Asking strategic questions: reflections on the temporal bounds of projects and programmes


Advances in Project Management

By Prof Darren Dalcher

Director, National Centre for Project Management
University of Hertfordshire

United Kingdom


Is it time to revisit our definitions of projects and programmes?

Definitions and assumptions play a key part in delimiting both knowledge and practice. Language is closely entwined with human life: Words and constructions and the way a language is used can shape what is seen and understood, defining what is acceptable and even possible.

“When I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said, in rather a scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean- neither more nor less.”

— Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking Glass (1871)

The Humpty Dumpty theory of semantics holds sway in most societies and many organisations and cultures. Words, symbols and concepts are endowed with additional meaning or associations, often derived from highly contextual, regional or vernacular sources, which can make a word mean precisely what the user wants it to mean.

Debates around the real nature of linguistics often focus around the ability to learn and adapt as opposed to inborn notions. Yet, given that meanings within linguistic communities change over time, there appears to be a need to re-visit linguistic associations and consider their impacts on language, understanding, and more widely on the implications for the wider practice.

American philosopher and logician, Willard Van Orman Quine invoked the metaphor of the ‘myth of the museum’, where exhibits are meanings and words are labels (1960). His main objection is to the assumption that semantics is determinate in the mind. Instead, Quine advocates for a naturalistic view of language, which implies discovery of the use of native words that comes from observation of behaviour. By this logic, only an empirically based account can address the indeterminacy and contextuality of words and their use, and uncover Humpty Dumpty’s intended interpretation.

Cognitive psychologist, Steve Pinker concedes that semantics is about the relation of words to thoughts (2007). But he is quick to point out that it is also about: the relation of words to other human concerns; the relation of words to reality; the relation of words to a community; the relation of words to emotions; and, the relation of words to social relations. Semantics thus defines how thoughts are anchored to things and situations in the world, what shared understanding may be possible, how a word comes to evoke (and even define) an idea, how these ideas are transferred, and ultimately hint at what is allowed and what is considered possible. Above all, semantics can open a window into Humpty Dumpty’s wider world and its impact on ours…


To read entire article (click here)

Editor’s note: The PMWJ Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Gower in the UK. Each month an introduction to the current article is provided by series editor Prof Darren Dalcher, who is also the editor of the Gower Advances in Project Management series of books on new and emerging concepts in PM. Prof Dalcher’s article is an introduction to the invited paper this month in the PMWJ. Information about the Gower series can be found at http://www.gowerpublishing.com/advancesinprojectmanagement.


About the Author

Darren Dalcher, PhD

Advances in Project Management Series Editor
Director, National Centre for Project Management
University of Hertfordshire, UK



Darren Dalcher
, Ph.D. HonFAPM, FRSA, FBCS, CITP, FCMI is Professor of Project Management at the University of Hertfordshire, and founder and Director of the National Centre for Project Management (NCPM) in the UK. He has been named by the Association for Project Management (APM) as one of the top 10 “movers and shapers” in project management in 2008 and was voted Project Magazine’s “Academic of the Year” for his contribution in “integrating and weaving academic work with practice”. Following industrial and consultancy experience in managing IT projects, Professor Dalcher gained his PhD in Software Engineering from King’s College, University of London. Professor Dalcher has written over 150 papers and book chapters on project management and software engineering. He is Editor-in-Chief of Software Process Improvement and Practice, an international journal focusing on capability, maturity, growth and improvement. He is the editor of the book series, Advances in Project Management, published by Gower Publishing of a new companion series Fundamentals of Project Management. Heavily involved in a variety of research projects and subjects, Professor Dalcher has built a reputation as leader and innovator in the areas of practice-based education and reflection in project management. He works with many major industrial and commercial organisations and government bodies in the UK and beyond. He is an Honorary Fellow of the APM, a Chartered Fellow of the British Computer Society, a Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute, and the Royal Society of Arts, and a Member of the Project Management Institute (PMI), the Academy of Management, the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the Association for Computing Machinery. He is a Chartered IT Practitioner. He is a Member of the PMI Advisory Board responsible for the prestigious David I. Cleland project management award and of the APM Professional Development Board. Prof Dalcher is an academic editorial advisor for the PM World Journal. He can be contacted at [email protected].

To see other works by Prof Darren Dalcher, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darren-dalcher/.



New Developments in Program Management


Advances in Project Management Series

By Michel Thiry

United Kingdom


Since the first edition of my book Program Management was published 5 years ago, program management has evolved both as a distinct discipline and as an organisational capability. As a discipline it has reached a point where, today, the main program management standards and writers agree that it is meant to deal with complex and turbulent situations and to deliver benefits, not products. It is also becoming more of an organisational capability and practice focuses more and more on its integration within the business, from strategy formulation to sustainability of benefits.

All these developments could be encapsulated in the maturing of the program culture. In this paper, I will examine five aspects of this cultural evolution:

  1. The rise of agility and its effect on program management
  2. The alignment of the main program management standards
  3. The integration of program management in the organisation
  4. The distinction between projects and programs
  5. The management of change as a key aspect of program management

Agility and program management

Complex and turbulent situations require a cyclic and flexible approach that today is labelled “Agile”. The concepts on which agile is based have existed for a long time, but the popularity of agile management has helped managers understand and accept the culture shifts necessary to manage programs. I will aim to explain how agile methods and program management share the same cultural paradigms.

Program management has evolved from the complexity created by a number of interrelated projects and the number of stakeholders involved; from the need to span from strategy to operations and from the ambiguity involved in constantly emergent decision-making. Agile methods were developed to deal with projects that could not be dealt with using traditional project management methodology. Projects that are complex, involving many unknowns in terms of design, and the effect that results have on expected benefits cannot be managed using traditional project management methods.

In 2001 a group of thinkers of what was then called “lightweight methods” issued the “Agile Manifesto to tackle complex, fast-moving IT programming projects. This

Manifesto states four basic ideas:


To read entire article (click here)

Editor’s note: The Advances in Project Management series includes articles by authors of program and project management books published by Gower in the UK. Information about the Gower series can be found at http://www.gowerpublishing.com/advancesinprojectmanagement.



About the Author 

Michel Thiry

Valense, Ltd.

United Kingdom


Michel Thiry
is Founder and Managing Partner of Valense Ltd. He has an extensive worldwide experience and has worked in many cultural environments. He specialises in strategic applications of project, program and value at organizational level and has supported the development and implementation of a number of strategic programs for major corporations in numerous fields.

He is a regular Keynote Speaker for major International events, both at the Academic and Practice levels. In 2013, the PMI® published the new edition of his book “A Framework for Value Management Practice”. In 2015, Gower published the Second Edition of his best-seller “Program Management”. He has also written a number of academic and practitioner papers as well as book chapters in prominent PM books including known standards.

In 2006 he was awarded the PMI Fellow and in 2014 he was awarded the PMI Eric Jenett Project Management Excellence Award for outstanding contributions to the practice of the profession for his work on program management.



Effective Risk Facilitation: Understanding the Four P’s


Risk Doctor Briefing

Dr David Hillson, PMI Fellow, HonFAPM, FIRM

The Risk Doctor Partnership

United Kingdom


The role of the facilitator is to make things easier for a group of people working together on a common task. This is a difficult job that needs special skills and careful preparation, particularly when facilitating a risk workshop, where the element of uncertainty introduces special challenges. There are two main ways in which a facilitator can make things easier for a group undertaking a risk workshop:

  • Easier than individuals working alone. By helping the group to function effectively together, the facilitator ensures that multiple perspectives are shared openly to provide a common understanding of the risks facing the project.
  • Easier than the group working alone. By taking care of practical elements of the risk workshop, the facilitator can release the group to concentrate on what they are doing, allowing them to dedicate their full attention to identifying and assessing risks, then developing appropriate responses.

To be fully effective, a risk facilitator needs to understand four key areas:

  1. Project. The risk facilitator should be familiar with the project’s characteristics, including:
  • The scope and objectives to be considered during this risk assessment
  • Underlying project assumptions and constraints
  • Current project status, including issues, problems and concerns
  1. Principles. The risk facilitator must clearly understand basic concepts of risk, including:
  • All risks are uncertain, and all risks affect at least one objective if they happen
  • Risk includes both threat and opportunity
  • Risks should be owned by the person or party who owns the affected objective


Editor’s note: This is article one in a four-part series of briefing notes by Dr Hillson on Effective Risk Facilitation. Check back next month for the next article in the series.

To read entire article (click here)



About the Author

Dr. David Hillson

The Risk Doctor



Dr David Hillson CMgr FRSA FIRM FCMI HonFAPM PMI-Fellow is The Risk Doctor (http://www.risk-doctor.com/).  As an international risk consultant, David is recognised as a leading thinker and expert practitioner in risk management. He consults, writes and speaks widely on the topic and he has made several innovative contributions to the field. David’s motto is “Understand profoundly so you can explain simply”, ensuring that his work represents both sound thinking and practical application.

David Hillson has over 25 years’ experience in risk consulting and he has worked in more than 40 countries, providing support to clients in every major industry sector, including construction, mining, telecommunications, pharmaceutical, financial services, transport, fast-moving consumer goods, energy, IT, defence and government. David’s input includes strategic direction to organisations facing major risk challenges, as well as tactical advice on achieving value and competitive advantage from effectively managing risk.

