Organizational Justice


Impact of Organizational Justice Perceptions on Employee’s Performance Behavior in Project Oriented Organizations in Pakistan

By Ali Haider Khan, Junaid Aftab, Uzma Anjum, Saif ul Amin



Purpose: The current study investigates the effect of organizational justice on performance (contextual task). Researchers hypothesize that organizational justice (distributive, procedural, interactional) will have significant impact on performanceNumerous principles and best practices are advanced by different associations and leading organizations which are role models and through that practice they achieved the current position.

Methodology: In current research self-administrated, close-ended questionnaires were distributed randomly among the selected participants of 385 staff from IT related project oriented firms in Pakistan. Multiple regression analyses were run using SPSS to predict this impact.

Finding: The result of this research shows that there is a positive relationship between organizational justice and its dimensions (distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice) and job performance and its dimensions (context and task), so to promote employees’ job performance in the area of organizational justice and its dimensions.

Practical Implication: Mangers can boost employee performance by promoting organizational justice and focusing on their fair interaction with subordinates and group members. Study negates previous research; hence it makes a good contribution to organizational psychology and organizational behavior research in Pakistan.

Keywords: Distributive justice, Procedural justice, Interactional justice, Task performance, Contextual Performance, Behavior.


In modern age working environments, there is a vital need for innovative approaches to provide solution for problems that have significant effect on organization’s competency. Although technical competencies play a significant role to provide competitive edge, this does not satisfy the whole needs of organization, so managers should also focus on personal and psychological needs of work force. Peoples are social beings and for better productivity there should be better environment to interact with and trust each other. One basic concept for batter social interaction, trust and commitment is organizational justice (Martin & Bennett, 1996). Whenever managers make decisions about rewards, promotion, work allocation, or any other type of social exchange, workers will be more conscious about fairness of decisions.

Workers’ perceptions of fairness is named organizational justice. Organizational justice is one of the key factors that have influence on employee’s attitude and working behavior (Box, 1999). It was realized that organizational justice has influence on the relationship among organization and its employees (Mello, 2006) and this is the most researched area of organizational psychology for the past three decades (Ghaziani, et al. 2012). Organizational justice is a very good predictor for a number of attitudes and behaviors at job and it is reported for its direct influence on organizational commitment and performance related behavior (Colquitt et al., 2001).

Job performance is multi-dimensional and usually divided in task performance and contextual performance (Motowidlo, & Van, 1994).Contextual performance is defined as voluntary, positive job behaviors that are not part of job contract, while task performance is defined as in-role behavior and usually this is part of one’s job agreement (Spector & Fox, 2002).This study aims to explore employee’s justice perception’s impact on their performance.

The purpose of human resource management is not limited to having workers who are proficient in specialty but is to have true professionals who are committed to the organization and to working effectively and efficiently. In true performance management in projects, it is necessary to take into account both task and contextual performance behavior. Does employee’s perception about organizational justice have effect on performance behavior on project oriented organization’s workers? That is the question that was never explored before in Pakistan.

This research was to find the impact of organizational justice perceptions on employee’s performance behavior in project oriented organizations in Pakistan .The research aims were

  • To identify the effect of employee’s justice perception performance.
  • To what extent justice perception impacts on contextual and task performance behavior.

Literature review

Greenberg (1990) used this term about fairness in workplace. It is all about employee’s perceptions and its impact on job performance related variables (Niehoff, & Moorman, 1991). Organ (1997) claims that organizational justice can be helpful to understand why workers react  against unfair outcomes or unsuitable processes.  Worker’s views rely on three dimensions of organizational justice: interactional justice, distributive justice and procedural justice.

Distributive justice denotes the perceived equality of rewards that a worker obtains from organization. Rewards may be disseminated on the base of impartiality, requirements or input from workers and people define the fairness of dispersal through contrast with others. Perceptions of a biased delivery of work rewards comparative to work inputs develop tensions in interpersonal relationship with in an organization. On the other hand, with the finding that the processes used to regulate results can be more persuasive than the consequences itself, and the stress has steadily moved from distributive to procedural justice.

Procedural justice is defined as worker’s sensitivity about processes and behind the scenes prevailing rules that are controlling whole processes. Procedural justice has its foundation on workers voice in key decisions, neutrality and grounds for decisions. Along with all above stated factors, authorities’ trustworthiness is another important factor which enhances worker’s perception about fair procedures adopted by an organization (Tyler & Bies, 1990). There is a lot of work available that suggest that organization’s overall performance can be enhanced by adopting fair procedures in organizations because it will make employees more satisfied, committed and  loyal (Werner, 2000).


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About the Authors

Ali Haider Khan  

Mutan, Punjab, Pakistan


Ali Haider Khan
is a project management specialist, system software engineer and research scholar who works in the Federal Government Organization (NADRA) of Pakistan. Ali assumed different roles in all facets of the process from client liaison, system engineering, commercial, HR, QA, leadership, project management, risk management, commissioning and handover. Graduated from COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology Islamabad, Pakistan and holds the degree of Master of Science in Project Management. Ali is passionate about project management and system quality assurance, dedicated to improve recognition/proficiency of the testing community and eager to share his experiences, you can find me at [email protected]


pmwj48-Jul2016-Khan-PHOTO2 AFTAB
Junaid Aftab       

Multan, Punjab, Pakistan


Junaid Aftab
is a software engineer and research scholar who is currently working in private sector organization of Pakistan. He is ambitious, loves challenges, especially in new, evolving and innovative technologies. He has a rich and extensive software development multiyear experience with supportive and interactive style. He graduated from the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Islamabad, Pakistan with the MS degree in Project Management. Junaid is interested in research area like project management, Leadership style and behaviors, Organization as well as team performance and Quality assurance. For any query you can contact me at [email protected].


pmwj48-Jul2016-Khan-PHOTO3 ANJUM
Uzma Anjum

Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan


Uzma Anjum
is working as a Quality Assurance Executive in Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited. I completed my MS Project Management from COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Islamabad, Pakistan. I’m interested in the research area such as Project Management, Service quality, Quality management, Customer relationship management and supply chain management. You can contact me at [email protected]


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Saif ul Amin

Nowshera, KP, Pakistan.



Saif ul Amin is a project management specialist and research scholar who works in the public sector of Pakistan. Saif graduated from the COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan with the MS degree in Project Management. He has been interested in conducting researches in project performance, project human resource management, leadership style and behaviors, new technologies, project team performance, engagement and team building. Feedback for improvement is always welcome at [email protected]