Flood – Turning Disaster to Market


By Md. Moshfaqur Rahman



Losing crops is very common with food and other things in a natural disaster. This age, we are all facing this; so why not use the disaster as option. I choose flood to turn it to option. Flood supports surface recharge with vegetation and many other factors. If we coordinate this with management then it becomes valuable. There are two types of flood, regular and flash flood. My test scenario will be Bangladesh, because of the geophysical position – introduce with other tech & solutions. Also if any foundations and research groups want to work, my platform can help.

Key Words: Flood, management, tech solution and turning to option


Flood is a common hydrological event with lots of aspects, so narrowing it to just a disaster is not the way we should look. Recent flood events in England and USA, 2015 are for controlling the river with structural solutions; that invites real estate & other investment next to river overflows with disaster-flood. We need to use river bank because of overcrowded people in this globe. Bangladesh here is over populated; land needs to be reserved for agriculture, but often can’t due to urbanization, erosion and dryness. Representation of modern world; here we create but embrace vulnerability.

Now think to use flood as a market a try to become less vulnerable with option from market system; a system we all inhabit and rely on. Flood disaster management is just a response based approach – so people suffer more. Also NGOs format is for a rapid touch with relief products. But can’t support in long term; meanwhile those people have skills but never get market access to sell it. This dynamics hurts too those economies, even richest ones fall down.

Meanwhile floods can be forecast globally with remote sensing products from NASA.gov; there is lots of potential free to access sources. This is a tech solution; yet not introduced. Here many options will enhance for tech solution that big investors can work. This will be a living with environment and use it on purpose. It will create a market; then a disaster turns into a market.

Flash and regular Flood                           

Hydrologically they both have similarity and dissimilarity; most of those are very much classic academic debate. Can say eggs and chickens for our purpose; my interest is getting chicken fried and egg omelet. The tech solution is fading for academic debate – this needs to be put in place and market tested. This way further academic debate can be avoided; in market academicians don’t work, nor do NGOs and Humanitarian organs. This keeps opening the market for applied science products & solutions.

There are many applied science products like remote sensing, applied seismology and many others that can be introduced. Also the third world is not a proper user of agrometric products; there is a backlash there. These regions remain poor for not using these products. Also rich countries have no option but to donate, another hamper for own economy. Market centric attitudes can overcome this.


To read entire article, click here


About the Author

Moshfaqur Rahman





Md. Moshfaqur Rahman, from Bangladesh, has interest in corporate, government & emerging technologies. He has Bachelor & Masters degrees in Social Sciences – major Political Science – and is a regular writer on public policy. He is owner of Freelance Researcher in Social Sciences, a small company enlisted to the American Geophysics Union and United Nations. Working to create market for applied science products in third world. Arunima Appt. F#C3, 36/7/B, Shahalibag (Dhankhetermor), Mirpur-1, Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh. Email: [email protected]; mob: +8801817622273.Public profileat http://bd.linkedin.com/pub/moshfaqur-rahman/31/70a/877


Welcome to the April 2016 Edition of the PM World Journal

David Pells

Managing Editor

Addison, Texas, USA

Welcome to the April 2016 edition of the PM World Journal (PMWJ). This 45th edition of the Journal contains 24 original articles, papers, reports and book reviews by 29 different authors in 13 different countries. News articles about projects and project management around the world are also included. We think the international content of the PMWJ sets it apart; we hope you agree. Since the primary mission of the journal is to support the global sharing of knowledge, please share this month’s edition with others in your network, wherever they may be.

What in the world is going on?

In an effort to add some context to this month’s edition, I want to reflect for a few moments on some of the big issues facing the world, some big trends and situations in some important places. Here in the United States, we are in the midst of another presidential campaign; what does that mean if anything to professional project management? Maybe nothing in the USA, but the outcome could affect many industries, especially those involving international trade, global business, virtual teams and supply chains. Whether you favor free trade or not, your program or organization may be affected by the outcome of the US presidential elections. As I pointed out in my 1998 “Global Tides of Change” paper, significant political changes can affect programs, projects and organizations. Be prepared!

In Asia, the big news includes the slowing of the Chinese economy, the North Korean nuclear threat and political changes in Myanmar, among other places. The impact of the slowing economy in China has now led the IMF to predict economic headwinds worldwide this year. We will all feel the impact. But economics and politics are often intertwined, as they are related to North Korea. Sanctions against the North will lead to famine again on the Korean Peninsula, probably leading to more aggression by the North Korean leadership. This in turn will lead to more defensive moves by both South Korea and Japan, with serious regional implications. A military buildup is underway now in and around the South China Sea. What are the implications for the economies, projects and organizations in Southeast Asia, and for organizations doing business there?

India’s economy continues to grow, leading the BRIC countries. But India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and other countries in the region seem to be in political turmoil. This in turn leads to serious international security concerns. Again, economies, politics and social trends are intertwined. Do you know how your stakeholders (customers, employees, suppliers, team members) in the region are being affected?

The Middle East and North Africa remain volatile, with extremism seemingly entrenched, natural resource markets depressed, and political instability growing again. While ISIS remains a major problem, regional geopolitical instability and competition will remain long term issues with serious global implications. What should those countries, and the rest of the world, do about the combination of population growth, unemployment, economic disparities, social unrest and political uncertainty?

Europe seems to be coming apart at the seams. The recent refugee crisis and terrorist attacks are leading to a reversal of some of the unifying elements of the European Union and Eurozone. German economic growth has slowed and European financial markets are down this week. In Britain, the looming “Brexit” vote in June could further destabilize the continent (and a possible “Grexit” is in the news again this week). The economic impact on the UK is debatable, but the political ramifications seem clear. Britain’s relations with the rest of the world will be changed if the UK leaves the EU. How will this affect programs, projects and organizations?

Africa is a mix, with pockets of corruption, violence and political instability. But many countries have growing economies and political stability. The African Development Bank is having a positive impact, the way forward for Nigeria and other large countries is becoming more clear, and professional project management organizations are visibly growing. This is great news! This month’s edition of the journal contains four good papers from Nigeria and Kenya reflecting these trends.

The best news in my opinion is related to Latin America. Political crises in Brazil notwithstanding, positive changes are underway in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Cuba, Paraguay, Peru and elsewhere. I could argue that when the Petrobras scandal is finally resolved in Brazil, that country will emerge stronger politically and economically. I certainly hope so. I also think that the increased visibility of corruption in more countries is a good thing, providing an opportunity for good governance, political stability and economic growth to emerge. More of those trends will have a positive impact on programs and projects everywhere, even here in the US of A.

Now off my soap box and on to this month’s journal, where authors often address the challenges of managing projects in the dynamic environments and conditions mentioned above. (I apologize to our readers in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Ukraine and other countries not mentioned above, but just no more time this month.)

This month in the Journal

Seven Featured Papers are again included this month on a variety of interesting topics. Paul Pelletier in Canada is back with a deeper treatment of bullying in the workplace and how it affects project management. Prof Debashish Sengupta in India has authored an interesting research paper on the happiness of younger generations, with young project managers in mind. Allan Michael in Kenya, professors Kevn Okolie, Victor Okorie and Felix Ikekpeazu in Nigeria, and Nigerian Dr O. Chima Okereke in UK all discuss important topics affecting their countries. Bob Prieto in the USA takes on “assumption infatuation in large complex projects” in his paper, while Moshfaqur Rahman tries to change our perspective on natural disasters in Bangladesh. Read featured papers; they are seriously authored works that contribute to the body of knowledge in the P/PM field.


To read entire paper, click here



About the Author


Managing Editor, PMWJ

Managing Director, PMWL



David L. Pells is Managing Editor of the PM World Journal, a global eJournal for program and project management, and Executive Director of the PM World Library. He has been an active professional leader in the United States since the 1980s, serving on the board of directors of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) twice. He was founder and chair of the Global Project Management Forum (1995-2000), an annual meeting of leaders of PM associations from around the world. David was awarded PMI’s Person of the Year award in 1998 and Fellow Award, PMI’s highest honor, in 1999. He is also an Honorary Fellow of the Association for Project Management (APM) in the UK; Project Management Associates (PMA – India); and Russian Project Management Association SOVNET. From June 2006 until March 2012, he was the managing editor of the globally acclaimed PM World Today eJournal.

David has more than 35 years of project management related experience on a variety of programs and projects, including engineering, construction, defense, energy, transit, high technology and nuclear security, and project sizes ranging from several thousand to ten billion dollars. His experience has been in both government and private sectors. He occasionally provides high level advisory support for major programs and global organizations. David has published widely, spoken at conferences and events worldwide, and can be contacted at [email protected].

To view other works by David Pells, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/david-l-pells/.



Evaluation of Project Failure Causes in a Community Based Organization (CBO): A case study of Pakistan


By Arif ud din

Abdul Wali Khan University



The purpose of this research study was to examine the main causes of the project failure in a Community Based Organization (CBO) operating in Khyber Pahtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. The current research identified and ranked significant reasons for the project failure. The results explain that the identified 25 Project failure causes are contributing to the project failure few were the more significant contributor and other were less.   The research data was collected from the employees and board of directors of the organization. A research study was conducted in one of a development organization (CBO) working with communities in disaster-prone areas in (KPK), Pakistan. The top five highest ranked project failure reasons were poor planning, poor project designing, lack of concrete support and commitment from upper management, poor project management, and dysfunctional decision- making process respectively.

