowed and the Line of Impunity
Authors: Eduardo Victor Lopez and Alicia Medina
Publisher: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group
List Price:   $79.95
Format: Hard cover, 153 pages
Publication Date:   2016    
ISBN: 978-1-4987-4383-9
Reviewer:     John Shea
Review Date: December/2016




Lopez and Medina build the case for ethics and governance starting from the basics of previous research, defining ethics, the context for ethics, and then how ethics is used in governance. From there they expand to outside the boundaries of ethics with Small Sins Allowed and the Line of Impunity, or what you can get away with depending on how high up the social order you are. They then take these elements and present dilemmas and the concept of the Ethics Cube, a way of presenting a variety of ethics and how they can be shuffled to create a personal ethical culture.

Overview of Book’s Structure

Antecedents, Ethics, Context, and Governance: Rules are linked to the project manager’s value judgment about what is suitable behavior to meet its goals. We live simultaneously in two worlds—one where social norms prevail and the other where market norms make the rules. Dishonesty can be the result of a process where people neutralize initial moral dissonance and find excuses to allow them to act against their own moral convictions. As rules separate acceptable from unacceptable behavior, they are typically regarded as easier to follow than principles. Behavior of employees becomes unnatural and biased by the context in which they are immersed or in which they think they are immersed. Corporate governance is related to economic efficiency and stakeholder welfare. Project governance is related to business ethics, process and procedures, and behaviors and practices.

Small Sins Allowed and Line of Impunity: Legality cannot involve all perceptions of morality. Deviant behaviors occurring at the project level are breaking the law, project property abuse, improper moral conduct, unsocial behaviors, and discrimination. Small Sins Allowed are updated socially accepted ethical standards, or minor deviant behaviors such as leaving early, taking excessive breaks, working slowly, wasting resources, showing favoritism, gossiping about co-workers, and blaming co-workers. Managers willing to justify ethically suspect behavior is a factor to determine if it falls into Small Sins Allowed or felonies. Training can help set the bar. The Line of Impunity is the idea that certain ranks or positions in the hierarchy entitle advantages and power granted to those levels transcends the limits of control or law enforcement. The higher you get determines how much you can get away with.

Ethical Issues and Ethical Dilemmas, and The Ethics Cube: Does a Project Manager just follow orders or go beyond delivery when conflicts could affect project cost, schedule, risks, safety, and quality of deliverables? Project ethics and integrity challenges come into play. Small Sins can deny responsibility when the moral intensity is lessened. An ethical compliance officer can help establish project policies, processes, and procedures in implementing ethics training programs. Ethical dilemmas arise when PMs need to make decisions not aligned with their own values. Interaction between ethical behaviors and project governance is reciprocal and influenced by the context that surrounds it. The Ethics Cube is a cube with one face each for professional ethics, family ethics, general ethics, personal interests, allegiances, and opportunity. Shuffle the faces and you get a mixture of ethics that take different priorities depending on circumstances.

Final Words: Managers must overcome the Line of Impunity. No fear of punishment is related to the Line of Impunity. Project ethics must contain honesty, good faith, transparency, responsibility, respect and fairness. Subjective morality drives the Small Sins Allowed. Effective project governance is a fundamental requirement for project success. Create a company culture that rewards ethical behavior.


To read entire Book Review, click here



About the Reviewer

John Shea

North Texas, USA



John Shea
is a newly certified PMP, having acquired it in June of 2016. He holds a Bachelor of Science in Communication from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and a Master of Fine Arts in Motion Picture and Television Production from the University of Southern California. His work experience of more than thirty-seven years includes technical writing and instructional design for IBM, Nortel, contracting, and currently, Nokia. He is a member of the Dallas, TX, USA chapter of PMI.

Email address: [email protected]

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/johnlshea3rd?trk=hp-identity-name

Editor’s note: This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Dallas Chapter. Authors and publishers provide the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Dallas Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library. PMI Dallas Chapter members can keep the books as well as claim PDUs for PMP recertification when their reviews are published. Chapter members are generally mid-career professionals, the audience for most project management books.

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact [email protected]



The Project Portfolio Management in Theory and Practice


pmwj54-jan2017-raibick-bookBook Title: The Project Portfolio Management in Theory and Practice: Thirty Case Studies from around the world
Author: Jamal Moustafaev, MBA, PMP
Publisher: CRC Press
List Price:   US $89.95
Format: Hard Cover, 292 pages
Publication Date: 2017      
ISBN: 9781498769242
Reviewer: Edward Raibick, PMP
Review Date: December / 2016




The book titled Project Portfolio Management in Theory and Practice provides the reader with tools, techniques and methodologies that can be used to analyze, rank and select strategic projects for a company. The book looks at real-life case studies from companies in various industries throughout the world and studies how they developed and implemented their individual portfolio models and processes.

Overview of Book’s Structure

  • Chapter 1 introduces the reader to project portfolio management.
  • Chapter 2 discusses the three Pillars of Portfolio management; value, balance and strategic fit.
  • Chapter 3 introduces strategic resource estimation for project portfolios.
  • Chapter 4 studies portfolio management in the Pharmaceutical Industry.
  • Chapter 5 covers portfolio management in the Product Development Industry
  • Chapter 6 discusses portfolio management in the Financial Industry.
  • Chapter 7 reviews project portfolio management in the Energy and Logistics Industry.
  • Chapter 8 discusses Telecommunications Industry portfolio management.
  • Chapter 9 introduces Government and Not-For-Profit portfolio management
  • Chapter 10 covers Professional Services Portfolio management.
  • Chapter 11 discusses statistical analysis and scoring models
  • Chapter 12 reviews lessons learned by the author.


The Project Portfolio Management in Theory and Practice is a book in the Best Practices and Advances in Program Management Series. The book introduces thirty case studies in portfolio management from various industries throughout the world. This book is a great quick start guide in understanding the strategic considerations that are required by C-level management in maximizing profitability, reducing cost and optimizing corporate resources.

Highlights: What I liked!

This book gets into the mind of C-level management and reviews the problems and issues that plague optimal performance and profitability in an organization. Project delays, budget overruns, scope management and lack of bottom line results, are some of the concerns discussed in the book. This book demonstrates with case-by-case reviews that success often comes from insight and experience in selecting and managing the right projects. The book introduces the idea of a “joker Project” that may not fit the analysis model but may offer new breakthroughs for the company.

This book takes the reader through Top-Down, Bottoms-Up and Top-Down, Bottoms-Up approaches for portfolio management.


To read entire Book Review, click here



About the Reviewer

Edward Raibick, PMP

North Texas, USA




Edward Raibick, PMP is a PM consultant with extensive experience software engineering, managerial and IT Project Management experience. Edward holds a Master’s degree in Information Technology with a concentration in Internet and IT security, a Bachelor’s degree in Information Technology and an Associate in Specialized Technology degree in Electronics. His career includes over 10 years with the IBM Corporation and over 15 years with Texas Instruments. Edward is a member of the Project Management Institute, Dallas Chapter, having acquired his PMP certification in 2011.

Email address: [email protected]


Editor’s note: This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Dallas Chapter. Authors and publishers provide the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Dallas Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library. PMI Dallas Chapter members can keep the books as well as claim PDUs for PMP recertification when their reviews are published. Chapter members are generally mid-career professionals, the audience for most project management books.

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact [email protected].



Project Management ToolBox


pmwj54-jan2017-holderman-bookBook Title:   Project Management ToolBox: Tools and Techniques for the Practicing Project Manager, 2nd Ed.
Author: Russ J. Martinelli and Dragan Z. Milosevic
Publisher: Wiley
List Price:   US $75.00
Format: Hardcover, 480 pages
Publication Date:   Feb, 2016      
ISBN: 978-1-118-97312-7
Reviewer: John Holderman
Review Date: May 1016




A box of tools for Project Managers, what a concept! Many tradesmen carry their own personalized tools, Project Managers should be no exception. Having a proven set of tools along with the knowledge of how to adapt them to different situations makes good Project Managers into great ones.

Overview of Book’s Structure

The structure of this book is laid out much like a project with some reference information in Part VI. This pragmatic approach makes it easy to use as reference material on any manager’s desk.

This book is broken down into 6 parts, Part I introduces the book, the other parts in order are, Initiation, Planning, Implementation, Reporting and Closure and finally Risk and Stakeholder Management. Each section is further broken down into the important aspects of subject. A brief introduction of the subject and then a description of the processes involved, then into a discussion of possible tools.

Each section also describes tips for validating the tools and information the tools are used on. The authors also identify typical errors and how to overcome them. References are listed at the end of each chapter.


The authors breakdown the major areas of Project Management and discuss tools and possible adaptations your company may need. They also briefly discuss Agile methodologies and Stakeholder management.

Each area is further broken down and discussed, tools and sample templates are provided and explained allowing the more experienced Project Managers to quickly adapt these tools to their needs while providing enough detail so even those new to Project Management adapt these tools to their needs.

For example, In Part II: Project Planning Tools, the first thing discussed is the methods to gather requirements. The authors describe an Eliction Plan, why it’s important and how to develop it, what problem is to be solved by using it and how.


To read entire Book Review, click here



About the Reviewer

John Holderman

Texas, USA


John Holderman
has worked in project management since 1997 with his most recent work in program management controls and reporting. John has managed the global implementation of UNIX server farms used in telecommunications and large, complex telephone switching systems. As a member of a new product introduction team he guided deployment team readiness and working closely with engineering team to ensure the product or customer ready.

