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Can Project Management Dispute Resolution Methods

be Used to Resolve Disputes in the Esports Live Streaming Industry?

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Guohao Su

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France

 



ABSTRACT

The esports industry is thriving in the last couple of years. Esports live streaming is also becoming well known and popular, especially among young people. However, cheating by live streamers is a tough and unavoidable problem that leads to contract disputes between the live streamer and the live streaming platform. This paper aims to find the most efficient alternative to resolve these disputes. To do so, we list six different alternative methods in the project management dispute resolution level. Combing with certain criteria, we select prevention as the best alternative after deeply analysing these six ways. We also provide with tools for live streaming platforms to monitor the result of the alternative in the end.

Keywords: Video games, Contract disputes, Cheating, Esports, Sports, Live streaming, Live streamers, Competition.

INTRODUCTION

The path for professional esports gamers was not flat. My dad’s colleague’s son decided to chase his esports dream 12 years ago and was supported by no one. Different from sports like football or basketball, video game players were not accepted at that time. Fortunately, from dim small rooms to gorgeous stadiums, esports is widely accepted by people today and esports players are finally treated as real sports athletes. The esports have be counted as a demonstration sport in Jakarta Palembang 2018 Asian Games.

2017: League of Legends Worlds season 7 finals in Olympic Stadium of Beijing in China[1]
2018: League of Legends finals in Jakarta Palembang 2018 Asian Games.[2]

Thanks to the development of video games industry, esports live streaming platform like Twitch becomes extremely popular among young people. The live streaming attracts a huge number of viewers and wields a lot of influence.

Table: Top 10 Most Watched Twitch Streamers of the Week, June 04 – June 10, 2018[3]

Ninja 5.6M
Shroud 2.2M
Tsm_myth 1.7M
dakotaz 1.2M
timthetatman 1.1M
Summit1g 1.1M
lirik 1.0M
imaqtpie 987.8K
B0aty 950.4K
sodapoppin 772.1K

This chart shows the influence of live streaming and the importance of the subject of this paper. The cheating behavior by esports streamers can cause adverse impacts. Cheating will absolutely ruin not only the steamer’s reputation but also the image of the live streaming platform. The live streaming platform might be no longer interested in signing contracts with the streamer or penalizing the streamer due to the decreasing of viewers. At this moment, the contract disputes could happen between the live streaming platform and the streamer.

In this paper, we will mainly focus on analyzing the contract violations of cheating by esports streamers and finding resolutions to manage the contract disputes and reduce bad public influence.

Feasible alternatives and analyzing methods are the tools needed for this research. The term of use or term of service is the contract signed between players and game companies. The partner contract is the agreement between live streamers and live streaming platform. A term of use/ partner contract is a contractual document that aims to regulate the interactions between the game/ live streaming service provider and its users.  These contracts are also needed for this paper.

‘The planning, scheduling, and controlling of project activities to achieve performance, cost, and time objectives, for a given scope of work, while using resources efficiently and effectively.’ [4] Project management is defined according to brochure by Management Concepts Inc. 1999. We consider that the development of a live streamer’s personal channel as a long-term project. The controlling of the cheating behavior is obviously included in the process of project management. We are going to have a look at how this definition works as selection of criteria in the next part of paper called ‘METHODOLOGY’ to help us analyze the outcomes of feasible alternatives.

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Su, G. (2018). Can Project Management Dispute Resolution Methods be Used to Resolve Disputes in the Esports Live Streaming Industry? PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Su-dispute-resolution-in-esports-live-streaming-industry.pdf



About the Author


Guohao Su

Paris, France

 

 

Highly motivated to be a successful project manager in the future, Guohao Su is currently an MSC student in Project and Program management in SKEMA business school, Paris, France. He graduated from South Paris University and holds a Bachelor’s degree in international business. He has worked for BAOBATEX, a clothes creation and design company, as commercial management assistant in Paris, France. He likes working in multicultural environment and participating in projects. His dream is working in a big international company and challenging complex projects.

Guohao lives in Paris, France and can be contacted at [email protected]

 

[1] RACHEL KASER. (October 17, 2018). Yes, esports are big enough to fill an Olympic stadium — can we shut up about that now? from https://thenextweb.com/gaming/2017/11/03/esports-fill-olympic-stadium/

[2] 17173 News (August 30, 2018). 亚运会LOL决赛你可能没有注意到的细节:RNG队员的王子复仇记. from http://news.17173.com/content/08302018/115900865_all.shtml

[3] The Esports observer. (June 10, 2018). Top 10 Most Watched Twitch Streamers of the Week, June 04 – June 10, 2018 from https://esportsobserver.com/top-10-streamers-june-04-june-10-2018/

[4] Definition of Project management from brochure by Management Concepts Inc. 1999 Retrieved October 17, 2018, from http://www.maxwideman.com/pmglossary/PMG_P16.htm

 

 

Using Multi-Attribute Decision Making

to Define, Prioritize and Manage Software Requirements

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Haoyu Wang

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France

 



ABSTRACT

In the development process of software projects, requirement management runs through the entire life cycle of software projects. In software project management, requirements engineering is the first step in software development, which is a key step and the most difficult step. The quality in requirement management directly affects the quality of software and even the success or failure of software projects. This determines that the project team must have a requirement management strategy and effective implementation.

This paper uses multi-attribute decision making to define and prioritize several behavioral development models that manage software requirements and will help users understand the most critical criteria they should choose (from the customer’s point of view), the advantages and disadvantages of various methods in different aspects. This should allow a team to achieve barrier-free communication, error-free delivery.

Keywords: Specification by Example (SBE),Requirements, information technology, Software, System product, agile, behavioral development models

INTRODUCTION

As IT systems become more and more critical competitive factors in the industry, the scale of the IT project is more and more prominent, involves the organization level is higher and higher, the risk of the project is becoming more and bigger. As one of the fastest growing areas in the world today, the failure of the project also represents a large amount of capital loss and time cost and the waste of labor costs. According to the PMI industry statistics, ‘the average waste of IT industry project expenditures in 2017 was as high as $78 million per $1 billion. Among them, the average waste was the highest regarding geographical distribution and European project expenditure, and $131 million was wasted for every $1 billion.[1]

Then in the field, there are many examples of companies being dragged down by the IT project or the returns were much lower than expected. The data in Figure 1 is the result of the IT project in earlier years. We can see that only 39% of IT projects were successful in that year. This figure means that more than 50% of the IT projects did not achieve the expected results.

Figure 1: Software development project results[2]

Then the software that has been successfully developed must be no problem, without the doubt? However, it is not. According to statistics, there are still many customers not satisfied with the final delivery software. And after customers use the software for two months, the percentage of dissatisfaction can double. This figure is a horrifying number and lets us take a look at the situation of industry practitioners. In the project development work, many programmers have not understood the target results. With this requirement, people can start development. However, the reality is that people do not know what to do, but they continue to develop. When the project is postponed, or there is a problem with the project test, time and money have been lost, and Inconsistent with the original intention.

The technology is advanced, the team is strong, and the products have a market. However, it still failed because – “delivered the wrong software.” However, for a project that delivers a piece of software, “delivering the wrong software” is often the origin of the dispute. However, it is also a difficult problem to solve. For the owner, he is paying for a “right software.” However, there are often hardships for the developers who are entrusted, because they are given instructions to “act the software according to the precise functional description of the owner.” “Correct or not” is not their ultimate responsibility. Whether or not “correct” usually has to wait until after the online, the customer can know according to the user’s actual measurement response (although the developer is often the development stage can usually guess the group of people who failed). However, this is never within the responsibility of the contract.

STEP 1: Problem Definition

How did this happen, why did it become like this? Let us have a look at some of the features of IT project to help us sort out the problems.

In the IT project, the following points are different from the general project:

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Wang, H. (2018). Using Multi-Attribute Decision Making to Define, Prioritize and Manage Software Requirements, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December). Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Wang-define-prioritize-manage-software-requirements.pdf



About the Author


Haoyu Wang

Paris, France

 


Haoyu Wang
, Chinese, 23 years old, major in Project and Programme Management & Business Development (PPMBD) at Skema Business School in Paris, France. He has a background in business and IT education.