Keywords: Project failure, CBO, Employees, Organization,


Community Based Organizations (CBOs) considered as voluntary organizations or grassroots level organizations, commonly unregistered and consists of local informal people get the financial resources mainly from members or NGOs. CBOs also received funding from the state   directly when the intermediary is available and start communication (Otiso, 2000). In Pakistan mostly CBOs or grassroots level organizations registered and usually received financial resources from the state, members and international donors through NGOs and some CBOs have the capacity to initiate direct donor funding without an intermediary.

CBOs operate through community-centered approach and development process occurs as community participation, readiness of micro-finance, community health project and improvement of infrastructure. CBOs consider as not for profit organizations operating on a local and national level for the welfare of community development (Clark, 1999).

CBOs positively impact the lives of rural community i.e increases in income, reproductive and health improvement, involve in activities of disaster risk reduction, quality education and increasing literacy rate. CBOs play a role of a bridge between citizens and the government and or more concern or responsive than any other agencies.

According to Karanja (1996)   CBOs meet target people needs and considering as a key target group for executing development projects at the grass root. CBOs do not only involve in poverty alleviation but also playing a key role in empowering local communities.

According to Hekala (2012)   64% donor funded projects fail a recent McKinsey- Devex survey put forward and findings showed that the two major reasons of project failure were poor project planning and lack of managerial skills.   More than 50% of World Bank many projects fail, according to U.S. Meltzer Commission report (2000). Dvir et al (2003) found that lack of planning will probably guarantee failure, but it does not assure success.

According to one study conducted on 97 failure projects the managerial controllable cause involved in project failure (Pinto J.K e tal 1990).

Current research study finds out the main causes/reason behind the project failure in community based organization. A Research study was required because the CBO projects fully or partially failed instead of huge funding and with all necessary resources required for operation. However, major problem CBO faced included not timely completion of projects, planned activities were not achieved accordingly, set quality standard was not achieved, and the community was unsatisfied with project deliverables.


To read entire article, click here



About the Author

Arif ud Din

Charsadda, Pakistan




Arif ud Din is currently Program Coordinator for UYWO- Action Aid in Charsadda, Pakistan. During his career he has also been project coordinator for Action Aid Pakistan, Charsadda; project officer for CRDO- Care International, Pakistan; project officer and deputy team leader for Church World Service USA Pakistan/Afghanistan, Mansehra, KPK. Arif ud Din holds a MS/Phil in Project Management from COMSATS University. He also has a Master in Business Administration (MBA) degree with specialization in Management from Virtual University of Pakistan, a Master of Science degree in Chemistry from Hazara University Mansehra, and a Bachelor of Education (B.E.D) degree from Peshawar University, Pakistan. Arif can be contacted at [email protected]

Driven by Difference: How Great Companies Fuel Innovation Through Diversity


pmwj45-Apr2016-Lin-BOOKBook Title: Driven by Difference: How Great Companies Fuel Innovation Through Diversity
Author: David Livermore, Ph.D.
Publisher: AMACOM
List Price:   $27.95 USD   
Format: Hardcover
Publication Date:   February 17, 2016    
ISBN: 0814436536
Reviewer:     Mei Lin        
Review Date: 02/2016




Should you read this book? Perhaps you already see yourself as open-minded to other cultures. You like sushi. You share stories about your children with your Indian coworker. You watch Chinese films with English subtitles. You are culturally sensitive. Case closed, right?

Wrong! This is not a book about sensitivity. This book is about the next step: capitalizing on diversity to drive innovation.

The book’s author, David Livermore, is indisputably an expert cultural intelligence and a pioneer in cultural strategy. He is President of the Cultural Intelligence Center and has trained leaders in over 100 countries on culture in the workplace.

His book can be summarized by this simple but powerful equation: “Diversity x Cultural Intelligence = Innovation.”(p. 2)

Overview of Book’s Structure

Chapter 1 is the sales pitch, defining what you will get from culturally intelligent innovation: Drive, Knowledge, Strategy, and Action. From there, the book is divided into two major sections.

In the first, David describes the five building blocks for an innovative environment: Attention, Perspective, Focus, Space, and Trust.

In the second section, he uses stories to illustrate his 5D process: Define, Dream, Decide, Design, and Deliver.


David notes that “Diversity by itself does not lead to better innovation.”(p. 19) Cultural Intelligence (CQ) is the multiplying force in a highly diverse workplace that drives greater results and innovative solutions.

Four Cultural Intelligence Capabilities (p. 20 and 21) are identified:


To read entire Book Review, click here



About the Reviewer

Mei Lin, MBA, PMP

Taipei, Taiwan and Texas, USA


Taiwan - small flag


Mei Lin
received dual B.A. degrees in Law and in Social Work from National Taipei University and received her Master of Business Administration from Texas A&M University – Commerce. She has PMP certification from Project Management Institute where she volunteers in the Dallas chapter. She has spent that last 10 years coordinating projects in small and startup businesses as well as large not-for-profit organizations.

She is an active member of Toastmasters International where she is an Area Director, supporting the education of 5 clubs and over 90 members. She is a member of the Demo Team, bringing communication and leadership skills to more than dozen new businesses/ communities. She has helped organize two District Conferences and several contests at the club, area, and division level. She has delivered more than 40 prepared speeches.

Mei is enthusiastic about the intersection of project management, team building, marketing, and technology.

Email address: [email protected]


Editor’s note: This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Dallas Chapter. Authors and publishers provide the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Dallas Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library. PMI Dallas Chapter members can keep the books as well as claim PDUs for PMP recertification when their reviews are published. Chapter members are generally mid-career professionals, the audience for most project management books.

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact [email protected].



Building Successful Information Systems


pmwj45-Apr2016-Dodd-BOOKBook Title: Building Successful Information Systems: Five Best Practices to Ensure Organizational Effectiveness and Profitability
Author: Michael Savoie
Publisher: https://pmworldjournal.net/article/report-from-zapresic-croatia/                 
List Price:   $59.95           
Format: Soft Cover ; 90 pages
Publication Date:   2012    
ISBN: 978-1-60649-425-7
Reviewer: Douglas Dodd, Jr, PMP       
Review Date: March 2016




This book tackles the all-too familiar subject of Information Technology in yet another attempt to steer individuals in decision-making capacities (CIOs, CEOs, CSOs, Consultants, etc. – affectionately called the “C-Suite”) to make better choices when evaluating and ultimately building effective information systems.

Overview of Book’s Structure

The book has an abstract, key words section immediately following, the table of contents and a succinct glossary. Being in a modern writing style, the abstract reminds one more of a term or white paper, but is very engaging and an accurate description of the subject addressed.

This is needed, as the casual observer, especially in the project management realm, may assume a discussion on project management information systems and strategies rather than a technology-based information system.

The Key Words section provided 20 words the reader will see throughout the material and is a good reference for “what’s coming”, allowing a quick brush-up on the terminology to aid when consuming the information.

The remaining Contents and Glossary sections adhere to the more traditional aspects of published reference documents.


This book successfully focuses on what the correct end result should be for a successful information system implementation (The “Five R’s”):

  • The right data
  • In the right place
  • At the right time
  • To the right person
  • In the right format

Savoie thoroughly, but simplistically addresses each component through examples, real-life issues and their respective outcomes as well as understandable illustrations and tables to aid the readers’ understanding of the topic.


To read entire Book Review, click here



About the Reviewer


Douglas Dodd, Jr

Texas, USA




Douglas Dodd, Jr, MBA, PMP, OCA, Oracle 11g DBA, Network+, Security+, is a member of the PMI Dallas Chapter and has been involved in project management at multiple levels over the last decade, as a stakeholder, team-member or project manager. He has 20+ years of experience as a Business Analyst, Finance Manager, Financial Information Systems Manager and Business Software Solutions Analyst. He currently works as a consultant in Higher Education at Columbia Advisory Group in Dallas, TX, supporting the Commerce, TX branch of the Texas A&M University system. He is also on the Adjunct staff of Dallas Baptist University in Dallas TX. He currently resides in Wylie, TX with his wife Ava and son Brandon. Douglas can be contacted at [email protected]


Editor’s note: This book review was the result of a partnership between the publisher, PM World and the PMI Dallas Chapter. Authors and publishers provide the books to PM World; books are delivered to the PMI Dallas Chapter, where they are offered free to PMI members to review; book reviews are published in the PM World Journal and PM World Library. PMI Dallas Chapter members can keep the books as well as claim PDUs for PMP recertification when their reviews are published. Chapter members are generally mid-career professionals, the audience for most project management books.

If you are an author or publisher of a project management-related book, and would like the book reviewed through this program, please contact [email protected]



Project Management in Spain – monthly report


PMI Madrid Chapter General Assembly and BOD Elections; Instability and lack of political leadership affects projects in Spain

By Alfonso Bucero

International Correspondent & Editorial Advisor

Madrid, Spain

PMI Madrid Chapter General Assembly and BOD Elections

On March 31st, 2016 was celebrated the PMI Madrid Chapter General Assembly and BOD Elections. Madrid. From its creation, on 2003, the PMI Madrid Chapter has counted on four Chapter presidents (José Antonio Puentes, Alfonso Bucero, Julio Carazo and Francisco Javier Rodriguez).