John has supported many global communications system deployments, has been an integral part of two electro-mechanical to digital telephone system conversions, authored policy documents for specialized teams, installation manuals, commisioning manuals and has created many of his own tools used to manage projects. John’s technical background along with his international project management experience give him a unique ability to very effectively manage highly complex technical projects.

John can be contacted at [email protected]


Editor’s note: This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Dallas Chapter. Authors and publishers provide the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Dallas Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library. PMI Dallas Chapter members can keep the books as well as claim PDUs for PMP recertification when their reviews are published. Chapter members are generally mid-career professionals, the audience for most project management books.

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact [email protected].



IT Project Management


pmwj54-jan2017-gan-bookBook Title:   IT Project Management — A Geek’s Guide to Leadership
Author: Byron A. Love
Publisher: CRC Press
List Price: US $49.95
Format: Hard cover, 230 pages
Publication Date:   2016    
ISBN: 978-1-4987-3650-3
Reviewer:     Johnny Gan
Review Date: 12/2016



This book is an IT geek’s guide to IT leadership, and it’s written by a geek.

Geeks are some of the most brilliant people on the planet, so they can write the book totally different with others. This book is the one of them, which is full of attractive stories, and I could not stop it after I stepped into the first chapter.

The information in this book will help geeks progress in their careers by being aware of leadership expectations and adapting their styles accordingly. And the book author, Byron A. Love, who obtained top-tier IT certifications, such as the (ISC)2 Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) certification, and top-tier management certification, such as the PMI program Management Professional (PgMP) certification. So Byron is definitely qualified to address the topic of IT leadership, and his book helps geeks in leadership roles better understand leadership and makes the transition to better leaders.

Byron wrote this book to address the leadership issues in the IT industry, unlike other leadership books that provide a one-size-fits-all approach to leadership. This book focuses on the unique challenges that IT practitioners face, especially some interesting topics, like why we need IT geeks to lead IT geeks

As many other books discussed, IT projects are complex, risky, and more prone to failure. The IT geeks who attempt to develop, deliver, and maintain these solutions must be brave and emotionally resilient, they must be able to visualize a successful outcome and motivate their teams to fight through the setbacks and obstacles in order to achieve this success. All these require IT geeks to behave in ways outside of their comfort zone, and this book will equip IT geeks with leadership integration and stand out as leaders.

Overview of Book’s Structure

The book provides geek leaders with resources to assist them to continually improve their leadership abilities, so all chapters are designed to coach an IT geek to learn to become a leader

In Chapter 1, Initiation, described the characteristics required to succeed as a geek leader. And in Chapter 2, Why Geek Leadership is Different, defined leadership role, and gave a good example of Bill Gates, also included a leadership Assessment Questionnaire that can help reader analyze and understand their leadership strengths and weaknesses

Then it leads to Chapter 3, Emotionally Intelligent Communications, which providing geek leaders with tools to improve their understanding of others and to help others understand them.


To read entire Book Review, click here



About the Reviewer

Johnny Gan, PMP

Texas, USA



Johnny Gan had many years of software R&D experience at HRsmart.com (http://www.hrsmart.com/), and was working as consultant at Yoh (http://www.yoh.com/) Company, which he helps industry leading companies get superior value from their investments. Mr. Gan received his MS degree from Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, USA, and is also certified by the Project Management Institute as a Project Management Professional (PMP®). He has been an active member of PMI for several years. Johnny can be contacted at mailto:[email protected].


Editor’s note: This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Dallas Chapter. Authors and publishers provide the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Dallas Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library. PMI Dallas Chapter members can keep the books as well as claim PDUs for PMP recertification when their reviews are published. Chapter members are generally mid-career professionals, the audience for most project management books.

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact [email protected]



The Social Project Manager


pmwj54-jan2017-creer-bookBook Title: The Social Project Manager – Balancing Collaboration with Centralised Control in a Project Driven World
Author: Peter Taylor
Publisher: Routledge, a Taylor and Francis Group
List Price:   $47.96
Format: Hardback, 200 pages
Publication Date:   2015    
ISBN: 978-1472452221
Reviewer:     Heather Creer-Rygalski, PMP
Review Date: December 2016



Do you tweet, post, chat or blog in your personal life? How about as part of your work life? As a Project Manager you know communication is one of the keys of a successful project outside of some of the obvious other key pieces of a successful project – its timely, within budget and scope without sacrificing quality of the product produced during the project but what about including the social aspect of project management?

Social Project Managers know 21st Century businesses need 21st Century tools to maintain effective communication channels among today’s workforce. How many of you all work on projects with people solely within your country, state or even city? “It is predicted by 2020, the entire office setup will change dramatically.” (pg. 19) Work will no longer be a place that you go to every day, it can happen wherever you are.

Overview of Book’s Structure

Taylor does a great job of introducing the concept of a social project manager, sharing real life examples and expands further by acknowledging there must be a complete buy-in from the top down beginning with HR teaching the concepts to all new hires.

Have you ever worked for companies that claim to have effective open communication on projects? How many of those companies actually do? How many companies out there have too many tools and the employees don’t know which ones to use for each project or some on the team use one of the tools while others on the team use the other tools? How can any project be considered a success when the communication plan has not been fully realized by all team members on the project?

“There is an expectation for Project Managers and their teams to be more accountable, productive and have collaboration when the combination often results in chaos.” (pg. 23) Peter Taylor points out throughout his book that the Social Project Manager needs to get rid of the chaos by “achieving a balance of effective collaboration” (pg. 24). Achievement of the balance is in part from the social project manager refusing to be the roadblock or funnel through which all communication must take place. By agreeing on communication tools as a team, the social project manager encourages the team to collaborate and thereby actually gets more work done.

Some items to keep in mind as a social project manager are to not just trust the social communication only, constantly check on the project’s progress to evaluate what is needed. In addition, organizations need to make the training of the tools part of the new hire orientation process thus promoting and creating a social collaborative culture that enables team members to be creative, productive and contribute to a project purpose. The social project manager builds upon the collaborative culture by “overseeing the progress and interaction of the various resources allocated to the project in such a way that is reduces the risk of overall failures, maximizes potential success and delivers the expected benefits, whilst managing costs and quality.” (pg. 154)


To read entire Book Review, click here



About the Reviewer

Heather Creer-Rygalski

Texas, USA



Heather Creer-Rygalski
, PMP has more than 20 years of experience working in training and development departments both in the corporate arena and within the public school system using her project management training for all of her projects. She has a BA in Psychology and a M.Ed., both from Southwest Texas State University.

Heather can be contacted at [email protected]


Editor’s note: This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Dallas Chapter. Authors and publishers provide the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Dallas Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library. PMI Dallas Chapter members can keep the books as well as claim PDUs for PMP recertification when their reviews are published. Chapter members are generally mid-career professionals, the audience for most project management books.

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact [email protected]



Project Performance Review


pmwj54-jan2017-carvajal-bookBook Title:    Project Performance Review: Capturing the Value of Audit, Oversight and Compliance for Project Success
Author: Alexia Nalewaik and Anthony Mills
Publisher: Routledge
List Price:   $70.00
Format: hard cover, 90 pages
Publication Date: July 2016
ISBN: 978-1-472-46140-7
Reviewer:     Vickie Carvajal, PMP
Review Date: December/2016



In this book, the authors’ focus was to provide a mechanism to evaluate project performance and they introduce the Nalewaik-Mills Performance Review Method.

The authors summarize the differences between and the evolution of project audits and project performance audits/reviews. They describe how audits have evolved to better support the evaluation of a project’s performance instead of the traditinal focus on project financial and they introduced a method to follow in order to conduct an effective project performance review.

Overview of Book’s Structure

The book was structured in 5 chapters:

Chapter 1 – Introduction
Chapter 2 – Discussion
Chapter 3 – The Nalewaik-Mills Performance Review Method
Chapter 4 – Overview of the Nalewaik-Millas Performance Review Method
Chapter 5 – Summary

Within each chapter, the authors provide information supporting their focus for that chapter. There are 90 pages in the book. Chapter 1 is 6 pages long, Chapter 2 is 29 pages, Chapter 3 is 10 pages long, Chapter 4 is 36 pages long and Chapter 5 is 3 pages long.


Chapter 1: Introduction

In Chapter 1, the authors provide an introduction regarding audits and reviews and specifically focus on project performance audints reviews. They highlight the need for performance reviews and the projects that can be reviewed for performance. The authors also focus on why this book differs from others on the same topic and provide a high level overview of what they offer and how it can be applied to various organizations.


To read entire Book Review, click here



About the Reviewer

Vickie Carvajal

Texas, USA



Vickie Carvajal, PMP has more than 20 years of experience working in application services and consulting. She has provided project management for a variety of clients in various industries and countries. Vickie has a Bachelor’s degree in Accounting from Angelo State University and a Master’s degree in Business Administration from Southwest Texas State University.



Editor’s note: This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Dallas Chapter. Authors and publishers provide the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Dallas Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library. PMI Dallas Chapter members can keep the books as well as claim PDUs for PMP recertification when their reviews are published. Chapter members are generally mid-career professionals, the audience for most project management books.