Before coming to France, Haoyu completed his studies at ZhaoQing College in China and hold a bachelor’s degree in the Internet of Things. Haoyu has been working for ‘Network Information and Security Research Institute’ (China) and ‘Internet of Things Collaborative Innovation Center Embedded Systems Application Institute’ (China) for many years. During this time, he assisted in the completion of the ‘SMS-based smartphone virus propagation analysis and simulation system research’ and the ‘Unmanned Helicopter Quadrotor,’ ‘WiFi student attendance system.’ From 2015 to 2016, Haoyu hosted the provincial assignment tasks ‘climbing plan’ and ‘Challenge Cup.’ Finally, the task is perfectly delivered with ‘small block type wireless LED display design’ and ‘smart home remote monitoring system development.’ After that, he assisted the professor in publishing an article entitled “Spi / Uart and Zigbee Protocol Conversion Module Design” in the IoT Journal. In 2016, he became an executive intern at Hong Kong AXA Insurance Company. Participate in the ‘fund selection plan and solve the difficulties and countermeasures of financial planning in mainland China.’

Haoyu has the potential to be a promising project manager. At the same time, he has great enthusiasm and interest in the IT field.Haoyu is now working on a master in sciences in Skema business school.He lives in Paris now and can be contacted at [email protected]  or https://www.linkedin.com/in/haoyu-wang-0a21b1161/

 

[1] Pulse of the Profession | Project Management Institute. (November 11). Retrieved from https://www.pmi.org/Pulse

[2] Sweeney, M. (2015). 3 Reasons Why Software Development Projects Fail – Clearcode Blog. Retrieved from https://clearcode.cc/blog/why-software-development-projects-fail/

 

Using Islamic Law

for Alternative Dispute Resolution: Is Sharia Sufficient?

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Abdul Wahid

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France

 



ABSTRACT

The importance of adequate mitigation of disputes between two opposing parties is hugely important in any circumstance, and in particular in business. With more than 1.6 billion followers and a steep history, the Islamic faith has a long-held tradition of resolving disputes without formal court proceedings. The goal of this paper was to explore whether or not the principles of Dispute Resolution advocated by Islam was sufficient when comparing to those found in Western Law.

Comparing the Islamic principles and processes of Dispute Resolution against a baseline from English Common Law, and using a MADM Dominance Analysis, the two legal systems were judged on how they suggest disputes can and should be resolved. It was found that Sharia Law is more than adequate in its instructions on how to resolve a number of disputes. It was clear that Sharia law is not at odds with Western legal principles but can be modernized to further improve.

Keywords: Disputes, Dispute Resolution Methods, Sharia, Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation & Arbitration Guidelines, Resolution Benefits

INTRODUCTION

The nature of all businesses is the desire to build capital & gain prosperity, and therefore any such obstacle to achieving this is strongly undesirable. It can be suggested that the key to attaining this success lies in the smooth relationships between all parties.  Nonetheless, within any realm of life, especially within the business world, disputes and claims arise, and inevitably they result in great losses, both in terms of time and, more importantly, lead to unnecessary costs.

Traditionally the approach to resolving disputes between any parties who are in disagreement has been to proceed to litigation. However, as this formal process itself can unarguably be time-consuming and costly, alternative approaches have been explored and developed.

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is a broad term referring to any method of resolving disputes outside of litigation. Typically, ADR processes involve mediation, arbitration and conciliation. Its origins, especially the concept of arbitration, goes back to the great Ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, and references to arbitration in issues relating to commerce can also be found in biblical passages. Whilst ADR has been used for centuries, it has gained a steadily increasing popularity throughout the 20th century as an alternative to the litigation process and now is often the mandatory pre-cursor to seeking formal action in the courts.

While ADR has observed somewhat of a renaissance as an alternative access to justice, ADR’s underlying processes have formed the principals of dispute resolution for many early civilizations’ societies, one of which is the Islamic civilization.

Sharia, or Islamic law, is the religious law that forms part of the Islamic faith. Deriving from the main principles of teachings of Islam, particularly the Holy Qur’an and Hadith (sayings and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad), sharia “produces criminal and civil law, religious mandates and personal codes of conducts” for which society can be governed.

Step 1 – Problem Definition

In the 1400-year existence of Islam, Muslims have consistently focused on reaching consensus between disputing parties; the overriding premise has been that compromise has always been preferred over confrontation.

With its long history of using ADR-type methods to come to amicable solutions to their differences, this paper will explore whether or not the principles, practices and processes that underpin Dispute Resolution in Sharia match up to those we use in the 21st century. Additionally, considering that the duration these methods have been used, it is vital to explore whether or not anything can be gleaned from them to further improve the ADR processes we implement in the West today.

In a world, where the tide of Islamophobia continues to rise, and one where people are increasingly, and unknowingly, becoming ever more afraid of Sharia and ultimately Islam and Muslims, the intent of this paper is to bridge the gap and see if, and how, we can learn from its principles to improve our very own methods of Dispute Resolution.

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Wahid, A. (2018). Using Islamic Law for Alternative Dispute Resolution: Is Sharia Sufficient? PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Wahid-sharia-law-for-alternative-dispute-resolution.pdf



About the Author


Abdul Wahid

Paris, France

 

 

Abdul Wahid graduated from the MSc Project and Programme Management & Business Development student at SKEMA Business School with a 3.9 GPA including receiving a grade of 90% for his Thesis on Social Mobility. Prior to this he graduated from Birkbeck, University of London in 2013, and holds a BSc (Hons) in Psychology.

He currently is employed at France’s largest bank in a role as Relationship Manager; prior to this he worked in the Financial Services and Insurance sector, at two of the largest financial institutions, The Royal Bank of Scotland Group and Lloyds Banking Group in his home country of the United Kingdom. He now resides in Paris, France and can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

Cost of Creating Winning Proposals

for Oil and Gas

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Abhinav Sharma

SKEMA Business School

Lille, France

 



ABSTRACT

Cash flows from projects are the lifeline for all contractors, in this age of competition and reverse auction processes across contracting increases the pressure on contractors to keep margins lower and costing as close to reality as possible. There are multiple approaches which can be used for the estimation of project cost, but with so many options to choose from it becomes difficult to select only one estimation and just rely on it. Some methods just take the historical input which are not time consuming and can be automated to come up with estimation whereas there are other methods which need more effort from the side of the contractor but give results which are close to real costs if something extraordinary event does not take place. As per AACE guidelines 0.005% of the total cost of project is the optimum cost of estimation for the project, this number comes up to be very low for the second kind of estimation which includes all the plausible scenarios for the project. This paper is an attempt to evaluate multiple methods on this criterion and come up with the probability of winning a project based on the estimation, an imaginary scenario with real numbers as possible are used but a real project is more complex and need more input for evaluation. The probability of winning a bid is the highest in the Definite Estimate as per the analysis. Further, comprehensive research is required to come up with exact time and cost parameters which is out of scope of this research paper.

Keywords:      Bidding, Oil and Gas, Construction, Proposals, Cost, EPC, Outsourcing, Optimum bidding, Cost of Bidding, Winning Bids

  1. Introduction

Energy need of the world is growing immensely with each passing year[1]. Oil and Gas are still among the key energy resources of the world[2]. Each O&G project involves resources and capabilities of people from multiple disciplines. Many different companies across the globe come together to make these projects successful. Engineering Procurement and Construction companies are the first to carry out the estimations for these megaprojects. Many small vendors and contractors are used to carry out the last leg construction of these projects.

With such scale of projects, there is always the possibility of miscommunication and misinterpretation of expectations. The stakeholder to suffer the most because of these issues is the contractor because the livelihood of these contractors is based only on the cash flows from projects. A small misjudgment in bid calculation may lead to the death of such contractors.

A question arises from complexities of these projects; How long should be given to these contractors to make an optimum bid which keeps every stakeholder happy?