Francisco Javier Rodriguez         Claudia Alcelay

This year and at the same moment that the Annual Congress happened, some BOD roles were renewed, president and vice president, Claudia Alcelay and Oscar Úbeda were elected as president and vice president respectively. That is a real challenge for Claudia Alcelay due to the continuous growth that this Chapter has lived over the years since 2003. All Board of Directors have achieved the profession to have a forum where to share, expose and discuss the daily proyect management news. From here we can welcome the new president and congratulations to Francisco Javier Rodriguez because his contribution to the profession during these years. Thank you and your his team.

Thanks a lot Jesús Vazquez because of his unconditional Support during all monthly meetings over these years. This service offered to the membership has allowed this Chapter to maintain their passion, persistence and patience during these years. Congratulations to the Board of Directors because their Management results on 2015 and my best wishes and welcome for the new BOD elected on March 31st, 2016. We must remind once more time that this year we have an appointment in Barcelona on May (PMI EMEA Global Congress 2016 and PMI Seminars World).

The event program have already been announced on the Chapter website. If you need more information you may access to: (http://www.pmi-mad.org/).


To read entire report, click here for (English) or (Spanish)



About the Author

Alfonso Bucero

Contributing Editor

International Correspondent – Spain



Alfonso Bucero, MSc, PMP, PMI-RMP, PfMP, PMI Fellow, is an International Correspondent and Contributing Editor for the PM World Journal in Madrid, Spain. Mr. Bucero is also founder and Managing Partner of BUCERO PM Consulting. Alfonso was the founder, sponsor and president of the PMI Barcelona Chapter until April 2005, and belongs to PMI’s LIAG (Leadership Institute Advisory Group). He was the past President of the PMI Madrid Spain Chapter, and now nominated as a PMI EMEA Region 8 Component Mentor. Alfonso has a Computer Science Engineering degree from Universidad Politécnica in Madrid and is studying for his Ph.D. in Project Management. He has 29 years of practical experience and is actively engaged in advancing the PM profession in Spain and throughout Europe. He received the PMI Distinguished Contribution Award on October 9th, 2010 and the PMI Fellow Award on October 22nd 2011. Mr. Bucero can be contacted at [email protected].

To see other works by Alfonso Bucero, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/alfonso-bucero/



Report from Zaprešić, Croatia


Report on Award Ceremony of IPMA Certificates for the Students of Project Management at the University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zaprešić

By Zlatko Barilović, Igor Vrečko and Petra Krčelić

University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zaprešić

Zaprešić, Croatia

The University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zaprešić (http://www.bak.hr/) held an award ceremony of International Project Management Association (IPMA) certificates for the students of specialist professional graduate study programme of Project Management on Saturday 5 March 2016 in its premises in Zagreb. Thirty-seven new students officially received their international certificates, and some joint projects between the University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zaprešić / Baltazar Alumni Club and the Croatian Association for Project Management (CAPM) / Young Crew Croatia were represented.

The award ceremony was hosted by Ph. D. Milan Jurina, prof., the Vice Dean of UAS Baltazar, together with Zlatko Barilović, univ.spec.oec., a senior lecturer and the Deputy Head of Specialist Graduate Programme of Project Management and prof. Ph.D. Vladimir Skendrović, the Vice President of CAPM.


Picture 1. Opening of the award ceremony of IPMA certificates and presenting the results of cooperation between UAS Baltazar Zaprešić/ Baltazar Alumni Club and the Croatian Association for Project Management/ Young Crew Croatia

So far around 750 persons have gained IPMA international certificates for project managers in the Republic of Croatia, out of whom 439 persons were certified for IPMA level D. The students of Project Management at UAS Baltazar, with 205 certificates, make almost 50% of the total number of certified persons in the Republic of Croatia at level D. Today approximately 250,000 persons worldwide have gained certificates corresponding to IPMA Four Level certification program (http://www.ipma.world/certification/). Certification of students of Project Management is carried out in cooperation with the Croatian Association for Project Management (http://capm.hr/), with which UAS Baltazar has been collaborating since 2010. Croatian Association for Project Management is one of 62 national members of IPMA, and operates in Croatia.

In addition to certification, previous cooperation of UAS Baltazar with CAPM bore a number of other joint projects. Some of the most important ones are organizing scientific and professional conferences related to management and project management topics, held in 2011 and 2014 in Zagreb and co-organizing the 27th IPMA World Congress in Dubrovnik in 2013. Also, we can single out particular projects in which students of Project Management participate during their studies, managed by an organization of young project managers, called Young Crew Croatia (http://capm.hr/young-crew/) which operates within CAPM.


To read entire report, click here



About the Authors


Zlatko Barilović
, univ. spec. oec., Senior Lecturer, CPM

University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zaprešić
Zaprešić, Croatia



Zlatko Barilović
was born in 1984 in Zagreb. He holds a graduate specialist degree (MA) in Marketing from the Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia. Prior to that he graduated from the Specialist Graduate Professional Study of Project Management at the University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zaprešić, Croatia, which was a continuation of his undergraduate studies in Business and Management (major Cultural Management). Currently he is attending a doctoral study in Management at the Faculty of Economics in Osijek, Croatia. He is a member of International Project Management Association (IPMA) and a member of the Presidential Board of the Croatian Association for Project Management (CAPM). He is the Deputy Head of Project Management programme at UAS Baltazar Zaprešić and teaches Project Management 1 and 2, and Planning and starting the project – practicum. He has written over 25 scientific and professional papers, and has lead several projects for UAS Baltazar Zaprešić. He is the author of one and editor of four project management books. Zlatko Barilović can be contacted at [email protected]


Igor Vrečko, PhD
, Assistant Professor, CSPM

University of Maribor, Faculty of Economics and Business, Maribor, Slovenia and University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zaprešić, Croatia



Igor Vrečko
, 1975, Slovenian, holds a Ph. D. in Economic and Business. He is an Assistant Professor of Business Management at the University of Maribor – Faculty of Economics and Business. His research focuses primarily on project management and integration of project management with strategic crisis management as well as innovation management. He has a wide practical experience gained through consultancy projects in many domestic and foreign companies. He has performed numerous invited lectures and managed workshops in different organizations. Till recently he has been a long time director of IPMA certification process for Slovenia; he is the president of Slovenian Project Management Association, an official assessor of national profession qualification project manager, an assessor of research and developing projects under the Public Agency of Republic of Slovenia for entrepreneurship and foreign investments and an assessor in national commission for innovations. He is the Head of Project Management programme at UAS Baltazar Zaprešić. Igor Vrečko can be contacted at [email protected]


pmwj45-Apr2016-Barilovic-KRCELICPetra Krčelić, mag. philol. angl and mag. educ. philol. ital, teaching assistant

University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zaprešić
Zaprešić, Croatia



Petra Krčelić,
mag. philol. angl and mag. educ. philol. ital, teaching assistant, was born in 1987 in Zagreb, Croatia. She graduated from the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb in 2012 in English and Italian Language and Literature. She worked in several primary schools. She has been teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) at the University of Applied Sciences Baltazar Zaprešić since 2014. Areas of interest: interdisciplinary and experimental approaches to teaching ESP, education, new technologies. She has written several professional papers related to new approaches to teaching and using technology in teaching processes. Petra Krčelić can be contacted at [email protected].



Project Management Report from Istanbul


Interviews with PMI Turkey Chapter President Ismail Kurtoglu, IPYD President Behice Torun and UPYE Founder & Board Member Levent Sumer

By İpek Sahra Özgüler

Istanbul, Turkey












  • Welcome to Mr. Kurtoğlu. As a new president of PMI TR, could you introduce yourself for PM World Journal readers please?

I am an enthusiastic engineer with about 30 years’ experience. I knew that I was going to be an engineer when I was in primary school. I have started my university study at Middle East Technical University in 1982. During fourth class I started to work in ASELSAN which is still the major defense company in Turkey. In 30 years of Professional experience I have worked in several companies and I have been involved in research and development projects mainly. From 2000 till 2004 I have been in Stockholm, beautiful city, working for several companies connected to Ericsson, that duration of my life, is very important for me because the experience working in Marconi/Chelmsford taught me a lot about working in multi-cultural international organizations.

During my professional life, I have not given up to study in academics. After graduation, I have done Master of Science study and started to PhD at the same university. After some break I have restarted to my PhD study at Black Sea Technical University and I am still continuing as PhD candidate.

  • How did you get involved with PMI TR?

I have been involved with projects since the date I have started to work in ASELSAN in1986. I have been in one of R&D projects team. After gaining some experience as project engineer I have promoted to Project manager and military projects program manager. I remember when I first met with MS project Office and doing GANTT Charts at around nineties.

During my time in Ericsson Ecosystem, I experienced the modern project management tools and techniques. After my return to Turkey, I have investigated Project Management World and discover PMI and PMP certification and decided to get it. I got my PMP certification in 2009. While I was filling up the member details in PMI.org I have seen the “The Potential Turkish Chapter” and became a member of it also. It is a small world, when I tried to contact to Turkish Chapter, I saw that the president, Tolga OZEL, a person that I already know. Tolga convinced me there are a lot to do in Turkey to increase modern PM knowledge, experience, value, and I start volunteering for PMI Turkish chapter. My first big responsibility was to be PM for PM Summit: Defense at Ankara, capital of Turkey, in 2011. That was the first major event of PMI Turkish chapter in the heart of government city. The event was a big success, more than 500 PM practitioners attended the conference, with the support of Undersecretariat of Defense, it was a really big success for PMI TR chapter. After that I have worked as Director for two years for PMI TR chapter. My volunteering has been continuing since, as Vice president for two terms (4 years). I have been elected by the board as President Elect last year. And now for 2016, I have been honored to lead the magnificent PMI Turkey team as President PMI TR Chapter.