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact [email protected]



Project Management for SMBs


pmwj54-jan2017-aldridge-bookBook Title:   Project Management for SMBs
Author: Gren Gale
Publisher: Zannac Books, United Kingdom
List Price: $14.99
Format: PDF, 153 pages
Publication Date: Dec, 2015
ISBN: 978-0-9928023-2-5 (UK), 978-0-9928023-3-2 (US)
Reviewer:     Joanna Aldridge
Review Date: September 2016



“SMBs” in the title means “Small and Medium-Sized Businesses.” Summarizing the author’s words: More than 99% of US and European SMBs employ less than 250 staff and spend around 30% of their revenue on projects. These projects are key to the SMBs’ success and yet, if badly run, put the SMBs at risk.

The author presents a lighter form of project management enabling the SMBs to manage risks and put a repeatable program in place without the huge bureaucratic overheads required by most project management methodologies.

Overview of Book’s Structure

The book is broken out into five parts:

  • Introducing and Defining a Project
  • How to Deliver Projects (seven processes)
  • Project Governance, including risk management, change control, quality and portfolio management
  • Soft Skills, including communication, people management and crisis management
  • Conclusion, with words of wisdom, resources to find templates and check lists.


The author lays out a good explanation of the purpose of projects and how a project is defined. He then takes the reader through the delivery process, explaining the best practices for setting up and executing a well-run project. He touches on risk management, good communication and people management all geared for the small business owner.

Highlights: What I liked!

I thought it was a well laid out and practical guideline for a small business to use in implementing a project management plan. The author broke down the types of project management styles clearly and succinctly, breaking down the technical jargon into digestible information for someone who might not be as familiar with project management language and structure.


To read entire Book Review, click here



About the Reviewer

Joanna Aldridge

Texas, USA


Joanna Aldridge is an entrepreneur based in Texas.


Editor’s note: This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Dallas Chapter. Authors and publishers provide the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Dallas Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library. PMI Dallas Chapter members can keep the books as well as claim PDUs for PMP recertification when their reviews are published. Chapter members are generally mid-career professionals, the audience for most project management books.

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact [email protected]



January 2017 Project Management Update from Buenos Aires


Award winning wines, wineries and project management in Mendoza (Report from Argentina)

By Cecilia Boggi, PMP

International Correspondent

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Wines from Argentina are recognized worldwide and the wineries that produce them receive more and more international awards. The awards received by the wineries are not only due to the quality of the wines they produce, but also to other categories such as architecture and landscaping, tourist services, restaurants, etc.

Last November, was held in Oporto, Portugal, the international wine contest “Best of Wine Tourism”, organized by the Great Wine Capitals network, which brings together the eight internationally renowned wine capitals, including Mendoza (Argentina); Bilbao-Rioja (Spain); Valparaiso-Valley of Casablanca (Chile); Valley of Napa- San Francisco (United States); Bordeaux (France); Cape Town-Cape Winelands (South Africa); Mainz-Rheinhessen (Germany) and Porto (Portugal).

At this contest, which annually awards distinguished wineries in terms of excellence in different categories, it was awarded the with Gold prize in Architecture, Parks and Gardens 2016, the winery Zuccardi, located in the Uco Valley of Mendoza, for its design and landscape proposal.

The winery, designed by the architects Fernando Raganato, Tom Hughes, Maru Mora and with landscape design of Eduardo Vera, was integrated to the environment confusing itself with the stone, the sand and the water of the river Tunuyán, and has another outstanding characteristic for which it has been awarded, which has to do with the volumetry of the building: the curvature of its walls imitating the Andean profile.


Photo: Zuccardi Winery, Gold prize in Architecture, Parks and Gardens 2016 at the “Best Of Wine Tourism” contest by Great Wine Capitals.

At the same contest, Casa de Uco Vineyards & Wine Resort was awarded with the Gold prize in the Small Wineries category and with the Bronze prize in the category Architecture and Landscapes.

The Gold Prize in Architecture, Parks and Gardens was also received by other Mendoza wineries in previous years, such as Trapiche Winery, DiamAndes Winery and Salentein Winery, among others.

At the same time, the Bodega O’Fournier has been highlighted by the magazine of Latam Airlines for its space structure and its stunning landscape, with a space architecture at the foot of the Andes Mountains, among 10 wineries around the world that stand out for some detail “Beyond the elaboration of its wines”.

The mentioned wineries have been designed and built by studios of Mendoza architects, which means that almost all have been Argentine projects.


To read entire report click here for (English) or (Spanish)



About the Author


International Correspondent
Buenos Aires, Argentina

Argentina flag smallest

Cecilia Boggi
, PMP is founder and Executive Director of activePMO, giving consulting services and training in Project Management and Leadership skills in Argentina and Latin America.

After graduating with a degree in Computer Science Engineering from Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, she has managed software development projects and PMO implementation projects for more than 20 years both in the government and private sector. Cecilia has an Executive Master in Business Administration from Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, Spain and also has graduated from an Executive Program in Business Management at Universidad del CEMA. She holds the Project Management Professional (PMP®) credential since 2003, is certified as SDI Facilitator from Personal Strengths©, is a Professional Executive Coach accredited by Association for Coaching, UK, and alumni of the PMI Leadership Institute Master Class 2012. Ms. Boggi is Past President of the PMI Buenos Aires Argentina Chapter, and is a founding member of the PMI Nuevo Cuyo Chapter and PMI Santa Cruz Bolivia Chapter. She has been designated by PMI in the role of Mentor of Region 13, Latin America South, for the years 2014-2016. Cecilia has participated in the development of PMBOK® Guide 5th Edition, leading the Chapter 9, Human Resource Management, content team and she is professor of Project Management and Leadership in some Universities and Institutes in Latin America.

She can be contacted at mailto:[email protected]and http://www.activepmo.com/

To view other works by Cecilia Boggi, visit her author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/cecilia-boggi/.



Finland Project Management Roundup for January 2017


Updates on Project Management Association Finland; PMI Finland Chapter; Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant; Hanhikivi 1 nuclear power plant; Helsinki’s Länsimetro extension; Raide-Jokeri light rail transit project

By Dr Jouko Vaskimo

International Correspondent & Senior Contributing Editor

Espoo, Finland




This roundup continues the coverage of Project Management Association Finland, PMI Finland Chapter, and the key projects currently going on in Finland.


pmwj54-jan2017-vaskimo-pry-logoProject Management Association Finland (PMAF), Projektiyhdistys ry in Finnish, is a not-for-profit organization, and the International Project Management Association (IPMA) Member Association (MA) in Finland. Founded in 1978, PMAF promotes the interaction, project-oriented thinking, and exchange and development of practical and theoretical knowledge among project management professionals.

PMAF promotes the development and dissemination of project and project management knowledge. PMAF members are able to enjoy information sharing, workgroups, development projects, project management forums, conferences and certification services PMAF provides. PMAF also works as a promoter and an intermediary of good project practices and experiences. PMAF members receive the biannual Projektitoiminta magazine, electronic newsletters, and web services. As of 2016, PMAF has over 4000 individual members. Please navigate to www.pry.fi/projectassosiation for further information on PMAF.


pmwj54-jan2017-vaskimo-pmif-logoPMI Finland Chapter is a not-for-profit organization providing project practitioners in Finland continuous learning, networking and community support. The Chapter was founded in 2005. Today, with more than 400 members, the chapter is increasingly recognized as place where its members can enhance their project management and leadership skills, as well as network with other project management professionals.

PMI Finland Chapter hosts a number of events such as Breakfast Round Tables, regular meetings taking place once a month in Helsinki and occasionally also in other locations. The chapter members have the opportunity to attend events for free or with a discount and the chapter sends its members a regular newsletter with localized content on project management. Additionally, the Chapter supports its members in their professional development and training.

Please navigate to http://www.pmifinland.org/ for further information on PMI Finland Chapter.


To read entire report, click here



About the Author

Dr Jouko Vaskimo

Espoo, Finland



Jouko Vaskimo
is an International Correspondent and Senior Contributing Editor for PM World in Finland. Jouko graduated M.Sc. (Tech.) from Helsinki University of Technology in 1992, and D.Sc. (Tech.) from Aalto University in 2016. He has held several project management related positions with increasing levels for responsibility. Jouko holds a number of professional certificates in the field of project management, such as the IPMA Level C (Project Manager), IPMA Level B (Senior Project Manager), PMP, PRINCE2 Foundation, and PRINCE2 Practitioner. Jouko is also a Certified Scrum Master and SAFe Agilist.

Jouko is a member of the Project Management Association Finland, a founding member of PMI Finland Chapter, and the immediate past chairman of the Finnish IPMA Certification Body operating IPMA certification in Finland. Since October 2007, he has been heading the Finnish delegation to ISO/TC 258.

Jouko resides in Espoo, Finland and can be best contacted at [email protected]. For more information please navigate to www.linkedin.com/in/jouko-vaskimo-6285b51.