There are many assumptions during bid phase of the project[3], which results in contractors using different ways of tackling with uncertainties. Some contractors use the “Magic Number”[4] technique, where they multiply an arbitrary number based on experience with each calculated cost to come up with the final bid price. On the other hand, some contractors dig down to each activity and price the bid based on the calculated cost of each of these activities. The first kind of estimation is quick but may result in very wage bid for large projects whereas the second kind of estimation takes more time but is close to actual cost + profit for the project. There is also a question of the Cost of drafting the bid proposal; these proposals may take hours or months to draft depending on the complexity of projects and type of proposal.

This paper is an attempt at understanding the reasonable time frame and cost which is optimum for all the stakeholders of projects. A study of the type of proposals, the complexity of projects and historical bid errors would help in shedding light on these complex questions.

  • Objective statement

What is optimum time and cost associated with a winning proposal?

  1. Firstly, evaluating present types of methods used for making proposals based on guidelines given in AACE Education Board Skills and Knowledge document.
  2. Secondly, understanding the cost associated with each method.
  3. Thirdly, assessing the cost to benefit ratio for each method and present optimum time and cost associated with a winning proposal.

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Sharma, A. (2018). Cost of Creating Winning Proposals for Oil and Gas, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Sharma-cost-of-creating-winning-proposals-for-oil-and-gas.pdf



About the Author


Abhinav Sharma

Lille, France

 

 

Abhinav Sharma is a student of Post Graduate Program in Management offered by Indian Institute of Management, Trichy. He was an exchange student at Skema Business School, Lille in 2017. He has 38 months’ work experience with Weir Minerals India in Mining Equipment design and Oil and Gas piping design. He finished his internship with Deloitte USI where he worked on implementation of ERP systems for High-Tech industry. Abhinav can be contacted at [email protected]

 

[1] See EY publication on Spotlight on Oil and Gas Megaprojects http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY-spotlight-on-oil-and-gas-megaprojects/$FILE/EY-spotlight-on-oil-and-gas-megaprojects.pdf

[2] See EY publication on Spotlight on Oil and Gas Megaprojects http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY-spotlight-on-oil-and-gas-megaprojects/$FILE/EY-spotlight-on-oil-and-gas-megaprojects.pdf

[3] See EY publication on Joint Ventures for Oil and Gas Megaprojects http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/ey-joint-ventures-for-oil-and-gas-megaprojects/$FILE/ey-joint-ventures-for-oil-and-gas-megaprojects.pdf

[4] See Guide to bidding by Steven E Moore http://www.irrisoft.net/news/newsletters/january2010/Guide to Bidding.pdf

 

 

Is Estimating the Cost of a Mobile Application Development

really so Easy?

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Shuchi Sethi

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France

 



ABSTRACT

The traditional information systems are undergoing a rapid transformation as per the environmental needs, and undergoing an adaptation process. But many mobile application development projects are failing because of inaccurate cost estimation. The paper addresses the problems of the different methods of cost estimation that can be used for mobile application development as well as which method gives the most efficient and accurate cost estimate. Different methods give different results basis the attributes and the method which abides by the maximum attributes gives the most accurate cost estimation. The following methods were used in the research namely Expert Judgement (Delphi technique), COCOMO II, Estimation by Analogy, Top-Down Approach and Bottom-Up Approach. However, a single method isn’t sufficient to solve the purpose, hence, the best method to follow is by combining two or more alternatives which would give us a HYBRID method, which has also been proven with the help of the Additive Weightage MADM Technique.

Cost estimation is a tedious task and each method has its own pros and cons, and satisfies a different criterion depending on the requirement of the mobile application which is being worked on. Therefore, we finally can conclude that no one single method can satisfy all the project’s requirements and give an accurate cost estimation.

Keywords: Cost Estimation, Mobile application development, Software cost Estimation, time estimation, Delphi technique, IT project, Project success, COCOMO II model, MADM methodology

INTRODUCTION

Ever wondered the overshooting costs of projects in the world of today, especially in the field of IT. As per an article in Harvard Business Review, “it was revealed that, one in six IT projects has a cost overrun of 200%,” which is a quite high rate of failure for estimation.

Cost estimate is quantitative assessment of forecasting cost and analysis of the work required by the design documents. Cost estimation is used for evaluating individual component values and thereby estimates the total value of the project. It is a continuous process which is carried out throughout the project’s life starting from planning stage.

The cost estimation of a mobile application development starts with the reviewing of concepts with designers and developers, and identifying the size of the app. Then the time schedule is forecasted which is needed for design, development and QA. These steps are bifurcated as Design Estimate, Development Estimate and QA, Testing and Debugging Estimate. On the basis of these steps, Project Cost is estimated.

The cost of developing a mobile application is based on many factors like complexity, features and the platform. Of this, the most important factor which contributes to accurate cost estimation is the complexity of the app. As a general thumb rule, the cost of building a mobile app usually moves up the scale the more robust and complex it is. Another factor which contributes to the cost estimation is the platform, for which the mobile application is being developed for. The Android version of the app usually costs more than the iOS version. Also, the features added to the app, adds more cost.

  1. Problem Definition

Cost estimation is considered to be one of the most challenging tasks in project management. It depends on accurate effort estimation and time estimation for development of mobile application development projects. The development of a mobile application process includes size of the mobile app, effort estimation, project schedule, and overall cost estimation of the project.

There are many methods for estimating the cost of a mobile app project, but only few gives the accurate results. Inaccurate cost estimation is one of the major reasons of a project’s failure.

There are adverse consequences of inaccurate Cost Estimation techniques:

  1. Profitability- Inaccurate cost estimation will impact the profitability of the project. If cost is overestimated or underestimated, profit will be understated or overstated respectively.
  2. Inefficient Distribution of Resources- An inaccurate allocation of resources also results in inaccurate estimation of cost which results in over or under utilization of resources affecting the productivity of the project.
  3. Poor Decision Making- Inaccuracy in cost estimation causes inaccurate financial information which also effects in making poor decision-making processes which affects the projects. These incorrect figures may result in unnecessary or detrimental effects on the project and the organization, ultimately affecting the profitability.

In this context, it can be summarized that the research is addressing the problem of:

  1. What different methods can be used to do mobile app development cost estimation?
  2. Which method gives the most efficient and accurate cost estimate?

More…

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Sethi, S. (2018). Is Estimating the Cost of a Mobile Application Development really so Easy?, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Sethi-estimating-the-cost-of-mobile-app-development.pdf



About the Author


Shuchi Sethi

Delhi, India

 

 

Shuchi Sethi, student of SKEMA Business School, France is pursuing “Masters in Project and Programme Management and Business Development”. She is certified in AGILEPM Foundation, PRINCE2 Foundation, Lean Six Sigma Green Belt, CAPM and ISTQB- Foundation Level. She originates from Delhi, India where she studied B. Tech (Electronics and Communication) from Banasthali University. She has an experience of over 5 years working as Sr. Test Engineer at HCL Technologies. You can contact her on her email at [email protected], and also on LinkedIn at 60a32430.

 

 

Contract Lifespan Management

for Data Processing Projects

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Mamtha Manoharan

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France

 



ABSTRACT

Data processing projects has more impacts has technology became  easy to every common individual, every one of us has the experience of providing our personal information to any of domain in ways to get some befits of outputs,  all these information in detail will be discussed in analyzing article below where this paper will help you to have an clear picture how data in processing hub are treated in different terms with particular agreement between customer, who provides information to data processing system or hub handle this data processing system, where this paper helps everyone getting awareness that how to provide data to processing hub with full involvement to the entire project so that data can be managed in secure cycle at process of data and even after the processed out in this shade this paper will take you in to the analysis that concludes whether data provided are managed to be in secure cycle, how long it’s secure any new terms in agreement can be implemented make the agreement more effective to make the data in secure stage even after the termination of agreement followed in data processing project, it will also help customer and data processor to understand their responsibilities rather common responsibilities in managing the data in secure stage as security issues lack on information technology built it’s methodology.