David’s contributions to the risk discipline over many years have been recognised by a range of awards, including “Risk Personality of the Year” in 2010-11. He received both the PMI Fellow award and the PMI Distinguished Contribution Award from the Project Management Institute (PMI®) for his work in developing risk management. He is also an Honorary Fellow of the UK Association for Project Management (APM), where he has actively led risk developments for nearly 20 years. David Hillson is an active Fellow of the Institute of Risk Management (IRM), and he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (RSA) to contribute to its Risk Commission. He is also a Chartered Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute (CMI) and a Member of the Institute of Directors (IOD).

Dr Hillson can be contacted at [email protected].

To see other works previously published in the PM World Journal by Dr David Hillson, visit his author showcase at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/dr-david-hillson/



Project Team Members and Estimates


Series on Project Management for Team Members
Article 3

By Prof Marco Sampietro

SDA Bocconi School of Management

Milan, Italy



This is the third article of the series: Project Management for Team Members (aka Project Followership). Here we will deal with the importance of involving team members in the estimate process and the difficulties they may face during this process.

The topic of estimates is absolutely central in project management. We may have defined the objectives down to the last detail, developed an excellent WBS and correctly assigned the project roles and responsibilities, but if the estimates concerning the costs, schedule and use of resources are wrong we risk embarking on a project that has very little chance of achieving the set objectives.

The estimation process is therefore very important, and project team members play a central role in this regard.


The vast majority of project management literature suggests involving team members in the estimation process. This is mainly for two reasons:

  • Team members usually have the knowledge to provide reliable estimates for tasks they have to carry out;
  • If team members are involved in the estimate process their level of commitment will increase thus heightening the probability that the estimates will be respected. In fact, it has been noted that when people are asked to set their own goals (an example would be asking a team member to propose a duration for the task they have to carry out), they tend to focus their energies on achieving those goals. This dual relationship between estimate and performance (the expected performance influences the estimate but the estimate also influences performance) goes by the name of “self-fulfilling prophecy” (Merton 1968). In general self-fulfilling prophecies are those predictions whereby the person making the prediction is also capable of influencing its coming about; if there is a high expectation that the prophecy will occur the individual will behave so that it does. The motivation for this behavior is mainly to enhance or protect reputations and to increase self-esteem.

The involvement of project team members in the estimate process is particularly relevant when the bottom-up estimate technique is selected from among the various options, that is, team members are asked to estimate the different variables relating to single work packages of the WBS.


Some points of the estimation process must be taken into careful consideration by the team member who provides the estimates during project planning.

The different degrees of tolerable approximation

A first point that very often creates difficulties, if not even embarrassment, is the fact that all projects are based on estimates and not accurate data and that the approximation and uncertainty of these estimates may even vary within the same project.


To read entire article (click here)



About the Author


Milan, Italy



Marco Sampietro
obtained a Ph.D. at the University of Bremen, Germany. Since 2000 he has been a professor at SDA Bocconi School of Management, Milan, Italy. SDA Bocconi School of Management is ranked among the top Business Schools in the world (Financial Times, Forbes, Bloomberg, and The Economist rankings). He is a Core Faculty Member at SDA Bocconi School of Management and teaches Project Management in the MBA – Master of Business Administration, and GEMBA – Global Executive Master of Business Administration programs. He is Faculty Member at MISB – Mumbai International School of Business, the Indian subsidiary of Bocconi University, and Visiting Professor at IHU – International Hellenic University, Greece. He is also a Contract Professor at Bocconi University and Milano Fashion Institute for the Project Management courses.

He was a speaker at the NASA Project Management Challenge 2007, 2008, and 2011, in the USA, and a speaker at the PMI Global European Congress, Italy, 2010.

He is Member of the Steering Committee of IPMA-Italy.

He is co-author and/or editor of 10 books on project management and 7 books on IT management. Among them: Empowering Project Teams. Using Project Followership to Improve Performance. CRC Press, 2014. Finally, he is the author of award-winning case studies and papers.

Dr. Sampietro can be contacted at: [email protected]

To see other works by Marco Sampietro, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/marco-sampietro/



Why it’s time to ditch “what’s in it for me”


Communicating Projects – The Series
Article 2

By Ann Pilkington

The PR Academy

United Kingdom


I hear it all the time when discussing change communication. “You have to answer the ‘what’s in it for me’ question,” people say.

The problem with that question is that it implies that there is something in for the stakeholder and let’s be honest, sometimes there just isn’t.

This focus on positivity can also be a blocker for those managing stakeholder engagement. It was brought home to me when I was working with a team in a Government organisation that was about to go through a period of change. The conversation with the leadership team around the communication approach was halted when one of them stated that they “couldn’t possibly sell this to their team”. It made me realise that this is what managers and leaders in the organisation thought they had to do – make everyone feel positive about what was going to happen.

Ultimately of course, we would want stakeholder to feel positive but this isn’t a mood that can be created simply by trying to “sell” a message.

Thinking positively about a change and the organisation that is delivering it is more likely to come about through the following:

  • Accurate information
  • Timely information
  • Genuine two-way dialogue.

So, let’s think about each of those in turn.


Accurate information sounds easy but in times of change can be hard to achieve. It isn’t that people don’t want to tell the truth, but that truth can change. Complex programmes and projects will shift in terms of scope and timing. The challenge for the communicator is keep up with the changes and make sure that those who need to know are kept informed. If you are a project manager, check that you have your communication lead in the change request process so that he or she has early site of changes and can comment from a communication perspective. Importantly, it also means that the communication message and activity can be prepared.

A failure to do this can result in suspicion and cynicism among stakeholders. I like the “Say Do” matrix and use it a lot to help projects understand why communication matters and particularly why it is important to keep people up to date when things change.


To read entire article (click here)

Editor’s note: This series of articles on effective project communications is by Ann Pilkington, founding director of the PR Academy (UK) and author of the book Communicating Projects published by Gower in 2013. Ann is one of the UK’s leading experts on communications; she shares her knowledge with project managers and teams around the world in this series in the PM World Journal.



 About the Author

Style: "Neutral"
Ann Pilkington

United Kingdom



Ann Pilkington
is the author of Communicating Projects published by Gower in 2013. She is a founding director of the PR Academy which provides qualifications, training and consultancy in all aspects of communication including change project communication and project management.

Information about Ann’s book, Communicating Projects, An End-to-End Guide to Planning, Implementing and Evaluating Effective Communication, can be found at http://www.gowerpublishing.com/isbn/9781409453192.

Ann can be contacted at [email protected]

To see previous articles by Ann Pilkington, visit her author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/ann-pilkington/



Customers’ needs and project requirements


Series on increasing project management contributions to helping achieve broader ends
Article 2 of 4

By Alan Stretton

Sydney, Australia



In the project management world, all too often the project is viewed as an end in itself. The focus is usually on delivering planned project outputs. However, this viewpoint loses sight of the bigger picture. It is virtually always the case that projects are really only part of a means to help achieve broader ends. If we focus more on the latter, opportunities can emerge to increase the contributions project managers can make towards the achievement of such ends. I believe it is important for the project management industry to understand and embrace this broader context, because it provides a platform for project managers to add more value to customers.

This series looks at how project managers can add value via three mechanisms.

  • Helping convert project outputs to actual realisation of customers’ planned business (or equivalent) outcomes;
  • Helping customers determine their business needs, plan for appropriate outcomes, and establish requirements of projects to help realise these outcomes;
  • Helping organizations determine their strategic objectives, plan for achieving them, and develop an appropriate portfolio of projects to help such achievement.

The first article of the series (Stretton 2016b) addressed the first bullet point. This article is concerned with the second bullet point.


The processes which conclude with customers achieving their desired outcomes start with planning processes – i.e. with customers establishing their business (or equivalent) needs, and deciding just what future outcomes they do wish to achieve.

It is strikingly obvious that, if the customers’ business needs have not been accurately determined and captured, then any subsequent project designed to help satisfy such needs will almost certainly be ineffective. Yet, the project management literature rarely discusses the necessity for doing this, let alone ways and means.

This article is first concerned with what I have called capturing customers’ business (or equivalent) needs, and possibilities for project management to contribute thereto.

We then discuss planning processes for converting these needs into outcomes, which generally involve projects. We go on to discuss the meagre material in the literature on establishing requirements for projects which will best facilitate the achievement of customers’ outcomes, and the potential for project management to contribute here. But first, two notes on organisational types, and terminologies.


As will be noted in all four articles of this series, there are two quite different types of organizations that plan and execute projects. I follow Cooke-Davies 2002 in describing them as project-based and production-based organizations, and borrow from Archibald et al 2012 (who use different descriptors) in defining them:


To read entire article (click here)



About the Author

Alan Stretton, PhD

Faculty Corps, University of Management and Technology, Arlington, VA (USA)
Life Fellow, AIPM (Australia)



Alan Stretton
is one of the pioneers of modern project management. He is currently a member of the Faculty Corps for the University of Management & Technology (UMT), USA. In 2006 he retired from a position as Adjunct Professor of Project Management in the Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia, which he joined in 1988 to develop and deliver a Master of Project Management program.   Prior to joining UTS, Mr. Stretton worked in the building and construction industries in Australia, New Zealand and the USA for some 38 years, which included the project management of construction, R&D, introduction of information and control systems, internal management education programs and organizational change projects. He has degrees in Civil Engineering (BE, Tasmania) and Mathematics (MA, Oxford), and an honorary PhD in strategy, programme and project management (ESC, Lille, France). Alan was Chairman of the Standards (PMBOK) Committee of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) from late 1989 to early 1992. He held a similar position with the Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM), and was elected a Life Fellow of AIPM in 1996. He was a member of the Core Working Group in the development of the Australian National Competency Standards for Project Management. He has published over 160 professional articles and papers. Alan can be contacted at [email protected].