To read entire report, click here


About the Author

İpek Sahra Özgüler

Istanbul, Turkey


İpek Sahra Özgüler
graduated from the Istanbul University with the Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Engineering and from Middle East Technical University with an MSc degree in Software Management. She became a certified PMP in January, 2012 and a certified SCRUM Master in 2014. She works as international correspondent at PMWJ. Before joining PMWJ, she worked for global multinational companies and leading local companies such as Coca Cola, Deloitte, Turkcell Superonline,Havelsan and TAV IT. Over the years, she has gained extensive experience in managing various medium and large scale projects, programs and portfolios.

Her article named “When I Decided to Develop Multi Processing Project Manager’s System” was published in the book “A Day in the Life of a Project Manager”. She has published several articles in the PM World Journal and one in PMI’s PM Network magazine. Ipek is actively involved in sailing, writing and discovering new cultures. She can be contacted at [email protected].

Project Management Report from Nigeria


Nigeria gets its first Youth Welfare Support System; IPMA Nigeria – PMAD conducts its third IPMA Certification Round

By Bosah Ugolo

International Correspondent

Lagos, Nigeria


The Nigerian Students and Youth Corps (NS&YC) Discount Card initiative was launched on the 21st of March, 2016 by the Speaker of Nigeria’s House of Representatives and the Director-General of the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC).


The Nigerian Students and Youth Corps (NS&YC) Discount Card is a card system that entitles all enrolled Nigerian students and national youth corps to access discounts on the prices of products and services across Nigeria.

The aim of the NS&YC Discount Card is to initiate a Systemic Institutional Support Platform as a Social Safety Net to help alleviate these current challenges and improve the living conditions of Nigerian Students and NYSC members.


Members of the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC), National Association of Nigerian Students (NANS), National Association of Polytechnic Students (NAPS) and the National Association of Colleges of Education Students (NACES) were all in attendance and they earlier endorsed the initiative believing strongly that the initiative will affect their lives in a positive way.


To read entire report, click here



About the Author

Bosah Ugolo

Lagos, Nigeria




Bosah Ugolo is an experienced project management professional involved in a few corporate organizations in Nigeria and west and central Africa. He serves as senior management executive and special adviser on projects, operations, systems and strategy. As project director, Bosah has worked on several projects cutting across different sectors including science, technology, engineering and management. Bosah has equally worked as a business developer, analyst, research specialist and management consultant.

Bosah has worked with several government institutions, multilateral research, finance and development organizations. He is co-founder of PMDAN with other reputable individuals and is currently director of communications and chairman, awards board. PMDAN is the national member association of the International Project Management Association (IPMA).

Bosah Ugolo can be contacted at [email protected]



Development Projects and (Re) Election of County Government Leaders in Kenya


By Isaac Odhiambo Abuya

Homa Bay, Kenya

For the first time in Kenya’s political history, development projects will play a critical role in the re-election bids of the incumbent governors and members of the county assemblies (MCAs) in 2017, and in subsequent county elections. In no other epoch in the history of Kenya have development projects taken center stage in the politics of this country. Following the promulgation of the new constitution and the establishment of county governments, expectations of Kenyans have been raised, with millions seeing development projects delivered by county government as their only saviour from the stinking trenches of historically skewed development, and the rot in public service.

Consequently, Kenyans everywhere more than ever before, expect their county governments to design and implement high impact development projects that have the capacity to make a real difference in their lives, since development projects have become the principal means through which public services are being delivered in the counties. As a result, county governments must design and implement projects that not only make a difference in the lives of their county residents, but must execute development projects and interventions that deliver public value.

Whereas in the ‘80s and ‘90s development projects were perceived as favours from political godfathers, the spirit of devolution has so excitingly infected the nation to the extent that Kenyans now see development projects as a right. The dark days of developmental tokenism and political favours are fading away pretty fast, and county leaders who still operate under the historical hangovers of development tokenism and favours are writing their political epitaphs. Kenyans irrespective of their levels of education, have become increasing aware that development projects are not favours brought to them by some benevolent county leaders, but are their constitutional rights.

The decentralization of development financing to county governments has also changed the traditional discourse around development projects as ‘ things’ brought by benevolent leaders to the people, but as cardinal responsibility of any sane county government. Interestingly, citizens in the forty seven counties are getting more critically aware of how much their devolved governments spend on recurrent and on development. While the majority of Kenyans are sympathetic to the growing wage bill, they have become more concerned about the allocations given to development projects. Development projects have thus come to occupy a critical place in the psyche of county residents all over the country. I suppose this is one of the reasons why the Office of the Controller of Budget (OCOB) provides quarterly reports on how county governments spend on both recurrent and development expenditures, with the hope that citizens will use these reports to hold their county governments accountable.

The salience and prominence of development projects in the political psyche of county governments is visible in the forums organized by county governments. For instance, at each devolution conference, counties compete in showcasing their development projects through the use of high technology including the use of digital maps, videos, and other ‘digital’ means to inform and educate the public about the development projects they have implemented. The political marketing of development in these forums are replicated at the county levels. A number of county governments have deployed the use of high technology in strategic locations within the counties, to showcase their development projects. At community events, including funerals, county leaders extol the projects that they have ‘brought’ to their county citizens. The politicization of development projects has taken a new dimension in Kenya’s political economy, especially in Kenya’s forty seven counties.


To read entire article, click here



About the Author

Isaac Ohiambo Abuya

Homa Bay County, Kenya



Isaac Odhiambo Abuya has over 10 years’ experience in designing, planning and implementing high impact development projects in Kenya. Before joining Kenya’s county government of Homa Bay in 2013 as the county’s Chief of Staff responsible for coordinating the executive office of the Governor and the county government’s development policies, Isaac served as World Vision Kenya’s Project Director, and was responsible for designing and implementation of a high impact social determinants of health project for vulnerable communities, families and children in Kenya.

Isaac also coordinated the first multi-county USAID/ PEPFAR HIV and AIDS prevention and care project that targeted over 1 million youth in Kenya and Tanzania with behavioral change and care interventions. He provided high level project leadership in the roll out of voluntary medical male circumcision interventions in non-circumcising communities in Kenya, and served as one of the principal consultants to USAID’s effort in promoting voluntary medical male circumcision programming in the Royal Kingdom of Swaziland. He has provided technical support to a number of county governments and non-governmental organizations in Kenya on performance-based management and contracting and currently serves as the national chairman of the Performance Management Association of Kenya.

Isaac Abuya holds a Bachelor of Education degree from Egerton University, Master of Arts in Counselling Psychology from Kenyatta University, Master of Arts degree in Project Planning and Management from the University of Nairobi, and is waiting to graduate with a PhD in Project Planning and Management from the University of Nairobi, with a specialization in Project Design, Planning and Implementation. He is pursuing a second PhD in Public Administration and Public Policy at Kisii University.

Mr. Abuya can be contacted at [email protected]



Securing participation in project risk management through the use of visual aids: The Bow Tie Method


Robert J Chapman PhD, FIRM, FAPM, FICM

Dr Chapman and Associates Limited

United Kingdom


A key activity in the risk management process is engaging with those who have been called upon to provide expert judgement (based on their knowledge and experience gained from their education and their participation in other projects). However those participating in the risk process are normally responsible for carrying out a function on the project specific to a knowledge area, as defined by the PMI (such as cost, time and procurement management). They are judged by their performance in carrying out their function rather than participating in risk management. Hence their priorities will always lie with what they see as their ‘day job’ and not the ‘ancillary’ activity of risk management. Completing their function activities will in most instances take precedence over risk management. Particularly when presentations have to be made to the client team, compulsory reports have to be prepared or regular meetings have to be chaired or attended. Given that large projects commonly assemble together a team where many of the members will not have worked together before, developing a supportive risk management culture can take a considerable time.


Given the pressures on their time, discipline representatives providing expert judgement expect the risk management process to be clear and its implementation well-structured and systematic. This is particularly true when they have to make time to share their knowledge of the potential difficulties in implementing the project, in the full knowledge that their own tasks are mounting in the background unattended. The extent to which they engage in the risk management process it could be argued will depend on how risk information is captured, disseminated and reported. Unless risk information is clear, concise, unambiguous, current, consistent and relevant, team members will disengage. In addition the degree to which discipline representatives will engage and even be stimulated by the process will be how quickly they can absorb the information being presented; how readily they can see the ramifications if identified threats materialise (or how opportunities might be exploited); and whether relationships between events are depicted that they had not realised existed. Visual representation of the risk information greatly enhances team members’ ability to review and comment on the risk information. In addition extensive spreadsheet presentation of risk information can make the reader weary and unreceptive.

While research in the health sector has shown that people differ substantially in their ability to understand graphically presented information or ‘graph literacy’, given project information is regularly presented in graphical form (such as on dashboards) this observation is not considered pertinent to project personnel. A graphical representation of risk information that is gaining popularity is the Bow Tie method (sometimes written as ‘bowtie’).