Keywords: Contract lifecycle management, DPA – Data Processing Agreement, processing of data, Transferring of data, limitation in data processing. Act of DPA.

INTRODUCTION

Data processing refers to the process of operations or an organized collection of facts and information, such as records on organization, customers or an individual, the forms of data processing set serve many of business settling where they are specifically adapted for Administrative, Commercial, financial, Managerial and supervisory, to process commercial data such as stock control, payroll production, keeping track of orders, producing Invoices, monitoring payments and withdrawal, processing application forms.

As technology grows data are processed and monitored by the computer system as electronic data processing (EDP). Where the data processing cycle is of three stages as

  • Process, collect and enter the data.
  • Process and store the data.
  • Then output the information.

There is a vast growth to a technology simultaneously there is a security issues and major problems lacks to the technology, here considering data processing are a few question arising: Is any third part uses our data , who process the data, who has rights to process the data and how rights are down by other parties to process on data to all this minor questions there is contractual term has been followed by numerous data processing solution and companies who deals a big technology on a business hub of processing data where there is one contractual term exist between data processing framework system that is Data Processing Agreement (DPA) where this DPA is signed between data provider (customer) and data exporter that is controller to data processor, controller is one who instructs the data processor on processing the data, which data has to be processed and transferred on the basis of agreement terms signed between the provider and data controller, controller has the responsibility on access to the data within in the control limitation and processor is responsibility for transferring the data across the cloud in information technology and make sure the access of other third party only to the relevant information rather than all information provided by the customer.

  1. Problem Definition

Where system of data contains most of personal information on individual, increases significant

disadvantages in balance of self and data system. The user gives personal information for record keeping system in purpose to exchange some rights, liberty, privilege, benefit assurance of civil liberty and opportunity and the user expectation are that information will be used for purpose or need for what they provided, certainly not in a way to detriment as they are not excepted to be annoyed, pressured or harmed by the information provided, in this situation to be aware on data or information provided should be properly authenticated towards privacy and security issues, this article helps to analysis termination of data processing agreements and lifetime of data processed under agreements, where this analysis helps to conclude:

Whether data processed under the cycle are managed to be secure even after termination of agreement?

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Manoharan, M.l (2018). Contract Lifespan Management for Data Processing Projects, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December). Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Manoharan-contract-lifespan-management-for-data-processing-projects.pdf



About the Author


Mamtha Manoharan

Paris, France

 

 

Mamtha Manoharan is a student of MSC. Project & Programme Management and Business Development from AACSB accredit SKEMA Business School, Paris. With nearly 7 years of work experience in Information technology and Customer management, Miss. Manoharan has experience in private sector. She has a Master’s Degree in Software and Informatic Engineering, and worked in IT corporate with various projects leading a team. She has many excellence performance awards under his belt from his previous employers. She resolved technical issues for EMC customers and practices techniques on project management to be in advanced professional level to reliable projects.  Mamtha can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

Pros and Cons of Using Local Content

for Renewable Projects

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Sumit K. Chauhan

SKEMA Business School

Lille, France

 



ABSTRACT

Renewable projects are picking up pace around the world, in developed as well as developing countries. In such projects, developing countries are imposing local content sourcing requirements to protect their markets in the short term and advance their markets for supporting the growth in long term while it has been continuously opposed by developed countries by being cited as a violation of the free trade practices of WTO. Therefore, this paper is developed to analyze the issue of local content requirements (LCR) and uses multi attribute decision making to compare different alternatives such as 0% LCR, <50% LCR, >50% LCR and 100% LCR. Based on this analysis, the author will reach a conclusion on which alternative will serve the best for a nation keeping in mind the short-term benefits as well as long-term effects of adopting such a policy.

Keywords: Indo-US Solar Dispute, Renewable Energy, Local Content Requirements (LCR), Environmental Exceptions, World Trade Organization, Free Trade Issues, Paris Climate Agreement.

INTRODUCTION

The world has been dependent upon fossil fuels for a long time for producing electricity. But now renewable sources of energy have been picking up for electricity production and investment in all countries is flowing in this sector. Earlier many, developing and under developed, countries have been largely dependent upon fossil fuels for electricity generation, given the high initial investment and cost of producing electricity through renewable sources of energy. But nowadays, given that cost of producing energy through renewable sources is decreasing and becoming more viable, countries are moving towards renewables.

A case in point is India which had set ambitious target of achieving 57% of total electricity capacity to come from non-fossil fuel sources by 2027. But an underdeveloped solar market in its home country has led to increasing reliance on foreign market for buying solar products. This led to high costs of buying in short term as well as long term. Therefore, to build a domestic market and reduce its reliance on imports, India has put domestic content requirements (DCR) restrictions in renewable projects. This will boost the local market and therefore support the government in long term, if not the short term, and achieve its objective of reducing emissions in a quick and inexpensive manner. However, this support for local market is viewed by US as giving undue advantage to home players and has been cited as a violation of free trade law of WTO which can impact India in terms of loss of trade and foreign investment in other sectors.

This raises the question of whether the underdeveloped countries should use such restrictions to develop local markets or should they avoid such actions to not lose out in other areas due to trade restrictions. Therefore, this paper seeks to analyze the impact of domestic content requirements (DCR) in renewable projects and the extent to which a country should use such restrictions.

METHODOLOGY

STEP 1:  To analyze the percentage of local content requirement that would best serve a nation, Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) has been used. Since the attributes are quite subjective this analysis method would be the best to use. We plan to compare the local content requirement ranging from 0% to 100% divided into four scenarios. By using the MADM methods, we will able to find out the best option for enforcing local content requirements in renewable projects.

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Chauhan, S. K. (2018). Pros and Cons of Using Local Content for Renewable Projects, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December).  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Chauhan-local-content-for-renewable-projects.pdf



About the Author


Sumit Kumar Chauhan      

Calcutta, India

 

 

Sumit Kumar Chauhan is an MBA student in Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, India. He graduated from Delhi College of Engineering, India and holds a bachelor’s degree in Computer Engineering. He has worked for a total of 3 years in SAP Labs as an Associate Developer and in ZS Associates as a Business Analyst. He studied in France on a student exchange program and can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

Effective Tactics for Delay Analysis

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Pratyush K. Chaturvedi

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France

 


 
ABSTRACT

This study aims at investigating the main cause of delays within Oil & Gas & Construction EPC Projects. TIA (Time Impact Analysis) is a schedule delay analysis technique to claim the contract time extension and cost due to the delays which are not the responsibilities of the contractor. The time for performance (Plan vs Actual) of a project is usually important for both the contractor and Employer (Owner/Client). The purpose of project delays is making right decisions on potential times and cost claims for both parties. This study shows the impact of delays within FEED (Front End Engineering Design) and execution phase on overall duration of the project. The requirement for performing TIA is that schedule must have recently updated and approved Critical Path method schedule.

Keywords: Oil & Gas Projects, EPC Projects, Delay Analysis, Cost Claims, Extension of Time, Scheduling, Critical Path Method (CPM), Extension of Time (EOT), Owner & Contractor, Vendor, Claim, Baseline Schedule

INTRODUCTION

A Time Impact Analysis (TIA) is a modeled method of analysis to aid in supporting a request for an extension of contract time. As defined by AACE RP 52R-06, “TIME Effect Examination is connected in Oil and Gas and Development Industry. The TIA id ‘forward-looking’ planned timetable investigation procedure that adds a displayed delay to an acknowledged contract calendar to decide the conceivable effect of that deferral to the undertaking culmination.” On the other hand, “ACE RP 29R-03, FORENSIC SCHEDULE ANALYSIS-2011[1] (29R- 03), endeavors to characterize and portray review investigations.” This demonstrates some ‘Observational examination’s Method Implementation Protocols (MIP 3.3, 3.4, 3.5) are every so often called ‘Time Impact Analysis’ (TIA). Be that as it may, most investigators think about TIA as a ‘Demonstrated’ examination (MIP 3.6, 3.7) [Figure 1]. Under the portrayal of MIP 3.6, ordinarily referred to as ‘Affected As-Planned’, RP 29R-03 states: ‘MIP 3.6 can be utilized tentatively or reflectively’.

