Enhance PMBOK® by Comparing it with P2M, ICB, PRINCE2, APM and Scrum Project Management Standards


By Sam Ghosh, Danny Forrest, Thomas DiNetta, Brian Wolfe & Danielle C. Lambert

Masters in Project Management Degree Program
James A. Clarke School of Engineering
University of Maryland

College Park, Maryland, USA

1.0  Abstract

The objective of this project is to enhance and enrich “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge” (PMBOK®), 4th edition of Project Management Institute (PMI) by comparing and contrasting it with the following standards:

  1. International Project Management Association (IPMA) International Competence Baseline (ICB) version 3.0 and related articles
  2. Association for Project Management (APM) Body of Knowledge (BOK), 5th edition, UK Professional Body for Project Professionals and related articles
  3. Project Planning and Project Management (P2M), volume I, II, Booklet, 2003, Association of Japan (PMAJ) and related article
  4. PRojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2®), Office of Government Commerce (OGC) and related articles
  5. Scrum Agile Standard.

Structure of Project Report: For each standard, the driving forces for its adoption, its content, synergies and differences with PMBOK® are noted at a high level. New competencies and keywords from each standard are identified that are not covered, or adequately illustrated in PMBOK®. These new competencies are used to enhance (1) a particular section of Body of Knowledge (BOK) of PMBOK® and/or (2) the Input, Tools and Technique, Output (I/TT/O) of one or more of the 42 processes of PMBOK®.

Appendix: Includes a brief comparison between PMBOK® and other global standards, mapping of each standard with the Knowledge Areas (KAs) and Process Groups (PGs) of PMBOK®, enhancement to PMBOK® in a table, the Project Plan, lessons learned, list of abbreviations, and a glossary.

2.0. Introduction

 2.1. Project Management History, Adoption and Influence

A project is a unique endeavor with a start and end date that delivers a specific result or service. Although a project is temporary, the results of a project can be long-lasting. Project Management is a discipline in itself. It helps meet project requirements by applying knowledge, skills, tools, techniques (pg. 6, PMBOK®) and human interactions. It also ensures that the project aligns with corporate strategy and objectives. Project Management started in the 1960s with engineering projects. Today, Project Management is a recognized discipline that is used in a variety of business domains for projects of all sizes. Many global standards on Project Management are now available along with certifications, education and training.

2.2. PMBOK® History and Adoption

PMI is a non-profit organization that was founded in 1969 by a group of 5 people in Atlanta. PMBOK® was first published by PMI as a white paper in 1987. The fourth and latest edition was released in 2008. Although PMBOK® is an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard, it was contributed to by members across the world. Over 2.8 million copies are in circulation and available in 10 languages. It is the most widely accepted guideline on Project Management. PMI has over 307,000 members in 180 countries with 10-20% annual growth. (Cable, 2011)


To read entire paper (click here)

Editor’s note: This paper was prepared for course ENCE662 Introduction to Project Management, a core course for the Master of Engineering in Project Management degree in the James A. Clarke School of Engineering, University of Maryland (UMD), College Park, Maryland, USA. Course instructor was Mr. John Cable, Director of the Project Management Center of Excellence at UMD. This paper was originally published in the January 2012 edition of the PM World Today. It is republished here with permission, and at the request, of the authors.



About the Authors


pmwj38-Sep2015-Ghosh+-PHOTOSam Ghosh

Maryland, USA


Soumajit (Sam) Ghosh
has over twenty years of experience in industry, and academia in Information Technology, and Project Management. He has worked as Project Manager, and Enterprise Architect for start-up ventures, government agencies and Fortune 500 companies in mission critical projects. He is certified Project Management Professional (PMP), PMI, Sun Certified Enterprise Java Architect, Sun Certified Web Component Developer, Sun Certified Java Programmer and Competent Toastmaster, Toastmasters International. He holds MS in Computer Science, and MS in Industrial Engineering from Texas Tech University. He is a PhD Candidate at A. James Clark School of Engineering, The University of Maryland, College Park, specializing in Project Management. He can be reached at: [email protected].


pmwj38-Sep2015-Ghosh+-PHOTO2 FORRESTDanny Forrest



Danny Forrest
has 11 years of professional experience in the Biotechnology industry.  He has helped manage multiple projects ranging from a bio-fuels start-up venture to the manufacture of new Tuberculosis vaccines.  He is currently managing a series of plant improvement projects at Maryland biotech mainstay GlaxoSmithKline as an Automation Engineer. He holds a B.S. in Bioengineering and a Masters of Engineering in Project Management, both at the University of Maryland, College Park.  He can be reached at [email protected].


pmwj38-Sep2015-Ghosh+-PHOTO3 DINETTAThomas DiNetta



Thomas DiNetta
is a professional engineer with nine years of experience in three different fields of engineering. He has helped develop radar, sonar, command and weapon systems for the U.S. Navy and its allies around the world.  He is currently employed by Lockheed Martin in their Engineering Leadership Development and Program and is working on the SPY Radar.  Thomas has a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Engineering from Villanova University and a Masters of Engineering in Project Management in The University of Maryland, College Park.  He can be reached at [email protected].


pmwj38-Sep2015-Ghosh+-PHOTO4 WOLFEBryan Wolfe 





Bryan Wolfe has a Masters of Engineering degree with a concentration in Project Management in The University of Maryland, College Park. He holds a Bachelor’s of Science degree in Industrial Mathematics from Shepherd University in May of 2011. He is currently working as an Assistant Project Manager for an electrical contracting company. He can be reached at [email protected]


pmwj38-Sep2015-Ghosh+-PHOTO5 LAMBERTDanielle C. Lambert




Danielle C. Lambert
has her Masters of Engineering in Civil and Environmental Engineering with a concentration in Structural Engineer from the University of Maryland, College Park. She also holds her Bachelors of Science degree in Applied Mathematics from Towson University.  She is currently a Structural Engineer for Johnson, Mirmiran & Thompson, Inc. and is a member of ASCE and ICRI.  She can be reached by email at [email protected]