To see more works by Alan Stretton, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/alan-stretton/.



The Enterprise PMO as a Business Organization


Series on Project Business Management and the PMO

By Darrel G. Hubbard, PE
President, D.G.Hubbard Enterprises, LLC


Dennis L. Bolles, PMP
President, DLB Associates, LLC




The need to compete globally, increase market share, reduce costs, and improve profits — all in the pursuit of producing better products and services faster — are just a few of the reasons why most business enterprises seek proven ways to improve time-to-market, cost-to-market, and quality-to-market. Within businesses, the lines between operations business management and project management have become, and will remain, blurred and interlaced. The discipline of Project Management itself has grown and matured during the past 65 years. It now encompasses the management aspects of project-program management and project-portfolio management. Therefore, if all projects are to be planned and managed to provide the desired benefits and value to the enterprise then project management and business management must be integrated within and across the enterprise. It is this integration that we call Project Business Management (PBM) and its sustainable application requires an Enterprise Project Management Organization (EPMO).

To address this, the construct of Project Business Management provides for the utilization of integrated general business management, project-portfolio, project-program, and project management knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques in applying project-portfolio, project-program, and project processes. Project Business Management also places an emphasis on the start-up processes for projects, project-programs, and project-portfolios, making executives and senior management more aware of the impact these processes have on their business practices. The underlying objective is to meet or exceed stakeholder needs, and to derive benefits from, and capture value through, any project-related actions and activities used to accomplish the enterprise’s business objectives and related strategies.

Operations management and project management must coexist within the enterprise’s organizational structure and support the various business aspects and strategies of the enterprise. The PBM construct provides this holistic business view of the various aspects of project management, when coupled with the related business aspects of operations management. Our related PBM Framework and associated Model are based upon our ongoing research of, case studies for, and models of project/project-program/project-portfolio organizations (PMOs) and the application of enterprise-wide Project Business Management to generate enterprise business value and benefits.

To employ Project Business Management, the enterprise as a whole must recognize and adopt new attitudes that embrace project management best practices as the best way of doing project/program/portfolio business. This enables the enterprise to bring the full power of this new competitive weapon to bear in the battle of continued business growth and in many cases ensuring the enterprise’s ultimate survival in today’s highly competitive global market.

The effective use of project management techniques employed by PMOs, on an enterprise-wide basis, has become widely recognized as an effective approach for achieving improvements in all these areas. Some enterprises even view the project/program/portfolio organization (PMO) as a key weapon in their business arsenal to increase customer satisfaction and outdistance the competition.

Establishing senior executive ownership of the Project Business Management and the enterprise PMO within the enterprise is equated with authority in organizational structures; the closer a business unit is to the top, the higher is its actual and perceived level of authority, acceptance, adoption, and autonomy.

Positioning the project business management function at the top in a hierarchical organizational structure establishes its autonomy and thus “ownership” for setting up, distributing, supporting, and managing the application of project management best practices within the enterprise…


To read entire article (click here)

Editor’s note: Bolles and Hubbard are the authors of The Power of En­terprise PMOs and Enterprise-Wide Project Management (PBMconcepts, 2014); A Compendium of PMO Case Studies – Volume I: Reflecting Project Business Management Concepts (PBMconcepts, 2012); and A Compendium of PMO Case Studies – Volume II: Reflecting Project Business Management Concepts (PBMconcepts, 2016). This series of articles is based on their books, research, courses and executive consulting experience.



About the Authors

L. Bolles, PMP

Michigan, USA



Dennis Bolles
, PMP, President – DLB Associates, LLC, has over forty-five years of experience in multiple industries providing business and project management professional services. He assists organizations, as a Subject Matter Expert (SME) consultant, to achieve their business strategic objectives with the analysis of their business process improvement needs and development of business and project management capabilities.

He has been a member of the Project Management Institute (PMI) since 1985, received his PMP® certification in 1986 (#81), and is a founding member of the PMI Western Michigan Chapter, serving on its Board of Directors and in several positions since its 1993 inception.

Bolles performs speaking engagements and assists Project/Program/Portfolio Organizations (PMOs) start-up teams begin the planning and implementation processes; conducts on-site organizational project management capability assessments; provides virtual and periodic on-site support for development of business and project management methodologies, policies, procedures, processes. systems, tools, and templates for organizational governance and corporate strategy; assists in the implementation of a project business management methodology that integrates strategic planning, business objective development, portfolio management, program management, and project management processes to achieve strategic objectives and maximize operational efficiency enterprise-wide through the development and management of Project Management Organizations.

Bolles served as the PMI Standards Project Manager who led the project core team to a successful completion and on-time delivery of the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®) Guide Third Edition in 2004. He has served on and has contributed to multiple PMI Standards bodies over the past 20 years.

He is a published author of many project management articles, is a PMI Congress/ Symposium/Chapter speaker, and author of Building Project Management Centers of Excellence, AMACOM, NY, 2002. He is the co-editor of The PMOSIG Program Management Office Handbook, JRoss, 2010. He is the co-author with Darrel G. Hubbard of The Power of Enterprise-Wide Project Management: Introducing a Business Management Model Integrating and Harmonizing Operations Business Management and Project Management, hardcover – AMACOM, NY, 2007, now in paperback, revised, and retitled The Power of En­terprise PMOs and Enterprise-Wide Project Management – PBMconcepts, MI, 2014, and of A Compendium of PMO Case Studies – Volume I: Reflecting Project Business Management Concepts, PBMconcepts, MI, 2012 and of A Compendium of PMO Case Studies – Volume II: Reflecting Project Business Management Concepts, PBMconcepts, MI, 2015. He can be contacted at [email protected] and at LinkedIn at http://www.linkedin.com/in/dlballc01. Visit the http://www.pbmconcepts.com/ for information about current and future book projects

To view other works by Dennis Bolles, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darrel-g-hubbard/


Darrel G. Hubbard, P.E.

California, USA



Darrel G. Hubbard
is President of D.G.Hubbard Enterprises, LLC providing executive consulting and assessment services. He has over 50 years of experience in consulting, line management, and technical positions. He has served as a corporate executive officer; managed the due diligence processes for numerous mergers and acquisitions; managed information technology, proposal, accounting, and project control organizations; was a program manager on engineering projects; was a project manager on commercial projects; and a designated “key person” under government contracts. He has also held executive positions in, and was professionally licensed in, the securities and insurance industries.

He assists organizations, as a Subject Matter Expert (SME) consultant, to achieve their en-terprise’s strategic business and tactical objectives. He provides analysis of their man-agement structures, business processes, general business operations, and project man-agement capabilities, while supplying specific recommendations on business, methodology, and process improvements. Mr. Hubbard also assists companies, as an out-side third party, with the intricacies of the due diligence process in their merger and acquisition activities. He also supports companies in the managerial development and establishment of their Project/Program/Portfolio Organizations (PMOs) and provides work­shops and seminars focusing on the business management aspects of project management.

Mr. Hubbard holds a bachelor’s degree in mathematics and physics with a minor in chemistry from Minnesota State University at Moorhead. He is a registered Professional Engineer in Control Systems in California. Mr. Hubbard joined the Project Management Institute (PMI) in 1978 (#3662), is a charter member of the PMI San Diego Chapter, and was deputy project manager for the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®) Guide Third Edition ANSI Standard by PMI. He was the Exhibitor Chairperson for the 1993 PMI North American Congress/Seminar/Symposium, is a published author of many articles, a presenter at several PMI Congresses and other Project Management Symposiums, and a guest speaker at PMI and IIBA Chapter meetings. Darrel is also a Life-Member of the International Society of Automation (ISA).

He is a contributing author to The AMA Handbook of Project Management, AMACOM, 1993 and The ABCs of DPC: A Primer on Design-Procurement-Construction for the Project Manager, PMI, 1997. He is the co-author with Dennis L. Bolles of The Power of Enterprise-Wide Project Management: Introducing a Business Management Model Integrating and Harmonizing Operations Business Management and Project Management, hardcover – AMACOM, NY, 2007, now in paperback, revised, and retitled The Power of Enterprise PMOs and Enterprise-Wide Project Management – PBMconcepts, MI, 2014, and of A Compendium of PMO Case Studies – Volume I: Reflecting Project Business Management Concepts – PBMconcepts, MI, 2012 and of A Compendium of PMO Case Studies – Volume II: Reflecting Project Business Management Concepts, PBMconcepts, MI, 2016. He can be contacted at [email protected] and LinkedIn at http://www.linkedin.com/in/DarrelGHubbard Visit http://www.pbmconcepts.com/ for information about current and future book projects.