To view other works by Jouko Vaskimo, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/jouko-vaskimo/



Preparing employees for technological change


An investigation into what communication content employees want and how they want to receive it in the face of technological upheaval

By Charlotte Wallis

London, UK



  1. Introduction

Technological change is one of the biggest challenges faced by organisations as new technologies present new ways for companies to serve their clients. It is understood as the introduction of new software or processes that transform how employees work to increase efficiency and productivity in order to meet increasingly high customer expectations (Nordveng et al., 2008). Technological change involves transformation at the organisational and individual level and requires individuals to make changes to their behaviour (Law, 2009). Organisation X, a financial advisory firm, is considering introducing a new customer relationship management system (CRM) to achieve greater efficiency and productivity, despite perceived widespread scepticism among staff. This reluctance towards the proposed programme could be interpreted as a lack of readiness, and understanding of, the need for change. As readiness is ‘arguably one of the most important factors involved in employees’ initial support for change initiatives’ (Holt et al., 2007, p. 234), it is interesting to consider how internal communication could contribute towards preparing staff for technological change.

Welch and Jackson (2007) argue that research into employee preferences for channel and content of internal corporate communication is required to ensure it meets employees’ needs. While considerable literature assesses change implementation from a management perspective, very little research considers what information employees’ want during times of change (Harrison,2015, p. 63). According to Ruck and Welch (2012), internal communication assessment currently focuses on the channels used, or the volume of information generated, rather than assessing the content of the communication itself.

This paper seeks to evaluate the literature that does exist on content in order to identify subject areas that employees want to hear about when preparing for technological change. It will also critically discuss the use of channels for delivering key messages. Before addressing these topics, the paper will consider the relevance of internal communication to change management. Specifically, how change management models can be applied to communication strategies to prepare employees for change.

  1. Literature review

2.1 Change management

When considering change management within an organisation, the role of internal communication is important. The literature on change management acknowledges the link between successful change projects and effective internal communication (Harrison, 2015). Change projects present a huge undertaking for those involved, as the likelihood of succeeding is low. For example, research into the success rate of change initiatives reveals that around 70%fail (Salem, 2008, p. 334). The reasons for this vary but the literature cites poor internal communication as a contributing factor (Quirke 2008, Johansson and Heide, 2008). Conversely, a study by Barrett (2006) revealed that strategic employee communication is essential to the success of any organisation. Following Barrett’s research into high-performing companies and success in employee communication Barrett concludes that when internal communication is used effectively, it can act as the glue that binds the change process together (2006, p. 231). Evidently, internal communication plays a key role in the successful implementation of change, but how can it be used to prepare employees who may be resistant towards a proposed technological change?

The introduction of new technology is not necessarily always viewed negatively. However, due to its constant evolution, employees could resist the introduction of certain new technological processes due to a fear of the unknown. Proctor and Doukakis (2003, p. 274) argue that a fear of the unknown could develop if awareness and understanding for the change are not achieved during the early stages of the project. Similarly, Quirke (2008) estimates that when employees resist change implementation, it is often a symptom of a lack of understanding about the ‘why’. In his research Salem (2008) identifies seven communication behaviours that accompany change failure, including not communicating enough information. In support of this, Nordveng et al., explain that employee support for change initiatives ‘increases as they become more familiar with what the proposed changes involve and as they develop a better understanding of how they will be personally affected’ (Nordveng et al., 2008, p. 222). From examining these publications, it is reasonable to assume that internal communication can help prepare employees successfully for technological change is by increasing awareness and understanding about the need for change, thereby overcoming potential resistance. Arguably, effective internal communication will significantly influence employees’ support for the proposed change if they understand the reasons behind it (Welch and Jackson, 2007).


To read entire paper, click here


This paper was the result of a research project in partial satisfaction of requirements for a Chartered Institute of Public Relations Internal Communication Diploma, course taught by Dr. Kevin Ruck, PR Academy, Kent, United Kingdom.



About the Author

Charlotte Wallis

London, UK

UK small flag 2


Charlotte Wallis
is a London-based Marketing Communications Executive working in the professional services sector. A First Class honours graduate from the University of Manchester she has been working in marketing and communications for over three years. You can find her on Twitter (@WallisCL) or LinkedIn.

Charlotte can also be contacted by email at [email protected].


10 Key Arguments Why Project Management Continues To Grow


By Martin Sedlmayer







There are literally millions of reasons why project management will continue to grow, despite the prophecy of doom of a few agile popes. Why? First of all, because more than one-third of economic value added today is realised in projects – and the trend is increasing. Next, because change is the only constant in life, and this change must be properly managed and appropriately led. And very importantly, results usually must be integrated into legacy processes, and the ever-increasing complexity of the projects must be well-managed. Because exceptional leadership is required; and CEOs require clear structures to ensure that the business remains compliant. Then, an ever-increasing proportion of work is organised on an international, interdisciplinary and intercultural basis to achieve the best results – which requires more and more transformers and prevailing realisers—and not just producers of hot air. Last but by far not least, because the generation Y is leaving the universities and getting into management positions. With them, the focus of work shifts from having a job to meaningfulness of living – something which projects very well support.

The core reason why project management continues to grow is actually quite simple and logical: As long as there are projects out there, people will be needed to care about projects and implement them – against all headwinds and all inconveniences. Example: have you ever sailed on a ship, or flown in a commercial aircraft without a responsible person, coordinating and leading the journey (usually called the captain)? That person, properly trained, and with the necessary competences, who guides the ship or the aircraft professionally, even in bad weather conditions, or through heavy traffic?

Whether we continue to call this core function – the captain of the project – project manager is a totally different story. But the profession of project management as such with all required competences will continue to existing and even grow, at least as long as there is a captain on board of a commercial aircraft.

But before we can start the discussion regarding the future needs of project management, we must achieve a common understanding on what exactly is a modern project manager and what kind of tasks he or she must execute.

A project manager from today’s point of view

In the new ICB4 (IPMA, 2016), IPMA defines a project as “a unique, time-limited, multidisciplinary and organised undertaking to achieve defined work results within predefined requirements and boundary conditions. The project focuses on providing a predefined result with its own organisation”.

IPMA distinguishes projects from programmes, which are set up to implement strategic changes and realise benefits. To simplify, this article does not make a distinction between projects and programmes: the term “project manager” shall be used for the executive person of a project of all kinds. However, it is a fact that project management is developing towards programme management, because change and benefit realisation are rapidly becoming part the core of any project and because more often a “predefined result” is not available in an early stage of an endeavour – that is also one of the key drivers for agile software development.

Change versus stability

The various basic definitions of projects or programmes including IPMA (IPMA, 2016), PMI (Project Management Institute, 2013), Hermes (ISB, 2014) or agile program management (DSDM Consortium, 2014) contain seven core characteristics:

  • Certain uniqueness
  • Time limitation
  • Multiple disciplines
  • Own governance
  • Delivering results (from simple and predefined to highly complex, strategic transformations)
  • Implementation of change or even transformations
  • Realisation of benefits

With these characteristics, projects obviously differentiate from line functions that focus on efficient day-to-day production of any kind of products or services.

While a project is unique and limited in time, the line organisation continues for a longer period and produces products or services repetitively. That is the main reason why a specific organisation with individual governance (project management, support, teams, control bodies, etc.) are created for each project. Furthermore, line organisations are predominantly monodisciplinary (finance, marketing, production, etc.), but projects are organised to manage multi-disciplinarity, and organised to integrate all involved parties.


To read entire paper, click here


Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English. Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright. This paper was originally published in German at https://societybyte.bfh.ch/2016/12/07/projekte-brauchen-richtige-projektleiter-10-argumente-fuer-die-zukunft-des-projektmanagements/. It is republished here with the author’s permission.



About the Author

Martin Sedlmayer




Martin Sedlmayer
leads complex changes as a programme manager. He has worked in the domain of project management for more than 30 years, as a project manager, programme leader, portfolio manager, and leader of project organisations.

His special interest is the issue of competence development in project management. He was project manager and lead editor for the new ICB4® (global competence standard for individuals working in project, programme and portfolio management). Currently, he serves as Vice President of IPMA’s Executive Board for Products and Services.

Martin is IPMA Level A® certified, acts as an assessor for fifteen years in various countries and holds a MBA in International Management from the University of Applied Sciences in Berne Switzerland, the University of Freiburg Germany, the State Polytechnical University of St., Petersburg Russia, the Babson College of Boston USA and Jiao Tong University of Shanghai China. He publishes regularly, speaks at conferences and events worldwide.

He can be contacted at [email protected]



NASA’s Project Management Learning LAB



By Lawrence Suda

New York, USA


Maintaining a talented pool of project managers at NASA is critical to the space program, scientific community and the general public. NASA’s Academy for Project Program Engineering Leadership (APPEL) actively promotes a unique disciplinary cultural approach that goes beyond the boundaries of conventional project management. One program out of a series of training programs is the Lab. The Lab is a five-day workshop using various learning technologies, including: simulations, 360 leadership and team assessments and promoting the unconventional mixing of disparate learning approaches to create a powerful learning design. The lab encourages people to Think-Act-Reflect in real time just like the must do on their real-life projects.

Key words: Simulations, Leadership, Management, Learning Lab, NASA

Introduction: Practicing the Game of Project Management

The project leader reached for his fourth cup of coffee. It was only 9:30 am and he was already stressed by all the bad news: One key team member resigned; the client was upset about the quality and schedule and wanted to meet immediately; and his manager was not happy about the potential cost overruns of 50%. Everything that could go wrong was going wrong and worse yet all at the same time. To add more fire to this particularly hellish week: there was a new round of complaints about a key engineer’s abrasive style, and technical quality of work. He was sent out for some technical training. That’s five days of work we’ll never get back. A consultant was hired “on the cheap” — only to learn, once again, that you get what you pay for. He was fired, which was a huge distraction and waste of time and money.

