Exploring utilisation options of local energy resources in Nigeria in compliance with the Paris Climate Agreement


By O. Chima Okereke, PhD

Herefordshire, England


The objectives of this paper are to review briefly the main clauses of the Paris Agreement and to explore investment and utilisations options of the natural energy resources in Nigeria in compliance with the agreement. Accordingly, the paper comprises the following sections:

  1. Stipulations of Paris Agreement and some of its economic implications
  2. Current status of investments and utilisation of energy resources in Nigeria
  3. Renewable sources and uses in some developed nations
  4. Analysis of resources and alternative options
  5. Recommendations

1. Stipulations of Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement is designed to enable the international community to respond more effectively to the threat of climate change in order to enhance sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty. The Agreement was reached at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 held in Paris from 30th November to 12th December 2015. It was the 21st yearly session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It is relevant to note that the COP is the supreme decision-making body of the Convention. All countries that are Parties to the Convention are represented at the COP.

The conference negotiated the Paris Agreement, its text is a consensus of views of the representatives of the 196 parties in attendance. The agreement will become legally binding when it will be joined by at least 55 countries which together represent at least 55 percent of global greenhouse emissions. Such parties will need to sign the agreement in New York between 22 April 2016 and 21 April 2017, and also adopt it within their own legal systems through ratification, acceptance, and approval by their relevant bodies. They will deposit their instruments of ratification with the UN

The national governments agreed to the following [1]:

  • A long-term goal of keeping the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C, since this would significantly reduce risks and the impacts of climate change;
  • Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production;
  • Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.

It may be helpful to explain what is meant by the statement “to keep the increase in global average temperature to below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels”. The average temperature recorded between the pre-industrial years, 1850 – 1900, is considered the reference temperature. In effect, one of the objectives of the Agreement is to maintain the global average temperature to be lower than 2 degrees Celsius above this reference temperature. By November 2015, it was noted that the Global annual average surface temperature in 2015 was getting to 1°C above the pre-industrial average (as represented by the 1850-1900 reference period).

As stated in the third statement of the Agreement, the final text also pledges financial support from rich, developed nations to developing countries as they adopt changes needed to meet the temperature targets.


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About the Author

Chima Okereke, PhD, PMP

Herefordshire, UK





Dr. O. Chima Okereke, Ph.D., MBA, PMP is the Managing Director and CEO of Total Technology Consultants, Ltd., a project management consulting company working in West Africa and the UK. He is a visiting professor, an industrial educator, a multidisciplinary project management professional, with over 25 years’ experience in oil and gas, steel and power generation industries. For example, On December 26th 2013, he completed an assignment as a visiting professor in project management; teaching a class of students on Master’s degree in project management in the Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. In August and September 2013, he conducted an innovative, and personally developed training programme for seventy six well engineers of Shell Nigeria to enhance the efficiency of their operations using project and operations management processes. Before embarking on a career in consulting, he worked for thirteen years in industry rising to the position of a chief engineer with specialisation in industrial controls and instrumentation, electronics, electrical engineering and automation. During those 13 years, he worked on every aspect of projects of new industrial plants including design, construction and installation, commissioning, and engineering operation and maintenance in process industries. Chima sponsored and founded the potential chapter of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, acting as president from 2004 to 2010.

Dr. Okereke has a Bachelor of Science Degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Lagos, and a PhD and Masters in Business Administration (MBA) degree from the University of Bradford in the UK. He also has a PMP® certification from the Project Management Institute (PMI®) which he passed at first attempt. He has been a registered engineer with COREN in Nigeria since 1983. For many years, Total Technology has been a partner for Oracle Primavera Global Business Unit, a representative in Nigeria of Oracle University for training in Primavera project management courses, and a Gold Level member of Oracle Partner Network (OPN. He is a registered consultant with several UN agencies. More information can be found at http://www.totaltechnologyconsultants.org/.

Chima is the publisher of Project Management Business Digest, a blog aimed at helping organizations use project management for business success. Dr. Okereke is also an international editorial advisor for the PM World Journal and PM World Library. He can be contacted at [email protected]  or [email protected].

To view other works by Dr. Okereke, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/dr-o-chima-okereke/