To view other works by Darrel Hubbard, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/darrel-g-hubbard/



BIM Project Management; PMI Madrid Annual Event 2016


Project Management in Spain – monthly report

By Alfonso Bucero

International Correspondent & Editorial Advisor

Madrid, Spain



BIM Project Management

On February 18th, 2016 the event “European BIM Summit 2016” happened with full attendance at the auditorium of the “Barcelona World Trade Center”. The year 2019 is the year established for Spain to be “BIM full compliant” (Building Information Modelling compliant) regarding infrastructures, after achieving the first goal last December 2018 at the construction industry, and although everybody agree it’s a huge challenge, all hoping are put into the collaborative work from all “stakeholders” who belong to construction industry society.

The partial assessment from the first BIM event this year is very positive; as we have mentioned, one of the most interesting subjects is the challenge that mean to advance step by step in the promotion and consolidation of a new BIM culture, and in this frame, the aspect that AEDIP is more interested in,  is to promote the BIM PROJECT MANAGER role and the associated firms: “We believed fundamental to be part of the journal from the Building Smart Spain Chapter that was published especially for this event“.

Some event Speakers’ opinions are as follows:

  • Very interesting the activities done by BIM4SM in the United Kingdom, with prizes for small companies and sessions to share experiences”.
  • Without standards BIM is only a model, using BIM standards, BIM is information

Other interesting subject for the attendees were the change keys: “… to achieve a change, an incentive is necessary, an action, some skills and resources”, BIM maturity is the outcome from “gradual and continuous quality improvement and the forecast inside the available BIM capacity“.

What is the evolution of BIM in Europe? It has been valued very positive in Germany that exposes Ilka May and the keys have been clarity, time, consistency, capacity and scalability. UK has established that their horizon is 2025 to achieve: “50 percent of issues reduction, 50 percent faster in delivery and 32 percent of costs decrease”.


To read entire report, click here for (English) or (Spanish)



About the Author

pmwj42-Jan2016-Bucero-PhotoAlfonso Bucero

Contributing Editor

International Correspondent – Spain



Alfonso Bucero, MSc, PMP, PMI-RMP, PfMP, PMI Fellow, is an International Correspondent and Contributing Editor for the PM World Journal in Madrid, Spain. Mr. Bucero is also founder and Managing Partner of BUCERO PM Consulting. Alfonso was the founder, sponsor and president of the PMI Barcelona Chapter until April 2005, and belongs to PMI’s LIAG (Leadership Institute Advisory Group). He was the past President of the PMI Madrid Spain Chapter, and now nominated as a PMI EMEA Region 8 Component Mentor. Alfonso has a Computer Science Engineering degree from Universidad Politécnica in Madrid and is studying for his Ph.D. in Project Management. He has 29 years of practical experience and is actively engaged in advancing the PM profession in Spain and throughout Europe. He received the PMI Distinguished Contribution Award on October 9th, 2010 and the PMI Fellow Award on October 22nd 2011. Mr. Bucero can be contacted at [email protected].

To see other works by Alfonso Bucero, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/alfonso-bucero/

Project Management Report from Milan

New president of IPMA Italy; Project Excellence Assessor Training; megaprojects for Danieli and Saipem; $180 million EPC contract to Maire Technimont


Project Management Report from Milan

By Luca Cavone

International Correspondent

Milan, Italy




Here is a new monthly report full of interesting news from Milan!

We start from the election of the new president of IPMA Italy; in January Professor Calabrese was named in substitution of Aldo Gebbia.

Then we continue with additional news from IPMA Italy, events performed on the latest and those coming in the next few months. At the end of April the Project Excellence Assessor Training will be held in Milan.

Moving to the business side, the visit of Iranian President Hassan Rohani has led to the signing of several agreements with major Italian industrial groups. In particular, mega projects were awarded to Danieli and Saipem.

Still on EPC contracts, Maire Technimont signed an agreement of 180 million$ for the construction of a new polyethylene plant in Azerbaijan

Enjoy the reading!!!


To read entire report, click here


About the Author  

pmwj35-Jun2015-Cavone-PHOTOLuca Cavone

Milan, Italy



Luca Cavone
is a Consultant at JMAC Europe, the Consulting firm of the Japan Management Association. He is mainly focused to support companies in the governance of innovation projects and product development. He has a strong background and expertise in project management methodologies and business practices.

Before joining JMAC he had several years of experience in international projects within the aerospace industry. Together with the consulting activities he’s involved as a lecturer for masters and university courses on project management and innovation management. Since 2014 he’s Adjunct Professor in “Language and Communication Skills for Project Management“ in the Master’s in International Business & Economics degree program at the University of Pavia.

Since 2009 he has been member of the IPMA (International Project Management Association), for which he has held board positions both a national and international level. He’s regularly invited at international conferences to deliver speeches and workshops.

Luca joined the PMWJ in 2013 as an international correspondent in Italy; he can be contacted at [email protected].

To view other works by Luca Cavone, visit the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/luca-cavone/



UK Project Management Round Up

Power Stakes; Transport Projects; Construction Projects & Reconstruction of Houses of Parliament


UK Project Management Round Up

By Miles Shepherd

Executive Advisor & International Correspondent

Salisbury, England, UK




It is the first day of spring as I write these notes and the weather, after a comparatively warm spell is foul: very cold, heavy rain and intermittent sleet. At least it give us something that we Brits like to discuss. This poor weather concentrates the mind on the UK power supply situation and that revolves around new nuclear so I will remind everyone where we are on that portfolio. Money is a vital component of every projects so we need to look at what is going on in the world of project finance and there have been interesting developments in transport as well as construction so that give a little shape to this report.


First there is some very bad news. Didcot, in Oxfordshire is one of the most important power stations in UK and for a number of years had two stations, the original ‘A’ station; and next door, the newer ‘B’ station. I recall the newer station being built back in the mid-1990s – mainly as I got stuck behind some very slow moving convoys delivering major components of the new turbines. The original coal fired power station closed in 2013 after some 43 years of generating activity under the terms of the Large Combustion Plant Directive.

The plant has been the subject of a major decommissioning project since April 2013 and has proved to be difficult from the start. The top level tasks in the decommissioning Work Breakdown Structure sound straightforward: switching off the power generation supply; disconnecting redundant mechanical and electrical processes and systems; cleaning the drainage system; removal of unused coal and ash stocks from the site; and disconnection of electrical incoming supplies. Only then can the dismantling of the main structures take place.

The main cooling towers were brought down in a controlled explosion in July 2014 once the main disconnecting steps had been completed. The contractors, Coleman & Company were responsible for the demolition and spent weeks cleaning up the debris. They plan to bring down the northern cooling towers and the chimney stack by the end of 201


Cooling towers demolished July 2014, Photo courtesy npower

Tragedy struck on 24th February when half of the 984ft long turbine hall has collapsed, and in its place there is a 30ft high pile of debris, including an estimated 12,000 ton of twisted metal. One person was killed, 4 others injured, one seriously and three remain missing. Fire and Rescue crews used a drone with sensitive listening equipment scan the debris in an attempt to pick up any trace of the three missing people. Hope for those missing men has now faded and none have yet been recovered.


To read entire report, click here


About the Author

pmwj35-Jun2015-Shepherd-PHOTOMILES SHEPHERD

Salisbury, UK




Miles Shepherd is an executive editorial advisor and international correspondent for PM World in the United Kingdom. He is also managing director for MS Projects Ltd, a consulting company supporting various UK and overseas Government agencies, nuclear industry organisations and other businesses. Miles has over 30 years’ experience on a variety of projects in UK, Eastern Europe and Russia. His PM experience includes defence, major IT projects, decommissioning of nuclear reactors, nuclear security, rail and business projects for the UK Government and EU.   Past Chair and Fellow of the Association for Project Management (APM), Miles is also past president and chair of the International Project Management Association (IPMA). He is currently Director of PMI’s Global Accreditation Centre and the Chair of the ISO committee developing new international standards for Project Management and for Program/Portfolio Management. He was involved in setting up APM’s team developing guidelines for project management oversight and governance. Miles is based in Salisbury, England and can be contacted at [email protected].

To view other works by Miles Shepherd, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/miles-shepherd/.



Examination of the Threshold for the To Complete Indexes


By Walt Lipke

Oklahoma, USA




From time to time in the Earned Value Management literature a claim is made that exceeding the To Complete Performance Index (TCPI) value of 1.10 spells doom for the project. That is, when the threshold value of 1.10 is exceeded, the project is out of control and the project manager has little chance of successfully recovering to the desired project cost. An article from a few years ago examined the threshold theoretically, concluding that it appears to have validity. As well, the same article extended its assessment to the comparable Earned Schedule indicator, the To Complete Schedule Performance Index (TSPI). This paper examines the threshold value empirically for both TCPI and TSPI, using real data from 25 projects of differing type and varying sources.


In the application of Earned Value Management (EVM), the To Complete Performance Index (TCPI) is an important cost performance indicator for project managers (PM) [Fleming, et al, 2009]. What does TCPI tell us? The index value describes the cost performance efficiency required for the remainder of the project to achieve the desired final cost. The value of TCPI can have a very powerful influence on how a PM views the need or urgency for intervention and management action.