Now the good news: these events didn’t happen anywhere in what we call “real life” and in some sense they didn’t “happen” at all. Despite the rocky performance and, fortunate for this project leader, all these problems were the direct result of a project simulation exercise used by NASA to help train current and future project managers. The entire experience unfolded on the screen of a laptop computer running a “Project Management Leadership Simulation,” as part of the NASA’s “Project Management Leadership Laboratory.” The program uses a computer based simulation designed and developed by the Palatine Group, a New York based company.

Why” Simulations

Virtually every significant marketplace innovation and success in recent history is a direct result of extensive prototyping and simulation. Airplanes, automobile design, animated motion pictures, personal computers, leveraged buyouts and mergers, DNA biotechnology, are all the direct result of shifting from physical clay models to virtual models. In all these instances, the most important raw material is and has always been the interplay between the individuals and the expression of their ideas. To paraphrase Leroi-Gourhan the evolution of the human mind is basically the evolution of its expressive means. The same thing is true for the evolution of projects and our organizations. In today’s world it is fashionable to assert that managerial minds are possessed by “mental models” that invariably determine what decisions get made. But this is one of the truisms that obscure a larger reality. The mind gets far more credit that it deserves according to Jay Forrester, the father of systems dynamics. According to Forrester, “Our mental models are fuzzy.” They are incomplete and imprecise. Furthermore, within one individual, a mental model changes with time and even during the flow of a single conversation. The human mind assembles a few relationships to fit the context of a discussion and as the conversation shifts, so does their mental model. Each participant in the conversation employs a different mental model to interpret the topic. Fundamental assumptions differ but are never brought into the open.

In order to have actionable meaning, fuzzy ideas (mental models) in a project manager’s mind must ultimately be externalized in representations the entire project team and customer can grasp. Simulations can help mental models become less tacit and more tangible and actionable. Simulations engage the project team’s thinking in the explicit. They externalize thought and spark dialogue. A truly effective simulation goes beyond the visual to appeal to the tactile and kinesthetic. A genuine, authentic model activates the mind and adrenal glands and engages people in conversation and debates that forge collaboration and ignite innovative approaches to tough project issues. Consequently, good simulations are not just tools for individual thought, but are inherently social media mechanisms.

The business environment is so turbulent that that running a business or managing a project team can be as treacherous as piloting an aircraft. The uncomfortable reality in most organizations is that people are making more complex decisions in less time, with fewer resources and no margin for error. Being great requires something few people have — opportunities to practice. That’s the value of simulation. . Business simulations let project managers sit in a virtual cockpit and practice their technique.

Actors, athletes, and musicians wouldn’t dream of performing without practicing. But how do business people practice? Mostly they attend the school of hard knocks — encountering new situations, making mistakes, learning from what goes wrong. But learning from real mistakes gets expensive — both for the company and the people who make them. Simulation creates a “virtual practice field” that allows people and teams to test assumptions and experiment with ideas without having to suffer financial reversals or career setbacks. You can compare business simulations to what goes on in the NFL between games. “Football coaches and players look at game film because it helps them understand what happened. In a game film, away from the confusion of real action, each player can step back and look at the whole field, not just his corner of it. Simulations create that same whole-field perspective an element of control: Imagine if you could run game films — and change the play! What if the coach could say, ‘Thomas, you should have blocked this guy, not that guy, and if you did, here’s what would have happened?’ That’s what simulation does.


To read entire paper, click here


Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English. Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright. This paper was originally presented at the PMI Global Congress North America 2016 conference in San Diego, California, USA and included in the conference proceedings. It is republished here with the author’s permission.



About the Author

Lawrence V. Suda

Palatine Group / Management Worlds
New York, USA



Lawrence Suda
is the CEO and an Officer at Palatine group/Management Worlds, Inc. with over 30 years project and program management consulting and training experience to numerous government and private sector companies. The Palatine Group/Management Worlds specializes in creating computer-based simulations for project management and leadership training. Larry’s career emphasis is on organization behavior, project management, operations management, strategic management and enterprise-wide project management for leading companies and government agencies throughout the world, including: NASA, US Navy, Departments of Commerce, Treasury, Energy, Health & Human Services , Agriculture, DAU and others and in the private sector to such companies as General Electric, Proctor & Gamble, ALCOA, URS, Verizon, Boeing, Lockheed/Martin, Hewlett-Packard, Perot Systems, PPG Industries, United States Steel and others.

Before founding Palatine Group/Management Worlds, Larry worked in the private and public sectors at the US Environmental Protection Agency and was an Assistant Professor at the University of Maryland. Mr. Suda is a frequent speaker at PMI and IPMA Conferences in the United States and Europe and has led workshops for PMI’s Seminars World in various locations around the World. He is an adjunct professor at Drexel University teaching Global Project Leadership.

He can be contacted at [email protected]

To view other works by Larry Suda, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/lawrence-suda/



Five Decades of Modern Project Management


Where It Came From – Where It’s Going

By Russell D. Archibald

Archibald Associates

San Miguel de Allende, Mexico

The Origins of Modern Project Management

Modern project management began to emerge five decades ago in 1959 when the US Navy Special Projects Office launched its Program Evaluation and Evaluation Technique (PERT) on a broad scale as a planning, scheduling and reporting requirement for over 100 contractors for the POLARIS Weapon System (submarine-launched solid rocket ICBMs.) At the same time – actually a year or two before, the Critical Path Method (CPM) emerged from the chemical process (DuPont) and construction industries. Both of these project planning and scheduling methodologies began to capitalize on the advances in main-frame electronic data processing hardware and software systems during the 1960s.

Four decades ago this month, project management began to be recognized as a distinct management discipline or ‘profession’ in the USA when on Oct. 9-10 1969 the Project Management Institute (PMI) held its formation meeting at the Georgia Institute of Technology in the USA. Prior to that event, similar large, international congresses had been held by the European based International Project Management Association (IPMA) (then called INTERNET) in 1967 in Vienna, Austria, and in 1969 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

A Brief Chronology

Over these past five decades a few of us have witnessed some remarkable changes, advances, and growth in the practice and application of modern project management concepts, principles, methods, and supporting information systems. A few indicative highlights include:

1959-69         From bar charts to network-based schedules (PERT/CPM)

1959: First Kelly & Walker paper on CPM1 was presented

1959: US Navy required PERT from all POLARIS contractors 2

1960: First ever PERT network was processed on main-frame computer at Aerojet-General Corp. 3

1962: DOD & NASA PERT/COST Systems Design was issued 4

1965: IBM’s PMS-360 dominates PMIS field; punched card input, large stacks of output

1965: CPM in Construction Management: Scheduling by the Critical Path Method was published 5

1967: Network-Based Management Systems (PERT/CPM) was published 6

                        PDM started to take over from CPM

PM was applied beyond Defense/Aerospace and Construction

1969: July 20: Neil Armstrong steps on the moon’s surface

1969: Oct. 9-10: PMI’s first meeting drew 80 people; the first paper presented there was titled “Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling the Efforts of Knowledge Workers.”7

1970-79        First want-ads for Project Managers appeared

1972: IPMA (INTERNET) Stockholm drew 800 people

                       Apple II, Commodore PET, TRS-80, Atari 800 computer

CSCSC attempts to integrate time, cost, quality in defense programs and projects

1976: Managing High-Technology Programs and Projects, was published8

1979: PMI membership: 20,000 (est)


To read entire paper, click here


Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English. Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright. This paper was originally published as a guest editorial in the October 2009 edition of PM World Today.   It is republished here with the author’s permission.



About the Author

pmwj49-Aug2016-Archibald-PHOTO1 RUSS
Russell D. Archibald

Archibald Associates
San Miguel de Allende, Mexico



Now 93, with careers spanning more than 70 years, Russ Archibald has had broad international experiences in piloting and designing aircraft, corporate engineering, operations, and program and project management. His three project management related careers have been Military/Aerospace (19 years), Corporate Engineer & Executive (17 years), and Management Consultant (34 years to date). Russ has consulted to a wide variety of large and small organizations in 16 countries, has trained thousands of people in project management, and has resided in the USA, France, Mexico, Venezuela, Panama Canal Zone, and Peru with Marion, his wife of 70 years. For the past 23 years they have resided in San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico.

Russ is founding member number 6 of the Project Management Institute/PMI. After presenting this first PMI paper in 1969 he was President of the PMI Southern California Chapter in 1991-2, founding member of the PMI Mexico City Chapter in 1996, and in 2006 was awarded the PMI Jim O’Brien Lifetime Achievement Award. A PMI Fellow and Certified Project Management Professional, he co-authored with Prof. Dr. Jean-Pierre Debourse the 2011 PMI research report Project Managers as Senior Executives. He was also a founding member in 1970 and is an Honorary Fellow of the Association of Project Management (APM/IPMA-UK).