Figure 1. AACE RP29R-03 Forensic Schedule Analysis

What is PROSPECTIVE and RETROSPECTIVE analysis?[2]

PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS
RP 29R-03 defines prospective analyses as:

“Prospective analyses are performed in real-time prior to the delay event or in real-time, contemporaneous with the delay event. In all cases prospective analysis consists of the analyst’s best estimate of future events. Prospective analysis occurs while the project is still underway and may not evolve into a forensic context.”

RP 29R-03 defines Retrospective analyses as:

“Retrospective analyses are performed after the delay event has occurred and the impacts are known. The timing may be soon after the delay event but prior to the completion of the overall project, or after the completion of the entire project… In other words, even forward-looking analysis methods implemented retrospectively have the full benefit of hindsight at the option of the analyst.”

The Time Impact Analysis is performed while a venture is in running stage. The Time Impact Analysis additionally a procedure to be utilized by the Contractor as an inward strategy to assess changes to recuperate or enhance venture consummation for delays caused by the Contractor. According to individual late experience, many contracts concur that TIA ought to be arranged and submitted to quantitatively approve the Contractor’s ask for time augmentation. Once the span of time has been settled upon, at that point the additional time-related expenses of such a deferral can be resolved regarding the agreement.

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Chaturvedi, P. K. (2018). Effective Tactics for Delay Analysis, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XII (December). Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/pmwj77-Dec2018-Chaturvedi-effective-tactices-for-delay-analysis.pdf



About the Author


Pratyush Kumar Chaturvedi

Uttar Pradesh, India

 

 

 
Pratyush K Chaturvedi, is a certified holder of AgilePM Foundation and PRINCE2 Foundation with an extensive experience of over 9 years in Project Management and Project Controls as a planner, scheduler, budget & cost control in Oil & Gas, Power Plant and construction industry. At present, he is pursuing a Masters in Project and Programme Management and Business Development from SKEMA Business School, Paris. He originates from Uttar Pradesh, India where he completed his graduation with a Bachelor Degree in Information Technology (2006) from Uttar Pradesh Technical University. Previously, he has worked for Punj Lloyd Limited in India, Qatar and Indonesia as a planning engineer; followed by Corrtech International Pvt. Ltd., India as a senior engineer; after that he worked with PT. Timas Suplindo, Indonesia as a Lead Project Control Engineer; recently he worked with PT. Visacall Jaya Abadi, Indonesia as a Project Planner.

Pratyush can be contacted at mail [email protected] and at linked 5355b61a.

[2] THE USE (OR MISUSE) OF A PROSPECTIVE TIME IMPACT ANALYSIS PROVISION IN A FORENSIC ARENA: A CASE STUDY. (2017). Navigant.com. Retrieved 26 November 2017, from https://www.navigant.com/-/media/www/site/insights/construction/2017/gcon_ifh_theuseormisuseoftias_tl_0617.pdf

 

 

Sustainable Activism & Ecology:

New Challenges in the Construction Field

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Jérôme Andriamirado

SKEMA Business School

Lille, France

 



ABSTRACT

The following paper is treating today’s context, where the construction field is one of the major cause of pollution in most countries of the world. It actually has deep impacts on public health, soil and air. The following analysis is doing a comparison between international contracts frameworks to show what would be the best alternatives or which one is worth using for a green construction project. After developing how frameworks can be used for a sustainable construction they will be compared using relative weighting technique and the additive weighting technique.  As a results of the analysis we will rank the best alternatives to find out the Consensusdoc and the American Institute of Architects provide satisfying frameworks for green buildings. In the end the consensudoc best fits today’s green challenges as it give substantial guidance for establishing and achieving green measures.

Keywords: Environmental impact, Energetic performance, Governmental constraints, Risk Management, Green Constructions, Green measures, Sustainable requirements

INTRODUCTION

Since the industrials revolutions there’s two things we can affirm, the population are gathering in cities while the farming activity has decreased but still has to be more efficient. The construction field is walking on a path that has consequent effect on the water life cycle, biodiversity and the overall quality of the air. When we look more in depth at this situation; we understand that constructions are largely responsible for the emission of greenhouse gases. In Switzerland, 22 million tons out of 55 million tons of greenhouse gases are from constructions activities. This field, due to its core business, requires large amounts of water and other energies, in France it’s representing about 50% of total energy consumptions. Constructions are also generating waste, and still in France only 61% is recycled. Governments, Companies and society are slowly becoming greener, but as companies have great responsibilities in the green transition they are required to be fast. Such a radical transition cannot happen without any risks.

With those concerns we can differentiate two streams that imply risks. The first on will obviously be the state. By setting up sustainable oriented and green laws the state may add new risks for companies. Those risks can take the format of fees, contributions, taxation, penalties and other sanctions.

If risks are firstly implied by governmental decisions, they are also implied by non-governmental entities (NGO, communitarian initiatives). If companies don’t respect certain rules of common sense regarding green behavior, they can be the targets of boycott, denunciations and other actions that could affect their notoriety.

Saying that, those actions might can have strong impacts on the health of a company. Sustainable related risks measurement is becoming a point that can’t be ignored for long-term strategies otherwise outcomes of a contract could be affected. The overall reflection will be analyzed through concepts such as the Consensus Doc, the AIA and the Virtue Matrix concepts, but also through governmental documents (laws articles).

During the whole article, I will provide statements and elements of analyses to answer the following questions:

  1. In today’s legal context, what are the risks implied by laws concerning sustainability?
  2. What kind of measures can be taken to comply with local law and today’s challenges?

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Andriamirado, J. (2018). Sustainable Activism & Ecology: New Challenges in the Construction Field, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XI – November.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/pmwj76-Nov2018-Andriamirado-sustainable-activism-and-ecology-student-paper.pdf

 



About the Author


Jérôme Andriamirado

Lille, France

 

 

Jérôme Andriamirado graduated with a Bachelor’s Degree from NEOMA Business School with minor in SME’s management and is now a project management student at SKEMA Business School with a business development focus. His diverse professional experiences have developed an entrepreneurship sensibility as most internships have been done in human sized companies and start-ups from various fields, from human resources companies to digital companies. Aware of today’s overall environmental situation he believes that one of the solutions to improve public health and sustainability from an environmental perspective and societal perspective must go through green construction, as greener and cheaper housing and business building can help to face diverse crises. His ambition is to work in a green company from an entrepreneurial perspective. Jérôme can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

Is change in Construction contracts a risk?

Analysis of causes and impacts

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Sirine Ben Jebara

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France

 



ABSTRACT

Changes in construction projects are very common and usually generate cost and time overruns. The purpose of management of change is to reduce the bad impacts of changes that are necessary to the project and not to eliminate them. Changes should be well-managed through a formalized change management process and if not, it will generate serious impacts on the schedule and the productivity of a project.

At this time, there is an insufficiency of standards for the methods used in project change management and the cause Is that the changes are sometimes not well-managed. Some projects are adaptable to changes since the contractors succeed in managing and predicting the change but there are some cases that they fail in saving the project from these different changes. To explain this, we used the Compensatory Model of Additive Weighting Technique to help us analyze different situations and different impacts of change within a construction projects.

Keywords: Change, Management, Impacts, Causes, Contractors, Construction projects, Risk, Organizational changes, Project changes.

INTRODUCTION

A construction project goes through several stages from planning, cost estimation, ordering, contracting, designing and engineering to the construction of the building and the delivery of the final project. In construction processes, decisions are taken based on the professionals’ personal experience and incomplete information that possibly lead to rework and change. Construction rework is generally related to the destruction of what has been already built, and this usually has a higher influence on the performance of the construction than the change option.

Managing the change is considered as an essential part of project management and it turns out to be very important to the success and the achievement of construction projects since project changes are unavoidable at all stages.

