Planning, Scheduling and Controlling the Efforts of Knowledge Workers


By Russell D. Archibald

Archibald Associates

San Miguel de Allende, Mexico


Seminar in Advanced Project Management Concepts

Co-Sponsored by

The School of Industrial & Systems Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology


The Project Management Institute

October 9-10, 1969
Atlanta, Georgia, USA



Why Are We Here?

The one common factor which brings us together at this meeting, which I hope is the first of many productive sessions of this type, is our interest in projects. As we get acquainted with each other in these two days, we will find that we represent a very wide variety of organizations, industries, agencies, special backgrounds, and specific personal interests. Nevertheless, we are all interested in projects, and that’s why we are here: to talk about projects, and the management of projects.

What Are Projects?

Since projects are the central focus of our interest, I believe it is germane to ask that question at this point, since all of the speakers and panel discussions that are to follow will be dealing with some aspect of projects and project management.

Projects are complex efforts:

  • To achieve specified results within a schedule and budget
  • That typically cut across organizational and functional lines
  • That are unique, and not completely repetitious of come previous effort.

This definition of projects has weathered considerable exposure, but I would welcome your reaction and improvement on it. Perhaps this is a project which the Project Management Institute should take on: development of a sound definition of a project in systematic terms.

The Management of Projects

Managing projects is, without question, a difficult job. It is a rare organization these days that is satisfied with its performance on projects in meeting the schedule and budget, achieving the desired quality of the end result, and controlling the effort without too many buckets of blood sloshed around mahogany row.

Managing projects is considerably different from managing stable organizations. The traditional concepts we learn in the graduate business school don’t apply very well when it comes to projects. In fact, severe conflicts usually exist between organization or functional or line management on one hand, and project management on the other. Project management requires special concepts, tools, procedures and systems, and we will be hearing about some of these later in this conference. We must be careful of over-developing these areas without commensurate development of a sound understanding of them, and of the needed skills to use them effectively.

Managing projects requires two basic categories of skills which are relatively new, at least in some industries. These are:


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Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper by Russell Archibald was presented at the first conference ever sponsored by or held in the name of the Project Management Institute (PMI®), conducted at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia, USA in October 1969.  In addition, it was the first paper presented that day, making this the first paper ever presented or published for or by PMI.  Amazingly, it is just as relevant today as it was in 1969, the year that PMI was founded. It is republished here with the author’s permission.


About the Author

pmwj49-Aug2016-Archibald-PHOTO1 RUSS
Russell D. Archibald

Archibald Associates
San Miguel de Allende, Mexico



When this paper was presented in 1969 Russ was 45 years of age. It reflects his previous two years as the Project Engineer (Captain, Senior Pilot) for pressure and temperature control systems for all USAF bomber aircraft within the USAF Air Research and Development Command; then the Project Controls Manager for the POLARIS Solid Rocket component at Aerojet General Corp for two years (where the first computerized PERT system was developed); plus four years in project management consulting as President of CPM Systems, Inc., in California. In 1967 he was co-author (with Richard Villoria) of Network Based Management Information Systems (PERT/CPM), Wiley, one of the first books to appear on project management.

Now 93, with careers spanning more than 70 years, Russ has had broad international experiences in piloting and designing aircraft, corporate engineering, operations, and program and project management. His three project management related careers have been Military/Aerospace (19 years), Corporate Engineer & Executive (17 years), and Management Consultant (34 years to date).  Russ has consulted to a wide variety of large and small organizations in 16 countries, has trained thousands of people in project management, and has resided in the USA, France, Mexico, Venezuela, Panama Canal Zone, and Peru with Marion, his wife of 70 years. For the past 23 years they have resided in San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico.

Russ is founding member number 6 of the Project Management Institute/PMI. After presenting this first PMI paper in 1969 he was President of the PMI Southern California Chapter in 1991-2, founding member of the PMI Mexico City Chapter in 1996, and in 2006 was awarded the PMI Jim O’Brien Lifetime Achievement Award. A PMI Fellow and Certified Project Management Professional, he co-authored with Prof. Dr. Jean-Pierre Debourse the 2011 PMI research report Project Managers as Senior Executives. He was also a founding member in 1970 and is an Honorary Fellow of the Association of Project Management (APM/IPMA-UK).

Russ is co-author with his grandson Shane Archibald of Leading and Managing Innovation-What Every Executive Team Must Know about Project, Program & Portfolio Management(2nd edition CRC Press 2015, 1st edition 2013 also published in Italian, Portuguese and Spanish); author of Managing High Technology Programs and Projects (3rd edition Wiley 2003, also published in Italian, Russian, and Chinese), has contributed chapters to 15 books edited by others, and presented 88 papers at many PMI, IPMA and other conferences in many countries. He holds BS (U. of Missouri 1948) and MS (U. of Texas 1956) degrees in Mechanical Engineering. Russ was awarded an honorary Ph.D. in Strategy, Program, and Project Management from the Ecole Superieure de Commerce de Lille in Lille, France in 2005. See russarchibald.com.  Russ can be contacted at [email protected]

To view other works by Russell Archibald, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/russell-d-archibald/