Towards the Facilitation of Project Change Risks: An IT Service Management Perspective


By Charalampos Apostolopoulos1, George Halikias1,

Krikor Maroukian2 and George Tsaramirsis3

1School of Engineering & Mathematical Sciences,

City University London, Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0HB, UK

2 School of Natural & Mathematical Science,

Department of Informatics, King’s College London, Strand, London,WC2R 2LS, UK

3 Department of Information Technology,

King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia


Risk Management has been at the heart of every kind of project; from its simplest form to its most complex structure. Best practice in project management dictates that the creation and maintenance of a Risk Register is a must-have in order to monitor and control risks throughout the endeavour of achieving project targets. The absence of Risk Management can signal the presence of uncontrolled changes which might affect a project’s success or even the organisation’s coherence. A number of global project management frameworks and methodologies have accounted for Risk Management strategies irrespective of project deliverables. This paper aims to provide a comparative overview of contemporary project management frameworks specifically for Risk Management focusing also in services management provision.

Key words: Project Management, Risk Management, IT Service Management

1   Introduction

The science of modern project management is not new ([1], [2], [3]) as it started to emerge in 1990s. Actually, what seems to have changed over the past decade is the evolution of techniques applying theory into practice.  This has had as a consequence, the need to structure frameworks and process driven methodologies of project management, in detail, based on professional panels with accumulated experience so as to formally document these best practices. In this light, change management mostly observed and utilised as an integrated process within project management, is a rational process for exploring decision making and behavioural alternatives in an attempt to save ‘sidetracked’ deliverables due to change and ensure project success.

Every project is subject to change, simply because the business environment changes. One of the aims of structured project management methodologies is to adapt to changes and, in effect, minimise risk and finally ensure project success. Every project has significant differences, in terms of several factors, including factors that are the well-established, such as cost, time, scope and quality.

On the other hand, high project failure rates ([4], [5], [6], [7], [8]) has given the incentive to institutions, agencies and even individuals to develop and establish standards for project management methodologies, such as: PMBOK®, PRINCE2®, ITIL®, APMBOK®, SCRUM, ISO 21500 and others. These are not simply good practice guidelines, but also legal requirements for complex projects. The main strength of such frameworks lies in their comprehensive formality, narrative of collective experience and accuracy in describing specific processes for specific purposes. Nevertheless, there can be found many reasons a project can fail; lack of user input and clarifications, change in requirements and specifications, unrealistic budgeting, lack of risk estimation policies and poor requirements definition ([8[, [9]).

In a similar context, project failure was categorised as technical, data, user and organisational [11]. In another approach, the significance of organisational and economic factors as far as project management is concerned was raised [12]. Actually, these explain about twice as much of the variance in profit as do the economic factors.

Based on an independent study ‘The changing face of project management’, examining the project panorama in UK [13], some interesting results were released:


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About the Authors

pmwj23-jun2014-Apostolopoulos-AUTHOR1 APOLSTOLOPOULOSCharalampos Apostolopoulosflag-uk

City University London, UK

Charalampos Apostolopoulos’ interests lie predominantly inStrategic Business Development under the flavour of Project Management, Change and RiskEstimation Modelling. Moreover, Charalampos has been working in various business sectors formany years, involved in large scale and complex projects, with remarkable footprint and success as management consultant, focusing on project strategy. Charalampos has gained a BEng (Hons) in Electronic Engineering at UMIST (2001), UK, an MSc (Data Telecommunications and Networks) at University of Salford, UK (2002) and an MBA from the University of Strathclyde, UK (2008). Currently, he is pursuing a Ph.D. in Systems and Modelling (Project Management) at City University London, UK.  Moreover, he is the local counseloron the subject of Analytical Support for Decision Making(MG919 ); part-time MBA program of Strathclyde University Business School; IMS branch. Charalampos is also the founder of CRAM (Change Risk Assessment Model); a novel modelling approach for estimating business change management risk(s); taking into account various significant environmental factors. He can be contacted at[email protected]

pmwj23-jun2014-Apostolopoulos-AUTHOR2 HALIKIASProf George Halikiasflag-uk

City University London, UK

Professor George Halikias studied Engineering Science atMagdalen College, Oxford University (B.A. 1983) and Control Systems at Imperial College, London (M.Sc./D.I.C, 1984, Ph.D. 1990). He has worked at Imperial College, the University of Leeds and City University, London, where he is currently Professor of Control Systems. His main research interests are in the areas of Systems Theory, Optimization, Robust Control of multivariable systems and networks with applications in physical, technological, economic and production processes. He has published extensively in these areas and has supervised 15 PhD and post-doctoral students. His research work has been supported by the EU, EPSRC, DTI and private industry. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (IMA), Academic Secretary of  IMA’s Systems and Control Theory Group, Associate Editor of the IMA Journal of Mathematical Control and Information, Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET).He can be contacted at [email protected]

pmwj23-jun2014-Apostolopoulos-AUTHOR3 MAROUKIANKrikor Maroukianflag-uk

King’s College London, UK

Krikor Maroukian specialises in the design and delivery of service management and Point-of-Sale (POS) management solutions across the banking and aviation industries in fifteen countries across South-Eastern Europe.  Krikor’s interests lie predominantly in project management (PMBOK, PRINCE2 & ISO21500), service management (ITIL & ISO20000), business analysis (BABOK), business process management (BPM) and enterprise IT architecture (TOGAF) for which he has also authored a number of papers. He has been part of numerous conference organising committees and programme committees.  Krikor has gained a BSc in Computer Science at the University of Reading, UK and an MSc in Applied Informatics from Henley Business School, UK. Currently, he is pursuing a Ph.D. in Model Driven Business Process Engineering at KCL, UK.  He can be contacted at [email protected]

pmwj23-jun2014-Apostolopoulos-AUTHOR4 TSARAMIRSISDr George Tsaramirsisflag-saudi-arabiaflag-uk

King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

King’s College London, UK

Associate Professor George Tsaramirsis (King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia) combines strong Academic and Business context; being also a visiting lecturer at King’s College London.  George is skilled with project management, business process modelling, Model Driven Architecture (MDA) and business engineering. George’s recent work experience included working for top tier financial institutions such Bank of Ireland, Barclays Plc and London Stock Exchange. As an academic, George worked a guest lecturer at King’s College London and Greenwich Universities teaching agile project management and requirements analysis at MSc level.  His soft skills include team player, working well under pressure, cooperating successfully in short notice and usual plan changes environments. George’s professional certificates are: Certified Scrum Master (CSM), Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), Sun Certified Java Programmer (SCJP), Enterprise Architect by The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF8) and PRINCE2 – Foundation Certificate.  He can be contacted at [email protected]