The indicator is defined as the work remaining to be accomplished divided by the amount of unspent funding [Project Management Institute, 2011]. The indicator is incredibly useful in that it can be evaluated using cost values different from the Budget at Completion. For simplicity in defining the mathematical formula, this “different” cost is termed the total cost desired (TC). Thus, the index formula is defined as follows:

TCPI = (BAC – EV) / (TC – AC)

where           BAC = Budget at Completion

EV = Earned Value

TC = Total Cost

AC = Actual Cost

Historically, the TCPI value of 1.10 is regarded as a threshold to avoid exceeding if at all possible. Although empirical evidence has not been established, it is believed to be the point at which project performance is out of control; i.e., the probability of recovering to the desired total cost is extremely low.

With the development of Earned Schedule (ES), a comparable indicator has been created for schedule performance management, the To Complete Schedule Performance Index (TSPI). The index value yields the schedule performance efficiency required for the remainder of the project to achieve the desired project duration. The TSPI indicator is defined in the time domain, similarly to TCPI. TSPI is equal to the portion of the planned duration remaining completion divided by the time duration available [PMI, 2011]:


To read entire paper (click here)

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English. Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright. This paper was originally published in The Measurable News, the newsletter of the College of Performance Management. It is republished here with the author’s permission.



About the Author

Walt-LipkeWalt Lipke

Oklahoma, USA



Walt Lipke retired in 2005 as deputy chief of the Software Division at Tinker Air Force Base in the United States. He has over 35 years of experience in the development, maintenance, and management of software for automated testing of avionics. During his tenure, the division achieved several software process improvement milestones, including the coveted SEI/IEEE award for Software Process Achievement. Mr. Lipke has published several articles and presented at conferences, internationally, on the benefits of software process improvement and the application of earned value management and statistical methods to software projects. He is the creator of the technique Earned Schedule, which extracts schedule information from earned value data.

Mr. Lipke is a graduate of the USA DoD course for Program Managers. He is a professional engineer with a master’s degree in physics, and is a member of the physics honor society, Sigma Pi Sigma (SPS). Lipke achieved distinguished academic honors with the selection to Phi Kappa Phi (FKF). During 2007 Mr. Lipke received the PMI Metrics Specific Interest Group Scholar Award. Also in 2007, he received the PMI Eric Jenett Award for Project Management Excellence. The award honored his leadership role and contribution to project management resulting from his creation of the Earned Schedule method. At the 2013 EVM Europe Conference, he received an award in recognition of the creation of Earned Schedule and its influence on project management, EVM, as well as schedule performance research. The College of Performance Management awarded Mr. Lipke the Driessnack Distinguished Service Award, their highest honor, in 2014.

Walt Lipke can be contacted at [email protected]

To view other works by Walt Lipke, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/walt-lipke/

Investigating Strategic Alignment through Project Implementation – The Case of BMW i


By Amela Trokić, Jeta Sahatqija, Konstantin Koehler and Katharina Machovsky

Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Germany




In recent years, project management has become more concerned with strategic alignment whereby project success is defined in part by its ability to align with the organization’s overall strategy. Oftentimes, a project can be implemented successfully but not contribute to company success because it was not adequately incorporated into the company’s organizational framework rendering it inept. This emphasis on strategic project management can be seen throughout various industries, where more and more project managers and concerned with strategic alignment as a measure of success. This paper attempts to look at strategic project management from a practical perspective, by investigating the strategic project alignment of BMW’s Project i with the company’s overall business strategy.


The orientation of business activities in a company wishing to maintain a competitive advantage within an evolving market requires an emphasis on strategic intent. Strategic intent refers to a defined course that a business plans on taking over a given period of time, in order to establish and maintain a leading role in the market (Campbell and Yeung, 1991). The strategic intent must be clearly defined and understood, it should be consistent yet flexible in order to allow a company to take advantage of new opportunities that arise (Hamel and Prahald, 1989). It also incorporates long-term goals which force the company to compete in innovative ways (Hamel and Prahald, 1989). During this course, the strategic intent requires a company to take specific actions in order to achieve its strategic goals, including the development and implementation of advanced projects. The ability to realize these projects in accordance with the company’s overall strategy helps attribute to the success of not only the project but the company on a whole. Successful alignment of projects requires consistency in the mission, vision and objectives throughout the company’s operational framework.

With BMW Group’s strategic objectives focusing on growth, shaping the future, access to technology and customers, and profitability, the ability to adjust to market fluctuations with new projects is necessary to maintain a leading strategic position. This is particularly true for today’s shifting markets which are reflecting changes in lifestyles as a result of depleting resources, ecological concerns, growing populations, and similar. With that in mind, this study will analyse the strategic alignment of BMW through the implementation of its projects. Starting with the establishment of the BMW Group and their rise within the premium automobile industry, this research will demonstrate how the organization implemented their new corporate strategy “Strategy Number ONE” as a response to changing market trends. The new mission and vision which developed as a result, were based on sustainability. The study will investigate how this change in strategy, which led BMW Group to invest in Project i, encouraged growth and the development of new technology, as well as contributed to shaping the future of sustainable e-mobility. It will present the evolution of Project i into the Group’s new series, BMW i, which led to both the electric i3 and hybrid i8 models as well as corresponding mobility services. Finally, this study will establish how BMW Group was able to successfully align their Project i initiative with their overall strategy and establish strategic intent through the implementation of BMW i into the Group’s portfolio.


History and Establishment of the Brand

Founded in Munich, Germany, BMW Group began operations in 1916 as an aviation company. The Group experienced significant success in the late 1930s, both on a domestic and regional level, largely due to a broadened product line which included motorcycles and automobiles (Norbye, 1984). Political and economic factors in 1945 nearly led the BMW Group into bankruptcy, necessitating reform on an organizational level (Nerad, 2006). Restructuring in this period saw the BMW Group turn towards new market segments focussing on high-performance and quality, a strategy which would become their model for success (Norbye, 1984). According to BMW Group’s 2013 Annual Report (2014), the company conducts activities in 150 countries with 28 manufacturing facilities in 13 countries, and a human-resource capital of 110,351 employees worldwide. They are an international leading luxury car and motorcycle manufacturer with 76.1 billion euros of reported revenue in 2013, and an automobile sales volume surpassing 2 million in 2014 (BMW Group, 2014a).


To read entire paper (click here)



About the Authors

Amela Trokić

Bosnia and Herzegovina

 Bosnia Herzegovina flag

Amela Trokić
holds a Master in Strategic Project Management from Heriot Watt University, Politecnico di Milano and Umea University, and joint Master in Islamic Banking from the University in Sarajevo and the University in Bolton. She currently works as a project manager in the cabinet of the CEO at Bosna Bank International, an Islamic bank operating in Bosnia and Herzegovina. She also has experience as a project manager in the NGO sector, having worked on and implemented projects dealing with economic development in the US, Turkey and Balkan countries. Ms. Trokić can be contacted via https://ba.linkedin.com/in/amela-trokic-b845a263


pmwj44-Mar2016-Trokic-JETAJeta Sahatqija

Gjakova, Kosovo

Kosovo flag

Jeta Sahatqija
holds a graduate degree from the consortium between Heriot Watt University; Politecnico di Milano; and Umea University in Strategic Project Management. Jeta has completed Bachelors of Science from the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) with concentration studies in Management, Public Policy and minor in Legal Studies. Additionally, she has attended the Dartmouth Entrepreneurial Programme in New Hampshire, United States of America. Professionally, she has worked in various fields from business administration to human rights. Currently, she mainly provides consulting services across start-ups which are still at initial phases of establishment. Ms. Sahatqija can be contacted via https://www.linkedin.com/in/jeta-sahatqija-0323a962


pmwj44-Mar2016-Trokic-KONSTANTINKonstantin Köhler

Austria / Germany



Konstantin Köhler
studied business administration at the University of Münster and Marmara Üniversitesi in Istanbul. He recently finished his Master’s degree in Strategic Projekt Management (with distinction) at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh and is currently working as a consultant/project manager for deckwerth Projektberatung in Austria and Germany. Mr. Koehler can be contacted via https://www.linkedin.com/in/konstantin-koehler-a7bb31a0/en


Katharina Machovsky

Munich, Germany


Katharina Machovsky
holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration from the Munich School of Management and a Master of Science in Strategic Project Management. During her Master studies she gained profound international experience. She has been living in three different countries and worked together with people from 20 different nations. Katharina’s professional experiences focus on marketing; from online marketing to advertising strategy. Furthermore, she worked in the field of product management within the aviation industry. Currently she is working as a strategy consultant in a medium-sized company in Munich, Germany. Ms. Machovsky can be contacted via https://www.linkedin.com/in/katharina-machovsky-8285a37b



Construction Industry, is it still possible to Innovate? The Case of Visual Management applied to EXPO 2015


By Ivan Calimani

Milan, Italy



Behind “innovation” lies a long list of possible meanings and shades. In this paper, we will address the innovation theme from the point of view of a new methodology used for the planning and control of projects. Based on the case of Expo 2015, we present how the introduction and application of visual tools allow managing complexity in a clear, unique and simple way. Indeed, behind the lack of the information, communication complexity and the proliferation of custom schedules, we can find most of the common issues generating delays and cost overruns.