Origins of the Bow Tie Method

The precise origins of the Bow Tie method are unclear however in the mid-1990s the Shell Group adopted the Bow Tie method as a company standard for analysing and managing risks. Within the petroleum industry the approach become known as the Shell Bow Tie method. Shell facilitated extensive research in the application of the Bow Tie method and developed a strict rule set for the definition of all parts, based on their ideas of best practice. Shell disseminated their approach within the petroleum industry. The benefits of the methodology have since been recognised in numerous other industries including the defence, medical, finance and aviation industries


To read entire article, click here



About the Author

Robert J. Chapman, PhD

United Kingdom




Robert J Chapman is an international risk management specialist and Director of Dr Chapman and Associates Limited (www.drchapman-assoc.com). He is author of ‘Simple tools and techniques for enterprise risk management’ 2nd edition, published by John Wiley and Sons Limited, ‘The Rules of Project Risk Management, implementation guidelines for major projects’ published by Gower Publishing and ‘Retaining design team members, a risk management approach’, published by RIBA Publications. He holds a PhD in risk management from Reading University and is a fellow of the IRM, APM and ICM and a member of the RIBA. He has provided risk management services in the UK, the Republic of Ireland, Holland, UAE, South Africa, Malaysia and Qatar on multi-billion programmes and projects. Robert has passed the M_o_R, APM and PMI risk examinations and provided M_o_R risk management training to representatives of multiple industries. He can be reached by email at [email protected]

To view other works by Robert Chapman, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/robert-j-chapman-phd/



Top 10 Reasons for Project Portfolio Management (PPM) Failure


By Dennis Wiggins

Georgia, USA


As organizations strive to become globally competitive while increasing shareholder value, they are forced to continually reduce infrastructure costs to get products into the market cheaper, faster and with higher quality.

In most cases, corporations rely on technology to achieve this objective through the use of positive liquidity from working capital funds. C-level Executives select projects to be approved based on capital metrics such as: payback period, return on investment, net present value, benefit to cost ratio, internal rate of return, etc. The capital metric that will provide the most long term benefit to the organization as documented in the business case, proof of concept, or feasibility studies will probably get approval and funding by the Sponsor.

This is the inception of a Project as it is codependent on four (4) main categories; 1) Strategic Roadmap, 2) PMO Governance, 3) Tactical Execution and 4) Continuous Improvement. This project codependency is only established in “Mature PMO’s” that understand the “Big Picture” and the significance that the Project Management discipline brings to a successful implementation.

Unfortunately, this is not the case as documented in several reports by brand name organizations including PMI (Refer to Appendix).

Most organizations implement projects with a degree of tunnel vision and no consideration for the Strategic Roadmap (i.e. capital metrics) and Continuous Improvement (i.e. productivity improvement) pertinent to policy and work flow procedure for hard and soft dollar corporate savings. The primary focus is on “Tactical Execution” guided by the “PMO Governance” for managing the Sponsors and Stakeholders while the project is in flight.

C-level Executives make their decisions for the Strategic Roadmap based on the above capital metrics. Generally, the Strategic Roadmap is a 5 Year Plan as determined by Senior Executives for technology changes that will assist in accommodating the Voice of the Customer (VOC). This is the premise of how projects are selected for implementation within organizations and the assembly of Project Teams. Rarely, do projects meet the capital metrics as defined in the Pre-Approval document (i.e. Business Case). Upon approval of the Business Case funding is provided by the Sponsor. The Business Case transforms into a Project for “Tactical Execution”.

This is the beginning of the organizational disconnect because in most cases the capital metrics are not bridged to the project while in flight. This should be a mandatory requirement for the; Business Case, Proof of Concept or Feasibility Study to ensure compliance for company objectives as defined during the Strategic Roadmap reviews with the C-level Executives. Some organizations perform audits after the project is completed. But, hindsight will always equal 20/20 vision, and this allows for no corrective measures during “Tactical Execution”.


Leaders within the Project Management Office (PMO) are unable to predict with accuracy the current disposition of projects in flight, largely because of lack of application of the following 10 Project Management principles due to the immaturity of the Project Management Office (PMO) within the organization.


To read entire article, click here



About the Author

Dennis Wiggins

Georgia, USA




Dennis Wiggins has over 2 decades of experience in the information technology industry and is an expert in the Project Management discipline. He demonstrated his experience leading multi-million $ programs and projects in Information Technology.  In addition, he led a $250 million IT Portfolio Governance PMO for Bell South contracted through Accenture (Big 4). Leveraging his experience in multiple disciplines, he revamped the Executive IT Portfolio Reporting methodology reducing the cycle for reporting from 4 weeks to 1 week, increasing project management productivity and reducing the dollar burn rate.   Also, a lead in the PMO responsible for the domestic and international integration of approximately 75 trading applications in End-to-End (E2E) testing for security transactions for the Front Office, Middle Office and Back Office onto the Barclay’s platform.

He is a recipient of the Project of the Year Award by the PMI Atlanta Chapter for leading the design and development of the PPM Executive Command Center (PPM – ECC). This Project Portfolio Management (PPM) tool was presented at the Institute of Industrial Engineering (IIE) Conference & Expo and was evaluated a 2.9 out 3.0 which is equivalent to a 97% (A+). He understands the “PPM Big Picture” as this tool was designed and developed using the #2 product (Balanced Scorecard) listed in the Harvard Business Review – Top 6 Products providing PMO’s with a fully integrated, dynamic and robust Project Portfolio Management (PPM) solution with dashboards and analytics reporting.

He is a certified graduate of the world renowned General Electric Financial Management Program (GE FMP), Project Management Professional (PMP) and a Lean Six Sigma Black Belt (LSSBB).

Dennis Wiggins is a graduate from the State University at Old Westbury College with a Bachelor of Science in Business Management with a concentration in Finance.

He is the Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Executive Program Management Dashboards (aka Team Exec) providing leading edge training programs, and a value added re-seller providing cost effective industry solutions.

Company Website: http://www.exec-pm-dashboards.com/

Email: [email protected]




What ITIL® means to modern businesses and project managers today

And how to get started in Service Management


By Russell Kenrick

Managing Director, ILX

United Kingdom


ITIL® has come a long way since its introduction in the 1980s as a set of practices for IT Service Management (ITSM) focused on aligning IT services with the needs of business. It has become so much more than an operational framework for IT service delivery and now offers internationally adopted best practice guidance for any organisation delivering all types of projects and services. In this article, Russell Kenrick, Managing Director at ILX, looks at what ITIL offers to project managers against a backdrop of globalisation and offers some tips on getting started with integrating ITIL best practice into project management.


ITIL® has come a long way since its introduction in the early part of the 1980s as a simple set of practices for IT Service Management (ITSM) focused on aligning IT services with the needs of businesses. It has become so much more than an operational framework for IT service delivery and now offers internationally adopted best practice guidance for any organisation delivering all types of projects and services.

ITIL enables global businesses and project managers to deliver better and more efficient services. Traditionally, service management would take over where project management finished and there was a disconnect between the two. When project managers completed their project and threw their ball over the fence, service managers on the other side had no idea what to expect – a beach ball or a bomb. That should no longer be the case. The ITIL framework encompasses the project strategy from the creation of the design of the final services to be delivered through to the transition of those new, altered or even removed services in live delivery.

Since 2007, ITIL, formerly an acronym for Information Technology Infrastructure Library, has been managed by AXELOS, a joint venture between Capita and the UK Cabinet Office. ITIL is no longer just a framework for UK Government, but is being deployed around the world in all sectors from banking to retail, hospitality to manufacturing.


AXELOS identifies a number of key benefits for individuals and global organisations arising from being ITIL trained1. ITIL enables service management staff to get involved with plans for new service delivery and service improvement at a much earlier stage, ensuring a smooth transition at the delivery stage. Project managers retain ultimate control of the initial planning and design stages, but ITIL embeds the need to plan for the delivery stage from the start and integrates a service management point of view throughout the creation and testing stages too. This way, using ITIL, projects deliver the expected service benefits because the focus from the beginning is far more on the service outcomes.


To read entire article, click here



About the Author

Russell Kenrick

United Kingdom




Russell Kenrick is Managing Director at ILX Group, responsible for the company’s training portfolio. ILX is an international learning services provider, specialising in digital learning solutions for Project and Programme Managers. Russell is an experienced general manager with excellent commercial awareness and an established track record in business development, having previously worked for a number of Education/ Technology businesses including Capita, KnowledgePool and Reed Learning. He is passionate about learning technology and the ever increasing role it plays in workplace development. Russell holds bachelor’s degree from the University of Portsmouth in Engineering Geology and Geotechnics (BEng).

For further information visit http://www.ilxgroup.com/ or follow ILX on Twitter @ILXGroup, or Facebook www.facebook.com/ILXGroup.



Enterprise-Wide Project Management and the PMO as Business Concepts


Series on Project Business Management and the PMO

By Darrel G. Hubbard, PE
President, D.G.Hubbard Enterprises, LLC


Dennis L. Bolles, PMP
President, DLB Associates, LLC


Enterprise-Wide Project Management Concept and End-State Vision

The enterprise-wide project management (EWPM) concept cannot be, in and of itself, successful. On­ly the application of the EWPM concept, institutionalization of the practices and principles, and execution of the related process can be successful. The phrase enterprise-wide implies project management will be instituted throughout the enterprise. Our saying EWPM is a business function also means that a functional organization, such as the Enterprise Project Management Organization (EPMO), will manage the related project business management processes. Enterprise-wide project management is a project business man­agement concept that encompasses the integrated application of:

Multiple functional organizational structures;

  • Portfolio project-related management practices and processes;
  • Program project-related management practices and processes;
  • Project management practices and processes; and
  • Business operations management practices and processes.