There are many sources for change which are inevitable but these changes generally refers to design or change orders, they have been called the biggest cause of disputes between the clients and the contractors and it can also be the cause of continuous delays in project schedule, requiring extra materials, added time, labor and cost to an already complex project. Changes should be managed to reduce the bad impacts and to maintain quality at its best level.

Change Management arises in construction at two levels which are project and organizational level. Managing how to introduce the change in an organization effectively and efficiently is the main purpose at the organizational level. On the other hand, the focus on trying to handle the changes that occur in the project due to external and internal reasons is the main aim at the project level.

Changes in construction projects can be the cause of many problems such as delays, claims and disputes and in some cases, it can be the cause of the end of a project if they are not resolved following a change management process.

To summarize, what this research has been designed to address are the following questions:

  • What are the main causes of change in construction contracts?
  • What are the impacts?

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Ben Jebara, S. (2018). Is change in Construction contracts a risk? Analysis of causes and impacts, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XI – November.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/pmwj76-Nov2018-Ben-Jebara-is-change-in-construction-contracts-a-risk.pdf

 



About the Author


Sirine Ben Jebara

Paris, France

 

 

Sirine Ben Jebara is an MSc student in SKEMA Business School, major in Project and Programme Management & Business Development (PPMBD). She graduated from HEC Carthage in Tunisia and held a Bachelor’s high-quality diploma in Finance. She has attended three internships in general in different types of company. She also has the knowledge background about international Marketing. She performed humanitarian work during her university years. She lives in Paris, France now and can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

Building Sustainability into a Contract:

How to create more “Green” Supply Chain Contracts

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Souhaila Bouddou

SKEMA Business School

Lille, France

 



ABSTRACT

Sustainability in supply chain can have an important impact on the overall well-being of society and the environment. In fact, many companies work on adopting a sustainable approach since different activities can harm the environment, the economy or the society. In this paper, we considered the contract as an essential management tool for supply chain projects. As a matter of fact, we studied if it is possible to apply sustainability concepts to a contractual framework to create more “green” supply chain contracts. Using a Multi-Attribute Decision Making as well as relative and additive weighting techniques, we analyzed how different alternatives can be adopted. Finally, we demonstrated how including sustainability provisions in supply chain contracts and encouraging local provisions and employment can help integrating sustainability in supply chain project contracts.

Keywords: Sustainability, Supply chain, Procurement, Contract, Industry, Project Management

INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, organizations are facing several challenges. In fact, it is getting more complex to manage projects due to the fast-changing and highly competitive environments. Also, it became important to combine economic, social and environmental aspects to build sustainable projects. However, when focusing on sustainability issues, many firms do not pay attention to the contract as an essential management tool for organizing and implementing the different viable actions. As a matter of fact, contracts are regarded to be a critical and strategic factor in projects. For this reason, it could be very interesting to adopt a sustainable approach when dealing with contracts to support fundamental rights and environmental protection.

In all organizations, different activities are carried out to keep improving on many levels. For many companies, procurement directors are starting to implement sustainable procurement programs since at least 75% of carbon emissions are from the supply chain. Hence, it is very interesting to take a closer look at the supply chain area in which many projects are put in place. For example, some companies work on reducing costs and lead time, on rationalizing suppliers and inventories or on moving from a local to a global supply chain. This kind of business changes requires a good application of project management principles.

Therefore, we will focus on building sustainability into supply chain contracts. In fact, integrating the concepts and procedures of sustainability into the traditional supply chain contracts is believed to change supply chain practices to be more sustainable and to comply with the codes and standards of sustainability.

Step 1: Objective statement

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether it is possible to apply this sustainability concept to a contractual framework and to study how it can be adopted within the supply chain industry.

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Bouddou, S. (2018). Building Sustainability into a Contract: How to create more “Green” Supply Chain Contracts, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XI – November.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/pmwj76-Nov2018-Bouddou-building-sustainability-into-a-contract-student-paper.pdf

 



About the Author


Souhaila Bouddou

Lille, France

 

 

 

Souhaila Bouddou studied at Centrale Lille ITEEM, an Engineering, Management and Entrepreneurship school where the traditional boundaries between the fields of engineering and commerce are abolished. She has also a Master of Science in Project Management that she studied in Skema Business School.

Passionate about the subject of Supply Chain in industry, she is specialized in Production Management. She had many experiences in companies such as Tupperware where she did an 8-month internship as a Business Architect Analyst, working on Supply Chain in the Production Planning and Control Department. She piloted a European Project, working with people from different countries such as Greece, France, Belgium and Portugal.

During her education, she had done several internships in many companies such as Capgemini, Auchan Retail International, Waldner and Adeo. She has a keen interest in Sustainability and she is certified Green Project Manager by GPM Global. She is also very interested in Project Management and is certified PRINCE2 and AgilePM. She worked on many humanitarian projects in France, Morocco and Burkina Faso.

Souhaila can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

Renewable Energies

Safe Investment or Dangerous Deal?

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Cyril Cojutti

SKEMA Business School

Lille, France

 



ABSTRACT

Renewable energies, nowadays, have a significant impact on the way we consider creating energy and affect all layer of society

One of the way, to have access to renewable energies on a project level is to contract a Renewable power purchase agreement with an energy supplier (Contractor).

However, it is accustomed in this field that the whole investment and building part of the power supply source of a RPPA should be taken care by the contractor himself. The said investment can represent a great amount of money that the contractor should have return on. However, in case of delays, the Renewable power purchase agreement contract often contains an “early termination right” which grants the Owner authority on the cancelation part.

How can we share the responsibility and how can mitigate the delays?

Incremental delivery and shared investment could be a good track to follow to diminish the identified risk and bring valuable knowledge to the Owner

Keywords: United Nations, Sustainable Development Goals, Renewable energy, Eco-friendly energy, Energy Seller, Energy Buyer, Power Purchase Agreement, Early termination right, Risk sharing

INTRODUCTION

Renewable Energy transition is one of the major stake of our century. Indeed, one of the Sustainable Development Goal number 7 set by the United Nations was to provide access to clean energy to everyone; one of the sub-objectives being that renewable energy share become more significant in the energy global mix. Improving their technology every year, eco-friendly energy providers proved the significant impact sustainable energies could have on an ecological and social level. Although, the efficiency of those latter is often source of concern compared to fossil fuel or even nuclear based energy it has become a necessity not to rely on them anymore in order to protect our habitat.

30% of the world GDP is invested on project every year and tends to 40% on 2020. Thus, it becomes important to increment as much and as soon as possible renewable energy and sustainable strategies to project. To provide energy to a project or a business, it is essential to make a Power Purchase Agreement, which is a legal contract between at least to parties, a seller (energy provider) and a buyer. With the increasing development of technologies such as Solar Panels or Wind Mills, a sustainable aspect of the PPA have been created.

Usually when contracting a Renewable PPA, the contract itself will be scaled from 5 to 20 years. The seller will take into his responsibility the whole project of creating, financing the energy farm and make sure the right amount of energy is delivered to the buyer. As you can see from this brief introduction of the PPA, the power and risk sharing balance between the two parties is not even. Beside this issue, Renewable energies are submitted to a major constraint which is the random aspect of the weather. Thus, it becomes difficult to insure a constant amount of energy. From all these risks, one seemed major to deal with. When facing a delay in delivering power, what happens to the contract? Many PPA contain a “early termination rights” clause which allows the contract Owner to terminate the contract if not delivered on time. As we mentioned it before, creating renewable energy require a huge investment supported by the Contractor and not reaching a return on investment can be critical to any company.

Therefore, it is essential to think of a solution that could share the risks and avoid such an unpleasant conclusion to the power purchase agreement which would be unfavorable for bother owner and contractor.

Objective statement

On this paper we will go through the following issues:

  • What are the risks of a Power Purchase Agreement?
  • Which one can be shared between the two parties?
  • What solution can be brought to avoid early termination of the contract in case of delays?

