A Review of Literature to aid in Management

and Forecasting of Technology: A case of Petrol Engines



by Ashwani Kharola, Yadnyesh Nikam, Hitesh Patil

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Tula’s Institute

Dehradun, India



In this paper a brief review of past 30 years literature has been conducted on four-stroke petrol engine. The study would help in analysing different approaches and analysing them for effective management of such complex technologies and forecasting future trends of such technologies. Review of past literature can be used to create a roadmap for future technologies. This review can be utilised by researchers to conduct technology management and forecast innovative technologies for future needs.

Keywords: Technology Management, Forecasting, Four-stroke petrol engine, I.C. engine, spark ignition

  1. Introduction

An Engine is a device which converts chemical energy of a fuel into mechanical energy.  Four stroke petrol engines are very popular engines widely used in vehicles operating on Otto-cycle and using petrol as a fuel. Four stroke petrol engines are very popular spark ignition engines widely used in automobiles. These engines are keen source interest for researchers working in the field automobile sector. Various researchers have proposed different techniques for optimising performance characteristics of these engines. These engines uses electric spark for burning the fuel thereby moving movable parts of the engine. The first four stroke engines was demonstrated by Nikolaus August Otto in 1876, hence it is also called Otto cycle. In 1885, German Mechanical engineer, Karl-Benz built the world’s first automobile powered by an internal combustion engine. In the past 150 year’s world has seen fast and innovative advancements in the design of four-stroke petrol engine. Many different designs have been suggested and built keeping in mind the basic objective of compact size, price, quality of combustion products, power output etc. This study highlights in brief various techniques and approaches being adopted by researchers in the past few decades to improve the performance and efficiency of four-stroke petrol engine. A survey has been carried out on the research work by different authors and some significant contribution has been beautifully highlighted in this study.

  1. Literature review

Melgaard et al. [1] identified an engine model from a linearized version of a mean value model for a four-cycle spark ignition (SI) engine. The approach demonstrated a physical understanding of the engine throughout the identification stage. The techniques which were adopted by authors includes a classical step response approach and modern statistical methods like Kalman filtering and Maximum Likelihood estimation. The results helped in identification of the most important parameters and time constants of the engine which can be used for the construction of engine simulation models, control studies and condition monitoring applications. Hwang [2] simulated a digital engine speed display and an advance ignition system for designing a microcontroller-based electronic control system for a four stroke and single cylinder engine. The author utilised a DC motor whose speed can be adjusted by a voltage transformer and numerated by a photo sensor, 8751 H microcontroller, and digital readout is used as an engine. A timing light is used to identify the advanced ignition angles of the spark plug. The simulation results showed that some mechanical hardware can be replaced by electronic components to make automobile engines more efficient and inexpensive.

Kurniawan & Abdullah [3] carried out a numerical study to simulate and analyze the combustion process occurring in a compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI) engine using a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was performed on a single cylinder 1.6-liter engine running at wide open throttle at a fixed speed of 2000 rpm. The mesh generation was established via an embedded algorithm for moving meshes and boundaries thereby providing a more accurate transient condition of the operating engine. The natural gas employed is considered to be 100% methane (CH4) with three global step reaction scheme. The results of CFD simulation were then compared with the data obtained from the single-cylinder engine experiment and showed a close agreement. Wong et al. [4] proposed a novel design called dual-mode electrohydraulic fully variable valve train (EHFVVT) for both engine intake and exhaust. The system is controlled by either proportional flow control valves or proportional pressure relief valves. The author’s demonstrated a mathematical model of the valve train system and its dynamic analysis in their paper. Experimental and simulation results show that the proposed valve train was capable of achieving fully variable valve timing and lift control, and has the potential to eliminate the traditional throttle valve in the gasoline engines.