Russ is co-author with his grandson Shane Archibald of Leading and Managing Innovation-What Every Executive Team Must Know about Project, Program & Portfolio Management (2nd edition CRC Press 2015, 1st edition 2013 also published in Italian, Portuguese and Spanish); author of Managing High Technology Programs and Projects (3rd edition Wiley 2003, also published in Italian, Russian, and Chinese), has contributed chapters to 15 books edited by others, and presented 88 papers at many PMI, IPMA and other conferences in many countries. He holds BS (U. of Missouri 1948) and MS (U. of Texas 1956) degrees in Mechanical Engineering. Russ was awarded an honorary Ph.D. in Strategy, Program, and Project Management from the Ecole Superieure de Commerce de Lille in Lille, France in 2005. See russarchibald.com. Russ can be contacted at [email protected]

To view other works by Russ Archibald, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/russell-d-archibald/



Resilience, a new perspective for Project Management actors


By Roberto Mori

Milan, Italy

A word is increasingly gaining more attention in many social and business contexts such as countries, organizations, industries, enterprises, environment and climate, cities, security, which are impacted by unprecedented changes: this word is resilience.

For English Wiktionary resilience generally means the ability to recover from some shock or disturbance. There are different meanings for it:

  • resilience of a material: the physical property of material that can resume its shape after being stretched or deformed (elasticity) or, in other words, that can absorb energy without breaking;
  • resilience of a system: the ability of a system to recover from a catastrophic failure;
  • resilience of an IT system: the capacity of an IT system to guarantee its service continuity;
  • resilience in biology: the capacity of a living system to recover its own equilibrium after a change or a damage;
  • resilience in psychology: the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or even significant sources of stress (The American Psychological Association).

The President of IPMA, Reinhard Wagner, states: We all experience an increasingly complex environment, which has a significant impact on our projects and the way we manage them. Factors to be considered are risks (calculable events), uncertainties (incalculable events), unforeseen influences, complexity and dynamic changes. This is a challenge to traditional approaches of project management and the paradigm of planning and control. Project managers and their teams need to have competences that enable them to quickly recover from difficulties and come back on track towards the desired goals … Concepts of resilience for individuals, projects and organizations will help to advance the profession and cope with the ever-increasing challenges on our relentless pursuit towards a world in which all projects succeed.

Managing Editor of PM World Journal David Pells adds that resilience has become a very important topic in the project management field, where risks associated with disasters or other disruptive changes can be catastrophic. We would like to grow the resource base on this topic in the PM World Library during 2016.

It is therefore consequential that Resilience was chosen by Antonio Calabrese, Director of the Master in Project Management program at MIP Politecnico di Milano and President of IPMA Italy, as the topic for a “PM in Action” lecture: Resilience and Motivation. The presentation was delivered by prof. Pietro Trabucchi of Verona University, author of several books on the topic, the last of which is To persevere is human.

It is not the purpose of this article to summarize in a structured way the content of the whole presentation, but to underline those of the many interesting points that have attracted the audience attention, which are particularly interesting from a project management perspective.


To read entire article, click here



About the Author

Roberto Mori

Milan, Italy



Roberto Mori
has an extensive background in Project Management of international turn-key projects of industrial plants, oil & gas and iron & steel sectors. He has covered several functions in project teams, up to the roles of Senior Project Manager, Projects Director and Portfolio Manager. His background includes also experience as Procurement Director and Operations Manager for the same type of projects portfolio. Today he is Director Special Projects in Tenova, one of the world’s leaders for iron, steel, mining and material handling technologies. (http://www.tenovagroup.com/)

Roberto Mori has been member of the Italian National Association of Plant Engineering (ANIMP) since the early 90’s, taking major part in the activities performed by its Project Management Section, IPMA Italy, of which he was President until February 2015. Information about ANIMP can be found at www.animp.it/IPMA

He was Chairman of International Project Management Association (IPMA) 2013- 2014, after having served as Vice President and President for four years. He has been Prize Winner of the IPMA Project Excellence Award 2006 and obtained the IPMA Otto Zieglmeier’s Award for Excellent Project Management Performance in 2008. Today he is member of the Jury for IPMA Project Excellence Awards. More about IPMA at http://www.ipma.ch/

Member of Scientific Committees for international conferences, author of published papers on project management topics, speaker at national and international congresses; he is also teacher for courses on project, risk and contract management.

Roberto Mori can be contacted at mailto:[email protected]



Improve Your Diversity Intelligence


Eliminate Your Blind Spots

By Paul Pelletier, LL.B, PMP

Vancouver, BC, Canada


In our highly diverse workplaces, diversity intelligence is critical to success. Project management leaders who leverage diversity to develop, motivate and empower people to achieve extraordinary results aren’t acting randomly. By aligning diversity intelligence (DI) with leadership strategies and communication practices to ensure a truly collaborative, inclusive and engaging work environment, we can inspire our high performance teams and improve our project success. DI, like other skills, is a competency that requires learning and constant improvement – as the dynamics of our diverse workplaces change, so must we.

One of the most effective ways to improve diversity intelligence is by understanding and overcoming our diversity “blind spots.” This requires both self-awareness and a deeper appreciation that diversity goes well beyond the obvious surface characteristics of people.

A Review – What is Diversity Intelligence?

DI is about understanding each other and moving beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individual. The concept of diversity intelligence encompasses acceptance and respect. It is the exploration of our differences in a safe, positive, and nurturing environment.

By integrating workers from culturally diverse backgrounds into their workforce organizations become much stronger and their project success rate improves. Diversity intelligent leaders ensure that diversity is an integral part of the business plan, essential to successful projects, programs, products and increased sales. This is especially true in today’s global marketplace, as organizations interact with different cultures and clients.

The Diversity Iceberg

We tend (often without even knowing it) to regard diversity through the lens of the most obvious physical and superficial traits of those around us. For example, we categorize people by virtue of their age, gender, and race. This makes sense – after all, age, race and gender are traits you can see in the flesh. But these and other physical attributes like skin colour are only a small part of the diversity picture. There are many other characteristics that merit consideration. Behavioral psychologists and social scientists use “the Diversity Iceberg” to demonstrate this problem, where visible traits like race, gender and other physical attributes sit at the top above the waterline, while a larger portion of non-visible characteristics lurk below.


The Diversity Iceberg Illustration

The Diversity Iceberg is a marvellous tool to assist in improving our diversity intelligence. The key point of the iceberg is that the core of our identity is made up of the dimensions that exist below the surface. These buried qualities are critical to our individuality and provide the actual essence of diversity.


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About the Author

Paul Pelletier

Vancouver, BC, Canada



Paul Pelletier
, LL.B., PMP, is a workplace respect consultant, corporate lawyer, project manager and executive. He works with organizations to prevent, manage and eliminate workplace bullying. His book “Workplace Bullying – It’s just Bad for Business” highlights how bullying is lethal to project management and business success. He also serves as a member of the PMI Ethics Member Advisory Group. He has published articles, presented webinars, workshops and been a presenter at many PMI events, including Global Congresses, Leadership Institute Meetings and Chapter events. Paul Pelletier can be reached at http://www.paulpelletierconsulting.com/ or [email protected]

To view other works by Paul Pelletier, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/paul-pelletier/



On the Road to Project Society – A Swedish Story


Managing and Working in Project Society

By Torbjörn Wenell, Eskil Ekstedt and Rolf A. Lundin


In the book” Managing and Working in Project Society” (Lundin et al, 2015) there is a discussion about challenges in the transformation from the dominance of traditional industrial organizations to an extensive use of project organizations, especially challenges related to management and work. The senior author of this article, Torbjörn Wenell, has been involved in the development of major projects and project thinking since the 60`s, a period covering most of the ongoing transformation so far in Sweden. In the following we will provide some illustrations to the “projectification” process in this country essentially building on his experiences starting in the 60’s with how international industrial companies in Sweden (like Volvo, Saab and Ericsson) developed and increasingly became supported by advanced projects to the present time when we have seen a diffusion of projects and project thinking to all parts of society of today.

In the previously mentioned book on “Project Society” the following three archetypes are used to characterize “projectification” and the resulting projects in different environments: 1) Project based organizations (PBOs) deliver projects directly to their customers as their business, 2) Project-supported organizations or PSOs refers to organizations making use of projects in the traditional, internal functioning and of the development of their organization. 3) Project networks or PNWs, refers to the proliferation of inter-organizational (and interpersonal) projects in various contexts. These kinds of projects are not only numerous but they are also becoming increasingly sophisticated. To meet the increasing demand of knowledge on how to handle management and work in projects, models have been developed, educational programs have been started and professional organizations for project managers have been founded.

The three archetypes are useful when it comes to describe the development as seen in the trajectory of the experiences by Wenell. In the early 60’s he was working with planning different projects within Saab and Ericsson. In this PSO environment the projects were related to engineering and covered computer and electronics development as well as military equipment. The activity also emphasized rational ways of project planning per se. When realizing that models and computer support not by itself gives successful projects he started to stress integration and communication methods for projects. Leadership, teambuilding and coaching became important ingredients.

The early experiences of the planning for success in the industrial context were developed and extended into project consultancy work of a PBO type and into competence programs for practical project work and project management. Towards the end of the 60’s an association for practicing project managers was formed, “Projektforum”, initiated by Wenell. At approximately the same time the first international symposium in project management took place in Europe. The organizer was called “Internet” (standing for international network) which has now changed the name into IPMA (International Project Management Association), playing a similar role in Europe as PMI (Project Management Institute) in the US.