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Cojutti, C. (2018). Renewable Energies: Safe Investment or Dangerous Deal?, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XI – November.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/pmwj76-Nov2018-Cojutti-renewable-energies-student-paper.pdf

 



About the Author


Cyril Cojutti

Lille, France

 

 

 

Cyril Cojutti is a student at Skema Business School in Master of Science Programme and Project Management and Business Development.  Being deeply interested in sustainable energies and eco-friendly technologies, he thought it wise to develop an analysis on Renewable Power Purchase Agreement as it is a cornerstone of the global energy transition which can apply to most projects. When graduating, I would like to engage myself in the development of clean energy and its promotion worldwide. It is a major stake of our century and will have an impact on our way of life tomorrow. He wants to play a role in it.

Besides, being passionate by Japan since my childhood, Cyril did an exchange program at Hiroshima University of Economics for one year which enabled him to enhance his understanding of the Japanese culture.

With the nuclear incident of 2011 in Japan, it became one of his objectives to be committed to increase the sustainable energy share in Japan.

 

 

Are Intellectual Property Rights still relevant

in a context of E-Commerce Business?

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Julie Roué

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France

 



ABSTRACT

One of the strategic resources of a company is its intellectual property. From designs to idea, from trademark to logos, intellectual property embodies all the uniqueness of a brand. But do businesses really know how to protect themselves, on every aspect?  In a very digital and thus world, this property can be easily endangered. The aim of this article is to compare different approaches of IP, from the most minimalist to the most protective in order to extract the best practices. This paper will focus on the case of e-commerce businesses and more particularly on jewelry brands. We will see that businesses need to protect themselves as much as possible and as soon as possible, and also when it comes to website contents even if it is often forgotten. Intellectual property is not only a matter of protection against competitors, it entails the brand strategy on a long-term basis.

Keywords: Design ownership, Value creation, Proactive approach, Registration, E-commerce, Copyrights, Jewelry

INTRODUCTION

Can you make the difference between an original “clou” from Cartier and a counterfeit? Many can’t. That’s why, in order to protect clients and brands, laws monitor and punish artistic creations’ from being copied thanks to Intellectual Property rights (IP rights). Since 1623 with the Statute of Monopolies, IP rights protect tangible and intangible assets from being copied and sold. But of course since then, the jewelry business context has changed a lot. Nowadays thousands of brands, from high jewelry to lower ends, are fighting for market shares. In order to survive, brands have to rely on their originality to catch the clients’ attention. The aim is to be unique and identifiable. But the biggest change since 15 years has been the medium of the market: with internet, the majority of jewelry businesses are developed through e-shops. The jewels are visible to all, 24 hours a day, all over the world. This means that the information about the jewels like the pictures, the materials, the sizes, etc. are available to all and easily downloadable.

Since the beginning of the IP rights, laws have adapted but we would like to challenge those rights in this article, taking the example of the very competitive jewelry market. The meaning of this article is simple: as a new entrant in the jewelry market, what do I need to know in order to protect my intellectual creations from being stolen, and how to make sure IP rights fit to my business?

Step 1 – Problem definition

Internet makes copying easy: let’s say someone wants to copy one of the rings you sell on your e-shop. The person simply copy-pastes or screenshots the picture you posted and gets all the details needed to copy your jewel. In a very competitive market like the jewelry’s, that kind of risk would better be avoided. As an intangible asset of your business, design is protected by Intellectual Property rights. But as internet’s information are difficult to contain and to track, can IP rights effectively prevent this type of behavior to become a threat to your business and its opportunities? What are the good practices in terms of IP rights in order to protect your business?

The objective of this article is multifold. First, we would like to challenge the relevance of IP rights in the context of internet. Then we will tend to describe a proactive use of these rights in the same context. The idea is to make sure the business is protected, but we will see as well that a right use of IP can lead to value creation.

More…

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Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Roué, J.  (2018). Are Intellectual Property Rights still relevant in a context of E-Commerce Business? PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XI – November.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/pmwj76-Nov2018-Roué-are-intellectual-property-rights-still-relevant-student-paper.pdf

 



About the Author


Julie Roué

Paris, France

 

 

 

Julie Roué is a French business student at Skema Business School in Paris.  She studied literature for two years in Classe Préparatoire B/L (Saint-François-Xavier, Vannes, France), and business in Skema Business School (Paris, France) and Queen’s University (Kingston, Canada).  She has most recently been enrolled in a semester at SKEMA Business School in Paris pursuing the specialization “Msc Project and Program Management and Business Development” and planning to finish her education in Seoul in 2018.

Julie can be contacted at [email protected] or on LinkedIn www.linkedin.com/in/julie-roué-b60608a7

 

 

Owner and Contractor in the Defense Industry

Two Sides at War

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Arthur Vaesken

SKEMA Business School

Lille, France

 



ABSTRACT

The following paper constitutes the author’s effort towards the “International Project Contracts” course at SKEMA Business School, in the context of a “Programme and Project Management and Business Development (PPMBD)” Master Degree.

In it, the author will study in details the following real-life transaction: the sale of 40 F-35As fighter jets by the Lockheed Martin corporation to the country of South Korea. Because of the heavy sums of money involved and the length it takes for the deliverables to be ready, it is important for both parties to understand exactly what each delay and acceleration might imply in terms of costs and other benefits. Extrapolating from real or assumed data, the author will try to establish a coherent analysis of the timeframe involved, and what each potential delivery date can mean for both the owner and contractor, essentially answering the question: “When is the best time for Lockheed martin to deliver?”

Coincidentally, we will see that in this case, the expected delivery date is the best compromise, but many other alternatives deserve consideration. This will allow us to discuss the pros and cons of taking risks to maximize profit, perhaps at the expense of healthy business relationships.

Keywords: military, defense, aircraft, international, contractor, time, cost, trade-off, optimum

INTRODUCTION

Time, costs and quality are often considered the three critical variables of any given project. It is generally agreed upon that compromising on quality is unacceptable, and this especially true in the defense industry, where said quality can make the difference between victory and defeat, power and impotence, and even life and death; and where contractors engage their whole reputation on every task they undertake.

Thus, we are left with time and costs as the variables at the front of everyone’s thoughts. They are, of course, just as critical as quality when it comes to deliver a defense project ; tensions do no wait for weapons to finish assembling to escalate, and the enormous costs involved, coming directly from the pockets of the state and thus the taxpayers, are under close scrutiny. But unlike quality, they are expected to vary much more, and what may be favorable for one party, such as a faster delivery of the goods ordered by the owner, may not be beneficial for the contractor and vice-versa.

For this reason, in order to maintain a harmonious and healthy business environment, project owners and contractors both need to be aware, on any given project, of their own personal cost/time optimums, and agree on a compromise that will be mutually beneficial. Finding out what it is is of course no simple task, but for the purpose of this paper, the author will use the real-life example of the March 2014 purchase of 40 F35-A fighter jets by South Korea from Lockheed Martin, the world’s largest defense contractor. The transaction will amount to $7 billion and the delivery date has been set to be between 2018 and 2025 and with an expected date of 2021 by South Korea, which, in the author’s opinion, makes it a suitable time range to assume the possibility of acceleration initiative and delays. Using estimates to fill the missing data, the author will follow the footsteps of the excellent analysis of the US Department of Transportation in the Federal Highway Agency’s document “Work Zone Road User Costs Concepts and Applications” figure 15, which also served as inspiration for Stephen J.C. Peterson’s entirely theoretical case study of an oil and gas facility project. The author will hopefully manage himself to determine a comprehensive document illustrating the time/cost optimums for both South Korea and Lockheed Martin, and then suggest a good balance of interests. It is hoped said model can then be applied to other projects in the defense industry, and inspire contractors and owners of all kinds.

All this can be summed up in a single problem statement: “When is the best time for Lockheed Martin to deliver the F-35As to South Korea?”