Rebhan & Stokes [5] demonstrated the combinability of two and four stroke operations in a single internal combustion engine equipped with a demonstrator vehicle. The proposed engine operating mode opens the gateway for downsizing the complete system beyond the conventional technical limits. Donitz et al. [6] presented a novel hybrid pneumatic engine configuration that entails fixed camshafts for both intake and exhaust valves while utilizing variable valve actuation for one charge valve per cylinder only. This configuration is operated entirely in four-stroke modes and requires a careful optimization of its operating strategy to achieve its fuel economy potential. The results showed small efficiency losses compared to a full two-stroke operation using four-stroke modes. Finally initial measurement results were obtained from the engine system which confirmed the validity of proposed approach. Senthilkumar et al. [7] conducted various tests on horizontal single cylinder variable speed Greaves engine with various blends of cottonseed oil (B5, B10, B15, B20, B40 & B100) and further compared the performance of cottonseed oil with diesel. The results shows that B20 diesel with blend 20% yielded optimum value, with less fuel consumption and higher efficiencies than diesel and it is feasible us it in the diesel engine with no modification.

Shiao & Dat [8] proposed a dynamic model of an unthrottled SI engine to simulate the engine cycle. The model uses an Electromagnetic valve train (EMV) system that allows valvetrain control and provides optimal valve timing for different engine speeds. Additionally, the study also highlighted that cylinder deactivation modes can be successfully applied in improving engine efficiency at different engine loads. It was observed that the two-cylinder deactivation mode (50% CDA) considerably improves fuel consumption at low engine load. Meanwhile, one-cylinder deactivation (25% CDA) is an optimal fuel economy mode at medium engine load. With proper uses of CDA strategies, the efficiency of an SI engine can be increased more than 30% at low engine load and 11.7 % at medium engine load. Noga & Sendyka [9] demonstrated a design of five-stroke engine developed at Cracow University of Technology. The authors identified the effect of implementing five-stroke cycle into the engine with spark ignition in order to reduce toxic emissions and increase total efficiency. A test engine has been built having different design of timing system, four valves per cylinder and petrol direct injection. The study presented a detailed description of the engine design and the results of the tests of the five-stroke engine confirm an increase of specific torque and power and improved the total efficiency of the engine.


To read entire paper, click here


How to cite this article:

Kharola, A., Nikam, Y., Patil, H. (2018), A Review of Literature to aid in Management and Forecasting of Technology: A case of Petrol Engines, PM World Journal, Volume VII, Issue 5, May 2018. https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/pmwj70-May2018-Kharola-Nikam-Patil-forecasting-technology-literature-review-featured-paper.pdf

About the Authors

Ashwani Kharola

Tula’s Institute
Dehradun, India


Mr. Ashwani Kharola
received B.Tech (with Honors) in Mechanical Engineering from Dehradun Institute of Technology, Dehradun in 2010 and M.Tech in CAD/CAM & Robotics from Graphic Era University, Dehradun in 2013. Presently he is working as Assistant Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering at Tula’s Institute, Dehradun. Earlier he has worked as a Research Fellow in Institute of Technology Management (ITM), One of premier training institute of Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India. He is pursuing PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Graphic Era University (Deemed University), Dehradun. He has published many Research papers in National/International peer reviewed ISSN Journals and IEEE Conferences. His current areas of work includes Fuzzy logic reasoning, Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) control, Neural Networks, PID, Mathematical Modeling & Simulation.  He can be contacted at [email protected]


Yadnyesh Nikam

Tula’s Institute
Dehradun, India


Mr Yadnyesh Sanjay Nikam
is presently pursuing B. Tech in Mechanical Engineering from Tula’s Institute (affiliated to Uttarakhand Technical University), Dehradun. Tula’s is one of the best engineering colleges in Dehradun. His current areas of interest include Automobile engineering, Thermodynamics, CAD, etc. He can be contacted at     [email protected]


Hitesh Patil

Tula’s Institute
Dehradun, India


Mr Hitesh Dinesh Patil
is presently pursuing B. Tech in Mechanical Engineering from Tula’s Institute (affiliated to Uttarakhand Technical University), Dehradun. Tula’s is one of the best engineering colleges in Dehradun. His current areas of interest include Automobile engineering, Robotics, CAD etc. He can be contacted at [email protected]