Towards the end of the 60’s Wenell started his own consultancy firm. Initially the company focused on the extensive demand for education, especially on how to manage projects. The design of practical models contributed to the “projectification” of many organizations. The company also took part in the start-up of major project in for example Volvo and Saab in the transportation sector and in the pharmaceutical producer (Astra) and its development of Losec in the health care sector. Today the company is heavily engaged in the development of sustainable project strategies in global Swedish industrial groups.


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Editor’s note: This series of articles from members of the Swedish Project Academy is based on the theme and concepts in the book Managing and Working in Project Society by Rolf A. Lundin, Niklas Arvidsson, Tim Brady, Eskil Ekstedt, Christophe Midler and Jorg Sydow, published by Cambridge University Press in 2015. The book won the PMI David I. Cleland Project Management Literature Award in 2016. Check back next month for another article in this series.



About the Authors

Torbjörn Wenell, CEO

Projektkultur Torbjörn Wenell AB
Stockholm, Sweden



Torbjörn Wenell
is one of the most experienced consultants in the project area in the Nordic countries in Europe. He has made it his task to develop the project work form in practice since the beginning of the 60’s. He has been dealing with projects in several industries and has been responsible for educating some 150 thousand people in the project field. He started by planning for the development of computers at SAAB in 1961 and planned for the electronic system in the Viggen military aircraft. In 1963 – 1965 he worked as a project planning expert for Ericsson and finalized the first handbook of project planning for that company. In 1965 he started a project consultancy, Wenell Management AB, where he was the chairman of the board until 2000. During several years, he was also connected to the University of Linköping as a PM expert. In 1967 he initialized the association called “Svenskt Projektforum” for people with an interest in the field and in 1994 he contributed to the start of the Swedish Project Academy where he served as secretary for 15 years.

In total, he has authored nine books about projects of which “Wenell on Projects” received a special award. In 1961 he got his engineer title and since then he has gone through other educational programs as well. However, in PM he is a self-taught person. Torbjörn can be contacted at [email protected]


Eskil Ekstedt, PhD

Professor of Business Administration
Associate Professor of Economic History
Uppsala University, Stockholm, Sweden



Eskil Ekstedt
became Ph.D in Economic History at Uppsala University in 1976 and full professor at the University of Stockholm and the National Institute for Working Life in Stockholm 2001. He has had academic positions at the University of Uppsala, the FA Institute, University of Stockholm and The National Institute for Working Life. He was an expert to the Swedish State Commission on Productivity ( 1991), to the Swedish State Commission on Competence (1992) and to the Swedish State Commission on Labour Law (2002). He was the founding editor of the Scientific Publication series “Work Life in Transition” in 2000 – 2007. His research has been focused on knowledge formation, temporary organisations and projects in relation to structural change of the economy.

Ekstedt is one of the authors to the book “Neo-industrial organising. Renewal by action and knowledge formation in a project intensive economy” (Routledge, 1999). He is also co-author of the book Managing and Working in Project Society: Institutional Challenges of Temporary Organizations, published in 2015 by Cambridge University Press and winner of the 2016 PMI Book of the Year award. Prof. Ekstedt can be contacted at [email protected]


Rolf Lundin, PhD

Jönköping International Business School
Jönköping, Sweden



Rolf A Lundin is a professor (em.) of Business Administration at the Jönköping International Business School (JIBS) and a Courtesy Professor-in-Residence at the Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). He received his PhD in 1973 at the University of Chicago (now the Booth Business School) in Management Science. He has been a full professor since 1978, first at the business school of the University of Umeå (in northern Sweden), where he was also the founding dean of that school. In 2001 he was recruited to dean JIBS. He stepped down as dean in 2007. Since then he has been affiliated with the Media Management and Transformation Center. He has several publications in the management of projects and temporary organization area and is currently serving on the board for the PMI Global Accreditation Center which is working with accreditation of project management educational programs around the world. His current research focus is on the use of projects in media industries.

He is the lead author of the monograph Managing and Working in Project Society: Institutional Challenges of Temporary Organizations, published in 2015 by Cambridge University Press winning the 2016 PMI Book of the Year award.  Rolf is active in the Swedish Project Academy. He can be contacted at [email protected]





Risk Doctor Briefing

By Rose-Hélène Humeau, PMP

The Risk Doctor Partnership

Nice, France

“Who Dares Wins” is the motto of the British SAS (Special Air Service), and it has also been adopted by another eleven elite special forces units around the world. If we applied this slogan in our organisations and projects, it could change the way we manage risk in the following four ways:

  1. Find more opportunities. Typically, about 80% of the risks recorded in Risk Registers are threats (negative risks), with only 20% opportunities (positive risks). Adopting a “Who Dares Wins” attitude will encourage the inclusion of more opportunities. Even if we don’t completely reverse the 80/20 balance, we should fundamentally change the attitudes of internal stakeholders towards risk identification. They would no longer attempt only to maximise protection against all imaginable threats, but instead they would optimise risk exposure by aiming to capture the gains offered by opportunities. To promote this approach, ask your teams to view their business or project as a bank account. Every threat corresponds to a withdrawal or an additional charge, and each opportunity is a deposit or added income. Most people understand that, to preserve and enhance the overall value of their account, it is more effective to focus on increasing gains than to put all of their effort into reducing charges.

2. Opportunity-based risk thresholds. If we want to focus on searching proactively for opportunities rather than simply protecting ourselves from threats, we need to encourage people to take risks. This raises the question of how far we can go in risk-taking. Asking people to take risks requires us to define the limits of what is acceptable. All business investments and projects are carried out to create value for stakeholders. Risk thresholds can only be determined by considering both value creation and value destruction for the organisation. The motto “Who Dares Wins” would encourage management and sponsors to define acceptable risk thresholds clearly, based on the anticipated value, and it would allow teams to concentrate on maximising value creation through controlled risk-taking within those limits.

3. Value-focused risk management. In order to follow the principle of “Who Dares Wins”, we need to know what winning means. Businesses and projects must have a clear understanding of what type of value they seek to create, what creates that value, and for whom. The International Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA, www.iiba.org) defines value as “any desirable result for a stakeholder in a [given] context.” Once the anticipated value is well-defined in a “business value model”, we can focus our risk process on enhancing the main value-creating opportunities, while at the same time addressing the principal threats that would undermine value for stakeholders. For projects, the business value model needs to be developed during project initiation, supported by the sponsor, regularly reviewed, communicated and shared with the team. The risk management process can then be aligned with the value criteria described in the model. Definitions of impact levels should cover all the value criteria identified in the model, including value for suppliers, for partners, for the teams, for client stakeholders, etc.


To read entire article, click here



About the Author

Rose-Hélène Humeau

Nice, France



Rose-Hélène Humeau
is an experienced trainer in project management, certified PMP© – Project Management Professional – from the PMI® – Project Management Institute. She is teaching regular Project Management and/or PMP® sessions for international companies like Suez, ENGIE, IMS, General Electric Energy Europe, AREVA, IBM, HP, Carrier SA, Air Liquide, DCNS … She also helps companies in implementing a “project management culture” by aligning their processes to best practices.

Rose-Hélène Humeau has more than 20 years’ experience in project management for information systems within High-technology organizations.  In this area of expertise, she has made significant contributions in project management mentoring, methodology development, training, process creation, and global deployments.

Over the last decade, as European Project Manager in a High-technology company, Mrs Humeau has managed numerous projects about conception and implementation of services and systems, for internal and international customers. She was part of an elite worldwide team as European representative. She helped in building and institutionalizing a project management culture in a large corporate environment according to PMI® best practices, guiding team members in investing in project management disciplines. She was an active member of a European Project Management Office.

Rose-Hélène Humeau is a founding member of the PMI® Côte d’Azur.  She was playing the role of President of this professional association for 3 years. She was, therefore, organizing and managing regular seminars and forums covering local, regional or international scope. In addition to professional activities, she had taught Project Management at Nice University (Project Management Master program) as well as EDHEC and SKEMA Business Schools both for European and French students.

She holds a Master Degree in Computer Sciences and a DEA in Management from UNSA University of Nice-France. From George Washington University, she received Professional’s Certificates in Project Quality Management, Project Leadership and Project Risk Management. She is certified by PMI® as a Project Management Professional (PMP©) since 1998 and is involved in this institute as expert for several initiatives.

Rose-Hélène can be contacted at [email protected]

Enterprise-wide transformation programs do not succeed without Change Management!


Advances in Project Management Series

Sankaran Ramani


Practitioners and Consultants have been advocating better processes and tools to implement large scale programs (and portfolios) in large organizations. Many of them are well informed and their intentions and commitment are indisputable as well. Yet, in spite of the well laid out plans and the drive from top management, a significant percentage of change initiatives fizzle out or do not produce the intended results.

A key reason for this failure is the impact on the people perspective. Top-down driven initiatives breed skepticism and pushback from the operational stakeholders—where the ‘rubber meets the road’. It is often said that ‘people want change but won’t change’. This is especially true when the impacted stakeholders perceive the outcomes from the transformation programs to be negatively impacting them.

Based on our experience and analysis, we could categorize stakeholders into three groups – Top Management (typically the C level executives), Middle Management (usually Divisional or location managers/ Heads of business units and their deputies) and the operational stakeholders. The likely success of large scale change initiatives under various combinations of stakeholder commitment and propensity to change could be summarized as in the following table.