By looking to the construction sector in its broadest sense (including civil, building, industrial and plant engineering) we realize how this is a mature industry, where the innovation capability is increasingly difficult. In particular, following the long economic crisis, corporates are looking for innovative approaches bringing great benefits in short term and with low cost of investments. It seems to be an impossible dream… or maybe not

Expo 2015 was one of the challenges met by Italy and many are still wondering how this “miracle” was possible. It must be admitted that the context was not the best:

  • Fixed deadline with no possible delay;
  • 1.5 billion spent in public works, which doubles adding the works of the 147 participating countries and private partners;
  • 1300 days available from the beginning of work (average productivity of € 2 million / day);
  • More than 500 stakeholders (countries, partners, institutions, etc ..) to be included in the activity, to be involved and kept informed on the progress;
  • Peak of 10,000 workers at the construction site and hundreds of overlapping activities;
  • A small project team respect to the size of the project

Therefore, it was important to be able to manage the whole program in a very streamlined way, without additional complexity and with communication tools easy to understand; most of our stakeholders in fact did not have a technical background behind.

Nevertheless, where to find the answer to our needs?

Certainly not in the classic scheduling tools; the Expo program contained more than 4,000 activities, difficult to read even for planners, almost impossible for a Commissioner of a participating country. So we started to think in a more visual and simplified way, by which one could “read” the progress of the project clearly and immediately while not having special knowledge of project management. It was not easy to come up with a solution, but we approached in stages according to the process described here below.


To read entire article (click here)


About the Author

pmwj44-Mar2016-Calimani-PHOTOIvan Calimani   

Milan, Italy


Ivan Calimani
is a certified Project Manager with 10 years of experience that loves project management since his first encounter in London in 2007 whilst working on a complex Cultural Center project. In the last six years he worked for the successful completion of Expo Milano 2015; the largest project in Italy in the la 50 years! Within Design & Construction Division Ivan was Program Manager of over 30 projects managed by the organizer and coordinator of 80 pavilions built by National Countries and Corporates. He was also Program Manager for fulfillment of Smart City for Expo projects and Energy and Maintenance Manager during six months event.

Ivan got a master degree in Building Engineering and Architecture at Politecnico di Milano and he did a Master in Project Management at MIP Business School.  The passion for Project Management gave him also the opportunity to join the International Project Management Association where he became president of the Young Crew section. In 2014 Ivan was awarded by IPMA in the Young Project Manager of the Year Award.

Ivan Calimani can be contacted at [email protected]



The Commercial Imperative


Why knowledge and experience of leading risk management practices makes project management organisations more competitive in the market place

By Robert J Chapman PhD, FIRM, FAPM, FICM

Dr Chapman and Associates Limited

United Kingdom




Given that across all industries the raison d’etre for project management is to manage risk and uncertainty to secure a project’s objectives, then a project manager’s grasp of a project’s risk exposure, how it will change over time and how it will be managed, will be of acute interest to a project’s sponsor. Particularly as poor project risk management has been repeatedly identified as the sole or contributing factor to poor project performance. Those project management organisations that can demonstrate that they have both knowledge of and experience in the application of leading risk management practices must as a consequence place themselves in a very competitive position. It may be the differentiator, what sets one project management firm from another.

However knowledge and application of risk management is very varied across the project management community. Despite national and international professional membership associations clearly indicating the contribution of risk management to effective project management, risk management is often viewed as tedious, overly bureaucratic and unproductive. Yet it is comprehension and management of threats and opportunities that will determine if a project is completed on time, does not exceed its budget and satisfies its quality requirements. Project managers are not immune from litigation and fees are called into dispute where stated objectives are not realized

The frequently cited extract from Sir Michael Latham’s report “Constructing the Team” still rigs true “Risk can be managed, minimised, shared, transferred or accepted. It cannot be ignored”.

Effective project risk management

Apart from an awareness of the leading risk management practices there must also be an awareness of what contributes to effective project risk management and similarly how the benefits of risk management can be undermined by a lack of attention to the potential pitfalls. Thirty five common factors which may undermine effective risk management are listed below. It is not an exhaustive list. A project manager’s lack awareness of these factors and the appropriate remedies will diminish the likelihood of a successful project outcome.


To read entire article (click here)


About the Author

pmwj41-Dec2015-Chapman-PHOTORobert J. Chapman, PhD

United Kingdom



Robert J Chapman
is an international risk management specialist and Director of Dr Chapman and Associates Limited (http://www.drchapman-assoc.com/). He is author of ‘Simple tools and techniques for enterprise risk management’ 2nd edition, published by John Wiley and Sons Limited, ‘The Rules of Project Risk Management, implementation guidelines for major projects’ published by Gower Publishing and ‘Retaining design team members, a risk management approach’, published by RIBA Publications. He holds a PhD in risk management from Reading University and is a fellow of the IRM, APM and ICM and a member of the RIBA. He has provided risk management services in the UK, the Republic of Ireland, Holland, UAE, South Africa, Malaysia and Qatar on multi-billion programmes and projects. Robert has passed the M_o_R, APM and PMI risk examinations and provided M_o_R risk management training to representatives of multiple industries. He can be reached by email at [email protected]



Bullying at Work: An ethical and leadership dilemma for all Project Managers


By Paul Pelletier, LL.B, PMP

Vancouver, BC, Canada



“If you are neutral in situations of injustice, you have chosen the side of the oppressor. If an elephant has its foot on the tail of a mouse, and you say that you are neutral, the mouse will not appreciate your neutrality.”

Desmond Tutu

This quote applies to bullies as well as it applies to elephants. Bullying can be as harmful in the workplace as it is in schools and other areas of society, causing the well understood personal emotional impacts plus a long list of challenges for project manager and their organizations where it is taking place. Sadly, the rates of workplace bullying, despite efforts to eliminate it, are increasingly dramatically. The good news is that increased public awareness, recent research, and expanding illegalization of workplace bullying have paved the way for efforts to prevent it. Employers are becoming more acutely aware of the human, legal, ethical, and financial costs associated with workplace bullying. In order to directly and proactively address this issue project managers and their organizations need to take action. Fortunately, there are many sources of information and tools available to assist project managers and senior management.

Workplace Bullying: A Definition

Bullying can be as harmful in the workplace as it is in schools and other areas of society. The Workplace Bullying and Trauma Institute defines workplace bullying as “repeated, health-harming mistreatment, verbal abuse, or conduct which is threatening, humiliating, intimidating, or sabotage that interferes with work, or some combination of the three”. Projects are subsets of workplaces and since project management is, for the most part, an activity that involves working very closely with others, the impact of a bully in a project is potentially lethal to project success.

To complicate matters, workplace bullies are often hard to identify clearly. They can be highly skilled yet socially manipulative, targeting “weaker” employees while adept at charming those they deem will serve their career path well. Thus, a senior manager or their supervisor may say, “That person seems great to me.”

Workplace Bullying is Increasing

According to a 2013 Harvard Business Review article, over the last few decades, the number of people who’ve admitted to being the target of workplace bullying has increased drastically. The article notes that in 2011, half of employees in one survey said they were treated rudely at least once a week, an increase of 25% from 1998. Further, the Workplace Bullying Institute notes that many people who have experienced bullying have developed health issues including anxiety and depression. Some have even left their jobs in an attempt to escape the situation, often feeling they have no one to turn to for support in the organization or in fear of retaliation. These statistics and the harm bullies can cause has direct impact on projects and project managers – if there is a bully operating in a project, the impact on the project team can be toxic, which inevitably has negative impacts for the team members and the project.


To read entire article (click here)


About the Author

Paul Pelletier

Vancouver, BC, Canada




Paul Pelletier, LL.B., PMP, is a workplace respect consultant, corporate lawyer, project manager and executive. He works with organizations to prevent, manage and eliminate workplace bullying. His book “Workplace Bullying – It’s just Bad for Business” highlights how bullying is lethal to project management and business success. He also serves as a member of the PMI Ethics Member Advisory Group. He has published articles, presented webinars, workshops and been a presenter at many PMI events, including Global Congresses, Leadership Institute Meetings and Chapter events. Paul Pelletier can be reached at http://www.paulpelletierconsulting.com/ or [email protected]





By Mónica González



On the occasion of the first global virtual conference on Sustainability in Project Management, organized by Ron Schipper and Gilbert Silvius, early this year, I had the honor to deliver the presentation The Legacy: Project Management for Peace. Nobody discusses the tremendous social, environmental and economic impact of the violence

To put in simple numbers, the economic effects of violence on the global economy was $14.3 trillion USD in 2014, which represents 13.4 percent of global GDP. This amount is equivalent to the combined economies of Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom. From the social point of view, the number of refugees and internally displaced persons –IDPs- numbers has increased substantially to over 50 million, according to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), the highest number since the end of World War II. Related costs increased by 267 percent to US$93 billion dollars since 2008. The most important and transcendent data is if global violence were to decrease by ten percent uniformly, an additional $1.43 trillion USD would effectively be added to the global economy each year. This amount is more than six times the total value of Greece’s bailout and loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), European Central Bank (ECB) and other Eurozone countries combined. (Institute for Economics and Peace, 2015)

In the context of sustainability and global challenges, the following words regarding the project management discipline are as valid as ever. “As project, program and portfolio managers, we cannot be indifferent; quite the contrary be sensible, receptive and take an active role, that is, be change agents for a better world with inclusive growth, social equity, and progress, between other goals” (González, 2013)

On January 1st, 2016, Seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) went into effect replacing the expired millennium development goals (MDGs) as a new universally adopted agenda with the aim of mitigating climate change, advancing human rights, gender equality, empowerment of all women and girls, and peace and justice to name a few. They are integrated and indivisible and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social and environment (ESG governance)

Project management, a discipline synonymous with change, must evolve and adopt sustainable methods to support the needs of the new corporate strategy paradigm and contribute to the achievement of the sustainable development goals. These goals are intended to inspire action in areas of significant importance for humanity and the planet.