Business operations, or just operations, can be defined as the day-to-day on-going business processes and activities within an enterprise, with the operational functional organizations being the business units that manage and perform the business operations.

We define the term Enterprise-wide Project Management (EWPM) as “the application of project business management practices and processes on an enterprise-wide basis, using an enterprise-wide pro­ject business management organization as the business unit to support management of the enterprise’s project-portfolios, project-programs, and projects.”

Current research in the project management field shows that best-in-class enterprises typically have highly effective project management cultures with advanced project management maturity.

The business operations of world-class successful companies are embracing and implementing mature project business management processes. These enterprises are successfully applying project management and control as core management disciplines. These enterprises are not only obtaining beneficial results from their project business management processes but also are achieving a significantly positive return on their investment using project business management.

All enterprises, including the smallest business enterprises, are involved in some form of project management. Enterprises with more complex operations are also involved in some form of program or portfolio project management. Establishing project management on an enterprise-wide basis is the key to achieving all the enterprise’s business objectives and obtaining the benefits, which are expected from ac­complishing the related projects, programs, and portfolios.

To be successful, project management must be viewed and treated as a key business function throughout the enterprise. It is critical that all those who work within the enterprise, including line man­agers, see executive level management supporting project management as a business function—publicly, completely, and without hesitation. Those executive managers must establish a business strategy and re­lated objective to institutionalize project business management practices as core competencies as the first critical step toward successfully instituting EWPM.


To read entire article, click here

Editor’s note: Bolles and Hubbard are the authors of The Power of En­terprise PMOs and Enterprise-Wide Project Management (PBMconcepts, 2014); A Compendium of PMO Case Studies – Volume I: Reflecting Project Business Management Concepts (PBMconcepts, 2012); and A Compendium of PMO Case Studies – Volume II: Reflecting Project Business Management Concepts (PBMconcepts, 2016). This series of articles is based on their books, research, courses and executive consulting experience.



About the Authors

L. Bolles, PMP

Michigan, USA



Dennis Bolles
, PMP, President – DLB Associates, LLC, has over forty-five years of experience in multiple industries providing business and project management professional services. He assists organizations, as a Subject Matter Expert (SME) consultant, to achieve their business strategic objectives with the analysis of their business process improvement needs and development of business and project management capabilities.

He has been a member of the Project Management Institute (PMI) since 1985, received his PMP® certification in 1986 (#81), and is a founding member of the PMI Western Michigan Chapter, serving on its Board of Directors and in several positions since its 1993 inception.

Bolles performs speaking engagements and assists Project/Program/Portfolio Organizations (PMOs) start-up teams begin the planning and implementation processes; conducts on-site organizational project management capability assessments; provides virtual and periodic on-site support for development of business and project management methodologies, policies, procedures, processes. systems, tools, and templates for organizational governance and corporate strategy; assists in the implementation of a project business management methodology that integrates strategic planning, business objective development, portfolio management, program management, and project management processes to achieve strategic objectives and maximize operational efficiency enterprise-wide through the development and management of Project Management Organizations.

Bolles served as the PMI Standards Project Manager who led the project core team to a successful completion and on-time delivery of the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®) Guide Third Edition in 2004. He has served on and has contributed to multiple PMI Standards bodies over the past 20 years.

He is a published author of many project management articles, is a PMI Congress/ Symposium/Chapter speaker, and author of Building Project Management Centers of Excellence, AMACOM, NY, 2002. He is the co-editor of The PMOSIG Program Management Office Handbook, JRoss, 2010. He is the co-author with Darrel G. Hubbard of The Power of Enterprise-Wide Project Management: Introducing a Business Management Model Integrating and Harmonizing Operations Business Management and Project Management, hardcover – AMACOM, NY, 2007, now in paperback, revised, and retitled The Power of En­terprise PMOs and Enterprise-Wide Project Management – PBMconcepts, MI, 2014, and of A Compendium of PMO Case Studies – Volume I: Reflecting Project Business Management Concepts, PBMconcepts, MI, 2012 and of A Compendium of PMO Case Studies – Volume II: Reflecting Project Business Management Concepts, PBMconcepts, MI, 2015. He can be contacted at [email protected] and at LinkedIn at http://www.linkedin.com/in/dlballc01. Visit the http://www.pbmconcepts.com/ for information about current and future book projects.

To view other works by Dennis Bolles, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darrel-g-hubbard/


Darrel G. Hubbard, P.E.

California, USA



Darrel G. Hubbard
is President of D.G.Hubbard Enterprises, LLC providing executive consulting and assessment services. He has over 50 years of experience in consulting, line management, and technical positions. He has served as a corporate executive officer; managed the due diligence processes for numerous mergers and acquisitions; managed information technology, proposal, accounting, and project control organizations; was a program manager on engineering projects; was a project manager on commercial projects; and a designated “key person” under government contracts. He has also held executive positions in, and was professionally licensed in, the securities and insurance industries.

He assists organizations, as a Subject Matter Expert (SME) consultant, to achieve their en-terprise’s strategic business and tactical objectives. He provides analysis of their man-agement structures, business processes, general business operations, and project man-agement capabilities, while supplying specific recommendations on business, methodology, and process improvements. Mr. Hubbard also assists companies, as an out-side third party, with the intricacies of the due diligence process in their merger and acquisition activities. He also supports companies in the managerial development and establishment of their Project/Program/Portfolio Organizations (PMOs) and provides work­shops and seminars focusing on the business management aspects of project management.

Mr. Hubbard holds a bachelor’s degree in mathematics and physics with a minor in chemistry from Minnesota State University at Moorhead. He is a registered Professional Engineer in Control Systems in California. Mr. Hubbard joined the Project Management Institute (PMI) in 1978 (#3662), is a charter member of the PMI San Diego Chapter, and was deputy project manager for the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®) Guide Third Edition ANSI Standard by PMI. He was the Exhibitor Chairperson for the 1993 PMI North American Congress/Seminar/Symposium, is a published author of many articles, a presenter at several PMI Congresses and other Project Management Symposiums, and a guest speaker at PMI and IIBA Chapter meetings. Darrel is also a Life-Member of the International Society of Automation (ISA).

He is a contributing author to The AMA Handbook of Project Management, AMACOM, 1993 and The ABCs of DPC: A Primer on Design-Procurement-Construction for the Project Manager, PMI, 1997. He is the co-author with Dennis L. Bolles of The Power of Enterprise-Wide Project Management: Introducing a Business Management Model Integrating and Harmonizing Operations Business Management and Project Management, hardcover – AMACOM, NY, 2007, now in paperback, revised, and retitled The Power of Enterprise PMOs and Enterprise-Wide Project Management – PBMconcepts, MI, 2014, and of A Compendium of PMO Case Studies – Volume I: Reflecting Project Business Management Concepts – PBMconcepts, MI, 2012 and of A Compendium of PMO Case Studies – Volume II: Reflecting Project Business Management Concepts, PBMconcepts, MI, 2016. He can be contacted at [email protected] and LinkedIn at http://www.linkedin.com/in/DarrelGHubbard Visit http://www.pbmconcepts.com/ for information about current and future book projects.

To view other works by Darrel Hubbard, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darrel-g-hubbard/



Project Team Members and Stakeholder Management


Series on Project Management for Team Members
Article 4

By Prof Marco Sampietro

SDA Bocconi School of Management

Milan, Italy


This is the fourth article of the series: Project Management for Team Members (aka Project Followership). We will deal with the importance of team members in stakeholder management and the difficulties they may face.

The topic of stakeholder management is relatively recent in the project management discipline. The first studies go back to the seventies, and they were related to the implementation of large public projects or complex IT systems. One of the first papers completely dedicated to stakeholder management can be traced back to the work of David Cleland, who in 1986 published the paper Project Stakeholder Management in the Project Management Journal. Finally, while the PMBOK introduced the notion of project stakeholders in the first edition in 1996, we had to wait until 2013, with the fifth edition, for a knowledge area dedicated to project stakeholder management.

To gain a deeper understanding of stakeholder management, reading the recent series of articles written by Dr Lynda Bourne in this journal is recommended.

Nowadays project stakeholder management is quite a “hot topic” since many people have realized that projects may affect and be influenced by many individuals and organizations. Not considering or managing them can trigger negative reactions resulting in poor project performance, if not their premature end. Looking at the glass as half full and not considering or managing project stakeholders may result in the leveraging of fewer opportunities.

The purpose of this article is not to stress the importance of involving project team members in stakeholder management but to make the team members aware of the important role they play in stakeholder management, and also to highlight some of the difficulties they may face in the stakeholder management process.


While it is quite intuitive that team members should have a role in project stakeholder management, we would like to underline their importance by noting that:

  • Based on the experiments and observations we carried out, it has been noted that individuals are rarely able to identify more than 60% of the actual stakeholders. What do we mean by actual stakeholder? It is very simple. We compared the list of project stakeholders created by individual team members/project managers with the list created through team effort; we then asked team members and project managers: do you think the stakeholders on this new list that were not on your individual lists are useless or irrelevant? The answers always confirmed that the additional stakeholders were relevant and they should be managed somehow.