Change Impact matrix

Stakeholder commitment  
Top Management Middle Management Operational stakeholders Likely success of the change initiative/ status
Low Low Low Nil. Status quo- resigned state.
Low Low High Nil. Enthusiastic bottom-up ideas – sabotaged by the middle and senior management. Frustrated work force. High de-motivation and attrition.
Low High Low Unlikely situation. In this combination – middle management can spearhead the change – but will require considerable push to implement them.
Low High High Medium. Fertile situation for change to happen and a change in top management can trigger off the transformation.
High Low Low Negligible. Unless the rank and file changes – top management will find it extremely tough to push change. Typical situation seen in many Corporates. Long lead time for implementing changes.
High High Low Success more likely. The operational stakeholders can be incentivized to absorb change and with a lag, the momentum for change can catch on.
High Low High Low-medium. Unless the blocking middle management is convinced or ‘cajoled’ – change can fizzle down
High High High Utopia! Change initiatives will be debated and accepted swiftly.

Enterprise-wide transformations

For any enterprise wide transformation, we consider following dimensions, impacting the success of change initiatives.


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Editor’s note: The Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Gower in UK and by Routledge worldwide. Information about Routledge project management books can be found here.



About the Author

Sankaran Ramani




Sankaran Ramani, PfMP®, PgMP®, PMP®, PMI-RMP®, MoP®, MSP®, PRINCE2® , M_o_R® , P3O® , Change Management, Managing Benefits Practitioner, P3M3® Consultant, has over 25 years of experience in technology and management consulting industry, spanning key account management, project, program and portfolio management (P3M), management consulting (with PwC Consulting), strategy/ portfolio development for IT and Client relationship management.

He has over 20 years of project/ program management including consulting experience, having successfully led multiple large projects/programs for ERP implementations, Business-Systems integration and IT strategy development. These projects/programs were implemented in diverse sectors – including in discrete and process manufacturing, automotive, FMCG, retail and finance.

Prior to PwC Consulting, Ramani was managing technology and application oriented IT services for multiple clients – including non-profit organizations. He has also handled Portfolio, Program and Project Management trainings for diverse clients. Currently, Ramani is managing his company GRT Consulting LLP, which specializes in advisory/ consulting and training in Project, Program and Portfolio Management.

Ramani holds Post-Master’s educational qualification in Computer Science. He also holds multiple professional certifications, including PfMP®, PgMP®, PMP® and PMI-RMP® from PMI, USA. He has multiple practitioner certifications from AXELOS/APMG, UK – including in PRINCE2®, MSP® (For Program management), MoP® (For Portfolio Management), M_o_R® (for Risk management), P3O®, Change Management, MoV® (for Value Management), CHAMPS2® (for enterprise-wide transformation program implementation), Agile PM , PRINCE2 Agile and Benefits Management.

Ramani is an approved trainer from APMG/AXELOS for PRINCE2®, MSP®, MoP®, Change Management, Managing Benefits and P3O®. Ramani is also an accredited consultant with AXELOS for Portfolio, Programme and Project Management Maturity Model (P3M3®) – amongst the very few globally. He is also a Kaplan Norton Balanced Scorecard Certified graduate.

Mr. Ramani is the author of Improving Business Performance: A Project Portfolio Management Approach published by Auerbach / CRC Press in 2016.



Changing for the better?


Advances in Project Management

Living with the inherent paradox of change

By Prof Darren Dalcher
Director, National Centre for Project Management
University of Hertfordshire

United Kingdom

Humans have a fascinating, albeit paradoxical, relationship with change.

Many of us desire improvement, growth and development. Queue the stream of New Year resolutions, which infer dissatisfaction with the status quo and a commitment and promise to self-improve, change, alter some aspect of life, or develop a quality, attribute or capability, ultimately translating into better jobs, relationships, health, education, income, benefits, or simply a richer or better life. The resolutions imply recognition of inadequacies, or perceived underachievement, and a dedicated commitment to overcome or improve such shortcomings, at a convenient landmark, such as the upcoming New Year. Such resolutions are entertaining to make, following reflection on past performance, but often prove hard to keep and maintain beyond the initial burst of enthusiasm. The attitude is aptly embodied by Oprah Winfrey’s acknowledgement: ‘cheers to a new year and another chance for us to get it right’.

But there is also the other side of change: When a potential change is about to be imposed, the afflicted change consumers appear to resist any attempt to alter existing conditions, often fighting, blocking and undermining the imposition of new circumstances, regardless of the potential value or improvement on offer. Indeed, English novelist and essayist Mary Shelley (1797-1851) noted that ‘Nothing is so painful to the human mind as a great and sudden change, whilst US president, Woodrow Wilson quipped that ‘if you want to make enemies, try to change something’.

It would thus appear that change has the potential to invoke promises informed by clear illustration of benefits emerging from a great desire to improve. However, change can also engender strong feelings, resistance and protests against the intention to implement new measures.

Reconciling change

Psychologists and psychiatrists have also been fascinated with the concept of facilitating and introducing change. A long-standing debate tries to determine if individuals remain relatively constant over their lifetime, displaying a tendency for stability. The alternative view implies a degree of malleability and psychological plasticity allowing for change through adjustments. In this view culture, events, experiences and conscious decisions can play a part in effecting a change in people.

One of the fascinating perspectives comes from the tradition of Gestalt Therapy and has resulted in the development of the paradoxical theory of change. The basic concept is associated with the thinking of psychiatrist Fredrick Perls, implemented throughout the life and work of his disciple, Arnold Beisser.

Beisser was an extremely talented tennis player (ranked 17th in the world) and qualified MD when he was struck down by polio at the age of 25, a mere months before the polio vaccine became widely available. Suddenly, the active young man found himself plugged into a negative pressure ventilator (iron lung) enabling him to breathe after losing normal muscle control. The change was particularly hard as he found himself, in his own words, ‘transformed from doctor into patient and from champion into cripple’.

Despite his paralysis, Beisser was able to re-build his life and become a leading psychotherapist who influenced the lives of a multitude of patients including many athletes and sports personalities. Beisser developed an influential theory of psychological, mental and emotional change by analysing his own journey to function despite his sudden and life changing disability, allowing him to practice and formulate the principles of the paradoxical theory of change.

“Briefly stated, it is this: that change occurs when one becomes what he is, not when he tries to become what he is not. Change does not take place through a coercive attempt by the individual or by another person to change him, but it does take place if one takes the time and effort to be what he is — to be fully invested in his current positions.”     − Arnold Beisser

Stated simply, change begins when one ceases trying to be what they are not, and begins instead to be what they are.

Beisser himself took time to accept the change in his circumstances. Entering the rest of his life in a wheelchair first meant recognising that things were different. The great insight is that the purpose of the therapy, intervention, or reflection is to allow the subject to be.

With that in mind, sessions can be dedicated to becoming comfortable with being. When the subject is comfortable with their state of being, there are obvious changes and adjustments that can take place, as the surrounding environment around them continues to change. In order to remain true to themselves, they can continue to change in response to external changes to the world and other people and systems around them, thereby reflecting the dynamic transaction between the self and the environment.

Psychiatrists have since expanded their scope of interest beyond the individual self to encompass social change, and the wider need to reflect the interaction with shifting society, moving and transforming at an even faster pace.

Paradoxically, the implication to practice is that while changing may be the motivation for an inquiry into current conditions, one does not change by trying to change. Instead one changes (gradually) by being; as change only follows not changing.


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Editor’s note: The PMWJ Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Gower and other publishers in the Routledge family. Each month an introduction to the current article is provided by series editor Prof Darren Dalcher, who is also the editor of the Gower/Routledge Advances in Project Management series of books on new and emerging concepts in PM. Prof Dalcher’s article is an introduction to the invited paper this month in the PMWJ.



About the Author

Darren Dalcher, PhD

Series Editor
Director, National Centre for Project Management
University of Hertfordshire, UK

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Darren Dalcher
, Ph.D. HonFAPM, FRSA, FBCS, CITP, FCMI, SFHEA is Professor of Project Management at the University of Hertfordshire, and founder and Director of the National Centre for Project Management (NCPM) in the UK. He has been named by the Association for Project Management (APM) as one of the top 10 “movers and shapers” in project management in 2008 and was voted Project Magazine’s “Academic of the Year” for his contribution in “integrating and weaving academic work with practice”. Following industrial and consultancy experience in managing IT projects, Professor Dalcher gained his PhD in Software Engineering from King’s College, University of London.

Professor Dalcher has written over 150 papers and book chapters on project management and software engineering. He is Editor-in-Chief of Software Process Improvement and Practice, an international journal focusing on capability, maturity, growth and improvement. He is the editor of the book series, Advances in Project Management, published by Gower Publishing of a new companion series Fundamentals of Project Management. Heavily involved in a variety of research projects and subjects, Professor Dalcher has built a reputation as leader and innovator in the areas of practice-based education and reflection in project management. He works with many major industrial and commercial organisations and government bodies in the UK and beyond.

Darren is an Honorary Fellow of the APM, a Chartered Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute, and the Royal Society of Arts, and a Member of the Project Management Institute (PMI), the Academy of Management, the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the Association for Computing Machinery. He is a Chartered IT Practitioner. He is a Member of the PMI Advisory Board responsible for the prestigious David I. Cleland project management award and of the APM Professional Development Board. Prof Dalcher is an academic advisor for the PM World Journal. He can be contacted at [email protected]

To see other works by Prof Darren Dalcher, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darren-dalcher/.