Regarding Sustainable development goal 16 which states “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels”, business can make critical contributions to Peace. According to the Business for Peace initiative, in its Peace and Business report, (United Nations, 2015) there is a spectrum of engagement for companies that operate in conflict affected contexts.


To read entire paper (click here)


About the Author

ónica González


Argentina flag smallest


Mónica González
, MBA, PMP, GPM/GPM-m, is an Industrial Engineer, Master in Business Administration and holding three International Certifications: Project Management Professional (PMP®) from the Project Management Institute and Green Project Manager (GPM® and GPM-m®) from the Green Project Management Organization. She has over 25 years of experience in Electrical Companies, in both public and private sectors, specifically in Electric Power Transmission in High and Medium Voltage.

In the past 16 years, she has worked as a Project Manager, involved with developing, establishing, implementation and maintenance of Organizational (and Integrated) Management Systems according to the International Management Standards, like ISO 9001 (Quality Management Systems – Requirements), ISO 14001 (Environmental Management Systems — Requirements), ISO 26000 (Guidance on Social Responsibility), OHSAS 18001 (Occupational Health and Safety Standard) and the Argentinean Resolution ENRE 057/2003 Public Safety for Electric Power Transmission in High and Medium Voltage.

From 2002 to 2004, she was part of Communication Committee and Environmental and Sustainable Development Committee of Electricité de France (EDF) Branch America along with colleagues from France, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. As PMI member Monica is a founder of the PMI Nuevo Cuyo Argentina Chapter, as a volunteer (2008-2013), she has served as Marketing and Communications leader, issuing a monthly newsletter among others.

In addition to integrate the PMI Global Sustainability Community of Practice Council (May´2010-Dec´2012) and support PMI Educational Foundation as a Liaison in Nuevo Cuyo Chapter (2011-2013), she serves as a committee member for the PC/ISO 236 Project Committee: Project Management; and for the ISO/TC 258 – Technical Committee: Project, Program, Portfolio Management.

Professor of CSR and Sustainable Development at GSPM, University for International Cooperation –UCI- Costa Rica, in both languages Spanish and English (since 2013).

From October 2012, Mónica is a member of the Green Project Management Executive Consortium. Currently, she is the Executive Director for GPM Latin America. Monica can be contacted at [email protected]



Project Management – The Profession – as a Catalyst for Economic Growth in African Economies


A Position Paper

By Eng. Tororiro Isaac Chaza, BSc Eng., MBA, MIET, C. Eng., MZwIE, PMP

Project Management Zimbabwe (PMZ)

Harare, Zimbabwe




This paper advocates for accelerated talent development in the area of Project Management, inter alia, as a prerequisite for economic growth support. Contemporary research has shown that there is significant correlation between innovation index and the number of certified project managers (PMs) in a given economy. The countries with the highest innovation index also have the highest level of PM certifications, firstly in response to the high demand for trained and experienced PMs, and secondly in proactive anticipation of the need to sustain global leadership in innovation, and hence economic growth. The governments of the developed industries have gone to the extent of mandating enabling policies geared towards the acceleration of PM talent development in the public and private sectors in order to spur economic growth support. International Development agencies are also called to undertake extensive injection of PM talent in order to improve project implementation success especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Finally the paper proffers advocacy for both the public and private sectors in Zimbabwe and other African countries to be prudent and pursue similar policies for the acceleration of talent development of PMs.


The shadow title of this paper is ‘Economic Growth as a Catalyst for Growth of the Project Management Profession.’ The proposition is that, despite the seeming paradox both the actual title and the shadow title are correct as they depict a retrocausal or reverse-causal correlation, in which A causes B and B causes A, or a situation in which the effect occurs before the cause. The simple explanation of this proposition is that economic growth is often accompanied by a massive growth in capital and infrastructure projects thereby spurring the demand for project management professionals. On the other hand, the availability and capability or lack thereof of project management professionals to support and spearhead the implementation of capital projects positively or negatively impacts the performance of the economic growth.

This paper puts forward a discourse for the need to increase the number of trained/skilled/certified project management professionals in order for Zimbabwe to compete on the global landscape. The paper calls to action business leaders and policy makers to recognize the need to accelerate the training of project management skills both as a cause of, and effect of economic growth. Zimbabwe here is used as a representative of and proxy for other Southern African countries as the country situations are appreciably comparable. Six areas are explored covering:

  1. The link between innovation and the quantum of certified project managers within an entity,
  2. The case for an enabling Government policy for the growth of the PM profession within the Public Sector
  3. The case for Enhancement of the Project Management Practice in the Private sector
  4. The case for Adoption of the Project Management Practice for International Development (ID) Projects and Programs
  5. The case for regional collaboration in enhancing the project management profession at both Public sector and Private sector level
  6. Conclusion


To read entire paper (click here)



About the Author

pmwj44-Mar2016-Chaza-PHOTOTororiro Isaac Chaza

Harare, Zimbabwe


Tororiro Chaza is one of the handful of PMPs in Zimbabwe. He has over 30 years of experience on projects in the Telecommunications industry, having worked for General Electric Company in the UK, then for the Zimbabwe Posts and Telecommunications Company, and top Cellular Company Econet Wireless. Tororiro was the General Manager of the Project Management Office (PMO) at Econet Zimbabwe for the last 5years in charge of managing a large portfolio of telecommunications, banking and construction projects of varying complexities. Tororiro is now a full project management consultant and currently reading for his PhD.

Tororiro Chaza can be contacted at [email protected]


Leadership Evaluation: A Fuzzy Logic based proposed approach


Ashwani Kharola, Musheer Ahmed Ansarie and Punit Namdeo

Institute of Technology Management (ITM)
Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO)
Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India

Landour Cantt, Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, India




This paper presents a stage-wise fuzzy logic based model for effective evaluation of overall leadership. The study illustrates a model based on emotional, intelligent and spiritual quotient for determining true leadership rating. Various attributes of leader under each quotient has been considered for designing of the proposed model. The paper highlights the applicability of fuzzy reasoning in determining relationship among different attributes and quotients in terms of if-then fuzzy rules. A Matlab-Simulink model can be built based on the proposed model and simulation can be further performed.

Keywords: EQ, IQ, SQ, fuzzy logic, Matlab, Simulink

1.0 Introduction

Intelligent quotient (IQ), Emotional quotient (EQ) and Spiritual quotient (SQ) represents the complete combination of human intelligence and performance [1]. Past literature showed that there are significant effects of IQ, EQ and SQ on employee behaviour and performance [2]. Various competencies model of IQ, EQ and SQ has been built and applied to working performance of managers/leaders [3-5]. IQ is a term coined by psychologist William stern and it is determined by a number of factors which includes both genetic and non-genetic factors [6]. It is basically a score derived from one of the several different standardisation tests designed to assess relative intelligence [7]. IQ is an ability of a person to solve an objective problem and can be used to make a person competent enough. Yadav and Singh [8] proposed a fuzzy expert system for evaluation of students performance evaluation. The authors discussed a fuzzy inference system and associated rules. Further a practical method has been proposed and compared with existing statistical method. Pavani et al. [9] evaluated teachers’ performance using fuzzy inference system. The authors compared two different membership functions to achieve the shape of membership function which plays more important role in evaluating performance. Haji et al [10] predicted Intelligence, emotional and spiritual quotients (IESQ) to predict personal quality of corporate managers. The study considered data collected from 237 enterprises managers through questionnaires. The paper also showed structural models of personal quality predicted by IESQ.

The subject emotional intelligence was originated in 1980’s. In the last decade Emotional intelligence has done significant progress in experimental psychology [11]. EQ is the competency to identify and express emotions, understanding emotions, assimilate emotions in thought and regulate emotions in the self and in others [12]. It seems to have significant impact on individual from view point of cognitive ability. Therefore people with a high level of emotional intelligence may not have high intelligent quotient [13, 14]. It further contributes to a leaders capacity to manage challenges and barriers that the leader may face through the leadership process within organisation. Bouslama et al. [15] proposed a fuzzy based emotional intelligence model and framework to capture uncertainties in surveys of new intakes. The proposed system was expected to help HCT Dubai colleges for better design, prepare orientation and counseling sessions for students. Austin et al [16] performed measure of emotional intelligence on 156 first year medical students. The results showed that females scored significantly higher than males. Structural equation modeling showed direct effects of gender on EQ. The findings provided limited evidence for a link between EQ and academic performance of students. Patel et al [17] explored the use of Artificial Intelligence for enhancing students IQ and EQ levels. The knowledge for the system has been documented which can be easily transferred and can be very useful for measuring mental age correctly.