To read entire article, click here



About the Author


SDA Bocconi School of Management
Bocconi University

Milan, Italy



Marco Sampietro obtained a Ph.D. at the University of Bremen, Germany. Since 2000 he has been a professor at SDA Bocconi School of Management, Milan, Italy. SDA Bocconi School of Management is ranked among the top Business Schools in the world (Financial Times, Forbes, Bloomberg, and The Economist rankings). He is a Core Faculty Member at SDA Bocconi School of Management and teaches Project Management in the MBA – Master of Business Administration, and GEMBA – Global Executive Master of Business Administration programs. He is Faculty Member at MISB – Mumbai International School of Business, the Indian subsidiary of Bocconi University, and Visiting Professor at IHU – International Hellenic University, Greece. He is also a Contract Professor at Bocconi University and Milano Fashion Institute for the Project Management courses.

He was a speaker at the NASA Project Management Challenge 2007, 2008, and 2011, in the USA, and a speaker at the PMI Global European Congress, Italy, 2010.

He is Member of the Steering Committee of IPMA-Italy.

He is co-author and/or editor of 10 books on project management and 7 books on IT management. Among them: Empowering Project Teams. Using Project Followership to Improve Performance. CRC Press, 2014. Finally, he is the author of award-winning case studies and papers.

Dr. Sampietro can be contacted at: [email protected]

To see other works by Marco Sampietro, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/marco-sampietro/



Getting the most from your project communicator


Communicating Projects – The Series
Article 3

By Ann Pilkington

The PR Academy

United Kingdom

As a project manager your role isn’t to do everything yourself (although maybe it sometimes seems that way!) but to ensure that you have the right specialists to help the project hit its milestones and achieve its benefits.

On larger projects you may have the benefit of full time communication lead, or you may have someone from a corporate communication team supporting you as and when needed. There is no best approach. A full time resource can really get to know the project, be an active member of the project team. But the support from corporate or organisation communication can bring with it the benefit of an overview across numerous projects resulting in synergies and less chance of communication clashes. Either way, how do you get the best from your communication lead? Here are some pointers:

Get communication involved from the very start – if possible before the project is even formed. It is a tremendous help for the communicator to understand the thinking and it can be hard to make this up later. Communicators can also help to shape the project as they often bring an understanding of what is happening in the external environment and what is on stakeholder agendas.

Ask your communicator to come up with the solution. One thing that really bugs the communicator is being brought a solution rather than the problem. Communication is most effective when the solution is designed once the problem is understood fully. Sometimes the answer may not even be a communication intervention.   Good communicators have a range of tools in their toolkit and should be able to select the most appropriate. So, seek their advice and counsel and don’t be surprised if they ask “why?” a lot!

Good communication should be measureable – it isn’t a mysterious “soft skill”. It should be based around objectives that the project helps to shape and signs up to. As a project manager, take time to discuss and agree the communication strategy objectives. Ensure that they are relevant, measurable and – most important of all – focussed on outcomes not outputs. Having an objective to deliver a number of events or quantity of briefings is useful, but you need to know that they have achieved the outcome you need to help your project succeed. Leading on from objectives and measurement, there needs to be a forum for your communication lead to give visibility to the strategy and what is being achieved so ensure that the communication function is represented at your project board. Please avoid making communication the last item on the agenda, it happens a lot and then everyone wants to rush through it because they are heading for a train or lunch!

As well as having communication as a standalone item, integrate communication into your project board agenda. For every item ask “what are the implications for communication?” It may well be that there isn’t a communication need and that’s fine, but it is important to ask the question.


To read entire article, click here

Editor’s note: This series of articles on effective project communications is by Ann Pilkington, founding director of the PR Academy (UK) and author of the book Communicating Projects published by Gower in 2013. Ann is one of the UK’s leading experts on communications; she shares her knowledge with project managers and teams around the world in this series in the PM World Journal.



About the Author

Style: "Neutral"Ann Pilkington

PR Academy
United Kingdom



is the author of Communicating Projects published by Gower in 2013. She is a founding director of the PR Academy which provides qualifications, training and consultancy in all aspects of communication including change project communication and project management.

Information about Ann’s book, Communicating Projects, An End-to-End Guide to Planning, Implementing and Evaluating Effective Communication, can be found at http://www.gowerpublishing.com/isbn/9781409453192.

Ann can be contacted at [email protected]

To see previous articles by Ann Pilkington, visit her author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/ann-pilkington/



Foresight saga: Pursuing insight through chaos and disaster


Advances in Project Management Series

Dr. Mike Lauder

United Kingdom

My background is one of project planning. My training as an engineer, project manager and army officer made me conversant with the skills and practices associated with the science of planning. I liked nothing more than producing a detailed GANTT chart that took account of all the vagaries and uncertainties that might disrupt progress towards the successful completion of whatever task occupied my time. I knew about the ideas of robustness, resilience and agility but questioned their place within the pantheon of planning tools because I knew that, if the plan was good enough, these “add-ons” would not be required. How wrong I was!

For me the key turning point came when I tried to reconcile multiple texts of risk management. The texts, all written by serious academics and practitioners, seemed to contradict each other. How could this be? How had no-one else noticed this anomaly? I gave myself the task of understanding how the differences in these texts might be resolved. After several false starts I realised that these contradictions were caused by a difference in the assumptions underlying the way the world worked. It was these differences that caused the contradictions to arise. In due course, I identified that there were three parallel sets of assumptions (paradigms).

I have set out these paradigms in Table 1. The paradigms existed around the three main drivers of risk management: these being project management, process management and accident investigation. The project management paradigm seemed to be driven by the linear temporal nature of projects. The process management paradigm seemed to be driven by the circular nature of a repetitive process and the accident investigation paradigm seemed to be driven by an event at a point in time. After much debate, I labelled these paradigms as “Lines”, “Circles” and “Dots”. Again I now see that these initial labels were not quite right. Circle is only a circle if you look at a process head-on. If, however you take into account that processes happen over time (that is, look at it from the side), then a circle becomes a helix. This all goes to show how important it is to understand how (the way) you see somethings affects their shape.

For me, two important lessons arose from this experience. The first was to recognise how blinkered I had been in my view of the world; other views exist. The second is that these paradigms exist concurrently. In my previous writings I have explained this using the example of air operations from a naval carrier force. I showed how different people in different roles viewed the same events in terms of either the line, circle or dot paradigm. What was important about this is that each paradigm brings different, incompatible solutions to the same problem. This experience made me wonder what else was I wrong about.


To read entire article, click here



 About the Author

Dr Mike Lauder

United Kingdom




Dr Mike Lauder
MBE served as a Royal Engineer in the British Army for 25 years. On leaving the Army he continued to work on a wide range of projects until he started his doctorate in 2008. His doctoral thesis examined how we think about risk in our quest to develop foresight. His first book (“it should never happen again”) examined whether public inquires add to our understanding of risk taking. “In pursuit of foresight” is his second book. His research showed how many crises and accidents have their roots in those involved trying to manage a complex (chaotic) world using linear (cause-effect) based tools. His current work is the consideration of how we may develop more suitable tools to operate in a world where chaos is recognised as being normal.



Why planning is more important than plans


Advances in Project Management

By Prof Darren Dalcher

Director, National Centre for Project Management
University of Hertfordshire

United Kingdom

Project management is intimately associated with the production of detailed plans, charts and schedules, constantly re-affirming Antoine de Saint-Exupery’s belief that “a goal without a plan is just a wish.”

Planning is generally considered to be a higher-level process concerned with ‘how to initiate and execute the set of objectives’. Plans provide simulated maps of the unfolding future which act as baselines against which reality is assessed and expectations and achievements are monitored. Plans thus provide mechanisms for reasoning about actions independently of implementation.

Projects rely on static plans to overcome the inherent uncertainty and novelty associated with completing a task, with the underlying assumption that if planning can be done ‘properly’, the rest of the project will be easier to manage. Plans are therefore used to anticipate and predict circumstances allowing an organised deployment of resources.

The sixth edition of the APM Body of Knowledge positions planning as a key area under integrative management, explaining that “planning determines what is to be delivered, how much it will cost, when it will be delivered, how it will be delivered and who will carry it out”.

The APM Body of Knowledge clarifies that following approval from senior management, the detailed documentation, referred to as the project plan, is prepared during the definition phase. This detailed documentation provides comprehensive answers to the following questions related to the delivery of the project: Why? What? How? Who? When? How much? Where?

The agreed management plan incorporating answers to the full set of questions provides the baseline, thereby forming the basis for gate reviews designed to assess the continuing validity of the work.

So, what is wrong with detailed plans?

The Oxford English Dictionary defines a plan as (devising) a method of proceeding thought out in advance.

The underlying assumptions in conventional plans, are that: circumstances are frozen, change is limited, preferences cannot and do not alter, and expectations remain at the same level.

Brian Loasby (1967) notes that the term plan is overloaded and used in many confusing ways. He further asserts that the justification of planning as a way of improving communication is the reverse of the truth.

Given that planning implies gazing into the future, Loasby identifies three reasons that justify such an effort.