To read entire paper (click here)



About the Authors

pmwj40-Nov2015-Kharola-PHOTOAshwani Kharola

Institute of Technology Management
Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India
Uttarakhand, India


Ashwani Kharola
received B.Tech (with Honors) in Mechanical Engineering from Dehradun Institute of Technology, Dehradun in 2010 and M.Tech in CAD/CAM & Robotics from Graphic Era University, Dehradun in 2013. He is a Silver Medalist for M.Tech (2011-13) batch. Currently he is working as Senior Research Fellow (SRF) in Institute of Technology Management (ITM), One of premier training institute of Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India. He is also pursuing PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Graphic Era University (Deemed University), Dehradun. He has published many papers in National/International peer reviewed ISSN Journals and IEEE Conferences. His current areas of work includes Fuzzy logic reasoning, Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) control, Neural Networks, Mathematical Modeling & Simulation of variants of highly non-linear Inverted pendulum(IP)systems etc. He can be contacted at [email protected]


pmwj44-Mar2016-Kharola-PHOTO2 ANSARIEMusheer Ahmed Ansarie

Institute of Technology Management
Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India
Uttarakhand, India


Musheer Ahmed Ansarie
received B Tech in Electronics and Communication from UPTU, Diploma in Management, PGDM from IGNOU and pursuing MBA (Operations Research) from IGNOU. Worked in HCL as a Network Tester, currently working in ITM as a Senior Research Fellow. Research on Project Management (Project Planning, Network Diagram, Probability of Completion of Projects, Scheduling of Activities – Single time and Multiple time) and also involved in regimental activities in Admin and Works Department. He can be contacted at [email protected]


pmwj44-Mar2016-Kharola-PHOTO3Punit Namdeo

Institute of Technology Management
Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India
Uttarakhand, India


Punit Namdeo
is presently working as Research Associate in Institute of Technology Management (ITM), one of the premier training institutes of the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Government of India. Earlier he was eminent faculty in department of Electronics and Communication, Adina Institute of Science and Technology (AIST), Sagour, Madhya Pradesh. He has over 5 years of teaching experience in the field of electronics, embedded system and communication engineering. Presently he is pursuing a Ph.D. from Uttarakhand Technical University (UTU), Dehradun, Uttarakhand. He can be contacted at [email protected]



Emerging need for improvement of project management practice in state enterprises


By Emils Pulmanis

Riga, Latvia



Project management approach as a tool for organizing implementation process of different investments is nothing new and we definitely could consider project management application in different areas as a good methodological basis for efficient spending of state enterprises funds.

Nevertheless there are still many problems areas as not always state enterprises and big corporation business shows transparency of funds allocation and expenditures. Mostly that is covered behind the laws and regulations to ensure companies have not put at risk their trade secret. State shares in enterprise are linked to the allocation of certain financial funds, especially in the fields which request important investments.

Paper analyzes the project management maturity level in state enterprises in EU member state Latvia. Author provides overall view on state enterprise structure in Latvia, investment environment and project management practices. Empirical research reveals that there are many problem fields in state enterprises and project management process not always well established.

Key words: project management, Maturity, Public administration, State enterprise

JEL codes: O220, H430, H540


Effectively managing knowledge in projects is the key factor in the company gaining a decisive advantage. This is of special importance in those organizations running a significant number of projects on a yearly basis. This creates a multi-project environment which could generate challenges. However, it should be perceived as an enormous source of information. The companies which are able to profit out of this situation will definitely gain a competitive advantage on the market as the fast and efficient application of knowledge to the projects can effectively reduce their duration, budget and enhance the quality of their outcomes (Spalek, 2014).

In the terms of the economy’s main sectors of the added value in operating capital, are public services, trade and services, as well as transport. The largest contribution to the total added value source is transport sector, forestry sector, as well as public services. Most of companies, where the state is the largest shareholder, work only in the internal market. The largest capital is operating in sectors where there are monopolies (mostly energy sector). They are often compared to existing or potential competitors and that is a strong cost advantage. However, there are a number of industries in which capital operates in relatively strong competitive conditions, such as telecommunications, real estate, financial services and agricultural entrepreneurs training.

Project management application can be implemented as enterprise project management office. In many state enterprises that’s an option what works best but meanwhile formal setting of such a project management office not always ensures success of the projects.

Enterprise Project Management (EPM), in broad terms, is the field of organizational development that supports organizations in managing integrally and adapting themselves to the changes of a transformation. Enterprise Project Management is a way of thinking, communicating and working, supported by an information system, which organizes enterprise’s resources in a direct relationship to the leadership’s vision and the mission, strategy, goals and objectives that move the organization forward. Simply put, EPM provides a 360 degree view of the organization’s collective efforts.


To read entire paper (click here)


About the Author

Emils Pulmanis

Riga, Latvia



Emils Pulmanis
is a member of the board of the Professional Association of Project Managers in Latvia and development project manager at State Audit Office of the Republic of Latvia. He has gained a BSc. in engineer economics, a professional master’s degree in project management (MSc.proj.mgmt) and currently is a PhD candidate with a specialization in project management. He has elaborated and directed a number of domestic and foreign financial instruments co-financed projects. He was a National coordinator for a European Commission-funded program – the European Union’s financial instruments PHARE program in Latvia.

Over the past 8 years Emils has worked in the public administration project control and monitoring field. He was a financial instrument expert for the Ministry of Welfare and the European Economic Area and Norwegian Financial Mechanism implementation authority as well as an expert for the Swiss – Latvian cooperation program as a NGO grant scheme project evaluation expert. He has gained international and professional project management experience in Germany, United States and Taiwan. In addition to his professional work, he is also a lecturer at the University of Latvia for the professional master study program in Project management. He has authored more than 30 scientific publications and is actively involved in social activities as a member of various NGO’s.

Emils can be contacted at [email protected].

To view other works by Emils Pulmanis, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/emils-pulmanis/



Constructability Tools and Techniques in Use in the Nigerian Construction Industry


By Benedict Amade

Owerri, Nigeria



This study sought to identify constructability tools and techniques deployed by professionals within the industry with a view to improving the performance of construction projects in Nigeria. Fifty (50) questionnaires were administered purposively in public, private construction and contracting organizations in Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Forty two (42) out of the fifty (50) questionnaires that had complete responses were used for the analyses. The responses were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools via SPSS. The findings from the study indicate that a majority of the respondents are not too conversant with the term constructability, while a handful had. This practically implies that on the average there is generally a low level of awareness and understanding of the concept and the application of constructability tools and techniques among the various professionals. The findings further revealed that corporate lesson learned log/file with a (MS=4.00) was the most used and ranked first. Others are; Brainstorming with a (MS=3.90), Peer Review with a (MS=3.89), Graphical computer based tools and CAD with a (MS=3.83), discussions with clients, contractors, suppliers with a (MS=3.43).

Keywords:     Constructability, Constructability tools, construction, construction industry, mean score, ranking.


The concept of “constructability” in the US or “buildability” in the UK emerged in the 1970’s in an effort to stop the declining cost-effectiveness and quality of the construction industry (Wong et al. 2006). It was born out of the realization that designers and contractors see the same project from different perspectives, and that optimizing the project requires that the knowledge and experience of both parties be applied to project planning and design processes.

Kamari and Pimplikar (2012) defined constructability as a project management technique for reviewing construction processes from the conception to finished stage during the pre-construction phrase. It is usually a means for identifying obstacles before a project is actually constructed to help reduce or prevent incidences of error, delays and cost overruns (Kamari and Pimplikar, 2012)

According to Hijazi, et al. (2009), construction industry institute (CII), defined constructability “as the optimum use of construction knowledge and experience in planning, design, procurement and field operations to achieve overall project objectives”. Furthermore, Hijazi, et al. (2009) opined that construction managers display the benefit of adopting constructability in terms of cost reduction within the range of one to fourteen percent of the total cost. Regardless of the stage of its implementation, constructability centers on the design.

Prior to the improvement of constructability during the planning and design stages, the key to achieving this during the construction phase of the project is normally through an effective feedback construction knowledge system (Kartam, et al. 1999). Furthermore, Kartam, et al. (1999) opined that when a project advances into the construction phase, the feedback system needs to take care of the task at hand is the construction knowledge in terms of methods, materials, equipment and coordination.

According to Ayangade, et al. (2009), the Nigerian infrastructure sector has experienced a massive growth over the past few years with a steady rise in construction expenditure in the country, primarily due to the growing increase in oil revenue. The impact of the construction industry on the economy is a known reality. It is a key indicator and driver of economic activity and wealth creation. The construction industry the world over according to Ayangade, et al. (2009) straddles all human endeavours. Its activities include the procurement of goods and services as well as the execution of a variety of physical structures and infrastructures. It has helped in contributing to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross fixed capital formation and creation of high level of employment to the entire populace.


To read entire paper (click here)


About the Author

Benedict Amade

Owerri, Nigeria



Benedict Amade, a Project Manager by Profession, is studying for a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Degree in Project Management Technology at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, and is a member of the Project Management Institute (PMI) U.S.A. Mr. Amade presently is a lecturer in Project Management at the Department of Project Management Technology of the above mentioned institution. His areas of research interest include construction project management, computer based project management and construction supply chain management. He has authored more than 15 scientific publications in international refereed journals and is actively involved in other consultancy works.

He can be contacted at [email protected] or [email protected]