To read entire article, click here

Editor’s note: The PMWJ Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Gower in the UK. Each month an introduction to the current article is provided by series editor Prof Darren Dalcher, who is also the editor of the Gower Advances in Project Management series of books on new and emerging concepts in PM. Prof Dalcher’s article is an introduction to the invited paper this month in the PMWJ. Information about the Gower series can be found at



About the Author

Darren Dalcher, PhD

Series Editor

Director, National Centre for Project Management
University of Hertfordshire, UK



Darren Dalcher
, Ph.D. HonFAPM, FRSA, FBCS, CITP, FCMI is Professor of Project Management at the University of Hertfordshire, and founder and Director of the National Centre for Project Management (NCPM) in the UK. He has been named by the Association for Project Management (APM) as one of the top 10 “movers and shapers” in project management in 2008 and was voted Project Magazine’s “Academic of the Year” for his contribution in “integrating and weaving academic work with practice”. Following industrial and consultancy experience in managing IT projects, Professor Dalcher gained his PhD in Software Engineering from King’s College, University of London. Professor Dalcher has written over 150 papers and book chapters on project management and software engineering. He is Editor-in-Chief of Software Process Improvement and Practice, an international journal focusing on capability, maturity, growth and improvement. He is the editor of the book series, Advances in Project Management, published by Gower Publishing of a new companion series Fundamentals of Project Management.

Heavily involved in a variety of research projects and subjects, Professor Dalcher has built a reputation as leader and innovator in the areas of practice-based education and reflection in project management. He works with many major industrial and commercial organisations and government bodies in the UK and beyond. He is an Honorary Fellow of the APM, a Chartered Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute, and the Royal Society of Arts, and a Member of the Project Management Institute (PMI), the Academy of Management, the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the Association for Computing Machinery. He is a Chartered IT Practitioner. He is a Member of the PMI Advisory Board responsible for the prestigious David I. Cleland project management award and of the APM Professional Development Board.

Prof Dalcher is an academic editorial advisor for the PM World Journal. He can be contacted at [email protected].

To see other works by Prof Darren Dalcher, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darren-dalcher/.





Organizational strategic plans, projects, and strategic outcomes


Series on increasing project management contributions to helping achieve broader ends
Article 3 of 4

By Alan Stretton

Sydney, Australia


In the project management world, all too often the project is viewed as an end in itself. The focus is usually on delivering planned project outputs. However, this viewpoint loses sight of the bigger picture. It is virtually always the case that projects are really only part of a means to help achieve broader ends. If we focus more on the latter, opportunities can emerge to increase the contributions project managers can make towards the achievement of such ends. I believe it is important for the project management industry to understand and embrace this broader context, because it provides a platform for project managers to add more value to customers. This series looks at how project management can add value through three mechanisms.

  • Helping convert project outputs to actual realisation of customers’ planned business (or equivalent) outcomes;
  • Helping customers determine their business needs, plan for appropriate outcomes, and establish requirements of projects to help realise these outcomes;
  • Helping organizations determine their strategic objectives, plan for achieving them, and develop an appropriate portfolio of projects to help such achievement.

The first two articles of the series (Stretton 2016b,c) addressed the first two bullet points. This third article is concerned with the last bullet point.


In the previous articles I discussed project outputs and customers’ outcomes, and customers’ needs and project requirements. Both were essentially concerned with individual projects and their customers. However, in a broader organizational context, these can be seen as components of organisational strategic planning activities, which generally include developing portfolios of projects to help achieve strategic goals. This article is concerned with such strategic planning processes.

But first we distinguish between two different types of organisations.


As will be noted in all four articles of this series, there are two quite different types of organizations that plan and execute projects. I follow Cooke-Davies 2002 in describing them as project-based and production-based organizations, and borrow from Archibald et al 2012 (who use different descriptors) in defining them:

  • Project-based organizations derive most (if not all) of their revenue and/or other benefits from creating and delivering projects.
  • Production-based organizations derive most (if not all) of their revenue and/or benefits from producing and selling products and services. They utilize projects to create or improve new products and services, enter new markets, or otherwise improve or change their organizations.

As will be seen in more detail in later discussions, the scope of involvement by project managers in project-based organisations is normally far greater than in production-based organisations.


To read entire article, click here

Editor’s note: This series of articles on general management principles applied to project management is by Alan Stretton, PhD (Hon), Life Fellow of AIPM (Australia), a pioneer in the field of professional project management and one of the most widely recognized voices in the practice of program and project management.   Long retired, Alan is still accepting some of the most challenging research and writing assignments; he is a frequent contributor to the PM World Journal. See his author profile below.



About the Author

pmwj36-Jul2015-Stretton-PHOTOAlan Stretton, PhD

Faculty Corps, University of Management
and Technology, Arlington, VA (USA)

Life Fellow, AIPM (Australia)



Alan Stretton
is one of the pioneers of modern project management. He is currently a member of the Faculty Corps for the University of Management & Technology (UMT), USA. In 2006 he retired from a position as Adjunct Professor of Project Management in the Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia, which he joined in 1988 to develop and deliver a Master of Project Management program.   Prior to joining UTS, Mr. Stretton worked in the building and construction industries in Australia, New Zealand and the USA for some 38 years, which included the project management of construction, R&D, introduction of information and control systems, internal management education programs and organizational change projects. He has degrees in Civil Engineering (BE, Tasmania) and Mathematics (MA, Oxford), and an honorary PhD in strategy, programme and project management (ESC, Lille, France). Alan was Chairman of the Standards (PMBOK) Committee of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) from late 1989 to early 1992. He held a similar position with the Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM), and was elected a Life Fellow of AIPM in 1996. He was a member of the Core Working Group in the development of the Australian National Competency Standards for Project Management. He has published over 160 professional articles and papers. Alan can be contacted at [email protected].

To see more works by Alan Stretton, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/alan-stretton/.



Role of Technology on Performance of state Corporations in Kenya


Allan Mugambi Michael

Jomo Kenyatta University

Nairobi, Kenya


This paper looks at role of organization strategies on performance of commercial public organizations in Kenya. The paper objectives were to establish the role of technology on performance of state corporations in Kenya. The targeted was 202 state corporations; top one top management was targeted in each corporations head office out of which 196 valid questionnaires were obtained. The main study tools used were questionnaires and interviews. The study revealed, 7% can of the variations in performance of state corporations can be explained by the technology implementation. Also in general for every 1 unit change in performance of state corporations can be accounted β=.26 units of technology. The study recommends that there is need for state corporations to; management should encourage organization innovation and creativity as well as encourage implementation of new ideas and not following the rigid rules. The corporation needs to invest more on technology, create room for experimentation and risk taking and also reward those who come up with novel ideas. This will encourage the employees to develop new products and services to enable the organization have a competitive edge in the market. The findings will inform the stakeholders on how to improve the entrepreneurship in state corporations.

Key Words: Intrapreneur, Intrapreneurial behavior, Technology, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Creativity, State Corporations

Background of Study

Bowen (2009) argues that, today’s consumers require on-demand and immediate access to information at their own convenience and are therefore turning to various types of social media to conduct their information searches that inform their purchasing decisions. European Countries, Asia and United States of America have been using social media as their major marketing tool for their businesses which accounts for 60% of advertising. Schubert &Leimstoll (2007) conducted a quantitative study regarding the co-relationship between social media usage and Small and medium enterprises objectives and the result was positive and thus technology is very crucial for every organization.

New technologies have great impact in an organization by contributing towards changing social environment, facilitating knowledge sharing and developing new ideas (Kling, Rosenbaum, and Sawyer, 2005). Social media is a good example of new technology making impact on today’s organizations. Due to the changing world of information technology, studies show that consumers are turning away from the traditional sources of advertising such as radio, television, magazines, and newspapers and are opting to use social media platforms where they have considerable control over their media consumption (Neff, 2012).

Kenya as at end of 2011 had 10.49 million internet users and the figure had increased to 13.25 million users as at 31st of March 2012 (International World Statistics, 2012). The gradual increase in internet users in the country is further collaborated by Communications Commission of Kenya (2012) which states that the figure rose by 95.6 per cent in the last quarter ending March 2012. This observation is attributed to reduced internet charges and increased mobile phone subscriptions in the country. Presently the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) in their 2013 Sector Quarterly Report for 2012/2013 estimated the total number of internet users in Kenya as at December 31st 2012 to be 16.2 million users. The figure rose to 19.1 million users with an internet penetration of 47.1 per cent as at end of the year 2013 (CCK, 2013). Communications Commission of Kenya (2013) puts internet users in Kenya at over 19 million.

Although discussed in a number of different settings, there are contexts in which the issue of intrapreneurship has not been addressed exhaustively. One of these contexts is in the state corporations in Kenya. State Corporations in Kenya have been experiencing a myriad of problems, including corruption, nepotism, and mismanagement (Njiru, 2008). In fact, from the Public Investment Committee reports, out of 130 reports examined by the Auditor General – Corporations, only 23 managed a clean bill of health (RoK, 2007). The general story is one of loss, fraud, theft and gross mismanagement. For example, a World Bank (2004) article stated that a key area for corruption-busting reform is the parastatal sector. When compared to similar economies, Kenya has had an over-abundance of state corporations many of which are a drain on public resources; more to the point, they have been the locus of corruption that thrives in public monopolies, especially when coupled with lax oversight, management and fiduciary control procedures. This is why this paper sought to find out if technology use is one of the reasons that corporations are not performing well.


To read entire paper, click here



About the Author

Allan Mugambi Michael

Jomo Kenyatta University

Nairobi, Kenya




Allan Mugambi Michael is an assistant lecturer at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and technology in Kenya; he was born in Nanyuki, a small town at the slopes of Mt Kenya.

Allan is a PhD student at the same University and teaches Project Management and Entrepreneurship courses. He has been involved in various projects and consultancies at the University and within east African countries.

He has great research interest in the areas of Entrepreneurship, Technology and Project Management.

He can be contacted at [email protected] or [email protected]