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected]

How to cite this paper: Vaesken, A. (2018). Owner and Contractor in the Defense Industry: Two Sides at War, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XI – November.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/pmwj76-Nov2018-Vaesken-two-sides-at-war-student-paper.pdf

 



About the Author


Arthur Vaesken

Lille, France

 

 

 

Arthur Vaesken, MSc in “Project and Programme Management & Business Development” at SKEMA Business School, is a student with extensive international experience. He is accustomed to working in the United Kingdom, France, and the USA, having done several long-term internships there in domains such as web development, web and traditional marketing, factory logistics, and project management. His most notable achievement so far is promoting a fertility clinic owned by an eminent North Carolinian surgeon during a year-long internship, where he reworked the clinic’s website from the ground up, improved its visibility online and deployed various marketing strategies to bolster its business. He speaks fluent English and French, moderate Spanish, and basic Japanese.

Arthur can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

Potential of Blockchain-enabled smart contract platforms

for automated enforcement and dispute resolution

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Aseem Sharma

SKEMA Business School

Lille, France

 



ABSTRACT

Over the past few years the word blockchain has been gaining a lot of attention. Bitcoin and Ethereum are the two most widespread blockchain platforms and there are many other platforms which have emerged recently. But not every blockchain based platform uses smart contracts. Smart contracts are self-executing computer protocols that are meant to verify and enforce the performance of contract conditions. The field is evolving and there is still a lot of ambiguity about the concept itself. This makes the selection of the platform a crucial decision from the users’ perspective. This paper intends to discuss five different blockchain based smart contract platforms namely Bitcoin, Ethereum, Stratis, Lisk and Neo, and evaluate their potential and limitations. Multi-Attribute Decision Making Analysis is used to compare these platforms based on attributes like Speed, Future Orientation, Scalability, Risk and Programming language. The results are presented in quantified form and most feasible options have been proposed.

Keywords: Blockchain, Smart Contract, Bitcoin, Ethereum, Traditional contracts, Arbitration, Distributed digital ledger, Enforcement

INTRODUCTION

Over the last few years, blockchain technology has become one of the most talked about topic and it is proving to be the biggest disruption since the internet. Blockchain essentially is a publicly available, immutable distributed ledger of transactions which have been verified by getting consensus from all the participants in its network. It focuses on the issue of trust between parties involved in the transaction. Though started from the area of application in financial services, blockchain since then has been finding its application in governance, e-voting, supply chain, taxation, internet of things and now arguably almost everywhere.

Smart contract is emerging as one of the most promising areas of blockchain implementation. Smart Contracts are digital auto contracts made between two parties based on pre-defined logic. They are self-enforcing in nature and it is expensive to break the contract. Since Blockchain provides trusted counterparties without a need of trusted third party, it is well suited to corroborate smart contracts. Smart contracts are increasingly being used to automate enforcements of contracts and thus provide a cost –effective, efficient and faster way of handling transactions. They solve almost all the issues associated with a traditional contract. However, since the concept of smart contracts is relatively novel, their legal binding is not clear yet. And even though blockchain provides an intelligent way of enforcing contracts, the arbitration of blockchain disputes itself requires deliberation.

This paper evaluates some of the blockchain supported smart contract platforms. It starts with explaining the evolution, technological details, strength and limitations of five platforms namely Bitcoin, Ethereum, Stratis, List and Neo. Then criteria have been selected based on which comparison of the platforms is performed and then quantitative ratings have been provided to each alternative based on the attributes. Final evaluation of all the platforms is done using Multi-Attribute Decision Making Analysis (MADM) and best alternative has been proposed.

To summarize, the purpose of this research is to answer the following questions:

  1. The pros and cons of using different blockchain smart contracts platforms and identify their strengths and limitations.
  2. Identify the parameters on which smart contracts can be evaluated and compared.
  3. Propose the best feasible platform based on current and future perspectives.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Sharma, A. (2018). Potential of Blockchain-enabled smart contract platforms for automated enforcement and dispute resolution, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue XI – November.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/pmwj76-Nov2018-Sharma-potential-of-blockchain-enabled-smart-contract-platforms.pdf

 



About the Author


Aseem Sharma

Republic of India 

   

 

 

Aseem Sharma is an MBA student at the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta and did his student exchange term at SKEMA Business School, Lille Campus. As part of a key module “The International Contracts” qualification requirement under the direct supervision of Professor. Paul D Giammalvo, the Course Director and the Professor Paul Gardiner, the Program Director, this student paper has been produced with the purpose of getting it published with The PM World Journal. He graduated from the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and holds a Bachelor’s and a Master’s degree in Chemical Engineering. He has worked at UnitedHealth Group as an application developer from 2014 to 2016 and interned at HSBC Securities Services in the summer of 2017. He has a background in project management, finance and technology and closely follows the Fintech space. He can be contacted at: [email protected]

 

 

Best Practices

How to reveal all the potential of Monte Carlo Analysis

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Julie Luso

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France

 



ABSTRACT

Decision making is still a struggling topic for companies. The aim of Monte Carlo Analysis is to answer to it but the goal is still not completely reached. This paper aims to give the key points to improve the use of Monte Carlo Analysis through software to help decision making which is a vital topic. In order to found out those keys we used a multi attribute-decision-analysis comparing different Monte Carlo software. Thanks to this method, we could highlight the importance of the documentations and the help support to permit a full knowingly use of the software by the user. Thanks to a strong help user services that can answer to every questions, it appears that anyone can use a Monte Carlo Analysis and be efficient to his decision-making.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, Forecasting model, Benefit Monte Carlo Analysis, Mathematics for business, Risk assessment, Decision Making, Parameters, Variables.


INTRODUCTION

Omit probable scope and risks and unrealistic optimistic assumptions are responsible for 74% of Cost Growth according to a RAND Study[1]. Naturally, a Cost Growth is an important break for the development of a project jeopardizing it until his total failure. This highlights the need to simulate uncertainties as best as possible to improve the assurance of the success of the project. The main goal of the well-known Monte Carlo Simulation Software (MCS), created and first used by scientists working on the atomic bomb in the 40’s, was to answer at this need. It must help in quantitative analysis and decision making taking in regard the risk thanks to mathematics.

In order to implement it, the user has to follow 6 steps: “Identify the key project risk variables, Identify the range limits for these project variables, Specify probability weights for this range of values, Establish the relationships for the correlated variables, Perform simulation runs based on the identified variables and the correlations, Statistically analyze the results of the simulation run.”[2]

Motivation

In theory, based on his knowledge and his experiences, the user should be able to fill those steps and so properly use the MCS to receive a great forecast of the likelihood of his different options. Thanks to this, the user can forecast risk or try different decision and finally choose the best one according to the different result of the MCS.

The MCS is designed to be easy to use in order to be a great assistant of the decision making. Practically, as the RAND STUDY told us, risk assessment is still a vital and spread issue that many companies are struggling with. So, regarding to this, it is surprising that the MCS built such a strong reputation of success.

Problem definition

There are 2 possible sources of mistakes that can explain a misuse of Monte Carlo Analysis that deceives companies: the software and the human mistake.

Normally, one of the roles of software is to guide the user for a free-mistake right and efficient use. If this role is not made in a convenient way, the risk for a higher mistake that will make a wrong forecast leading to a wrong decision is higher as well. So the 2 possible sources are linked.

To summarize, this paper has been designed to research, analyze and answer the following two questions in order to find a response to these mistakes to help the companies in their decision-making:

  • How can we effectively use and apply Monte Carlo Simulation Software?
  • What can we consider as a good Monte Carlo Software?

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Luso, J. (2018). Best Practices: How reveal all the potential of the Monte Carlo Analysis, PM World Journal, Volume VII, Issue X – October.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/pmwj75-Oct2018-Luso-how-to-reveal-potential-of-monte-carlo-analysis.pdf

 



About the Author


Julie Luso

Paris, France

 

 

 

Julie Luso, French Swiss of 24 years old, studied at SKEMA in MSc Project and Program Management and Business Development, graduating in April 2018. After 2 years in preparatory class, Julie integrated SKEMA Business School (ranked top 8 France in 2017). The first year in Sophia Antipolis (Nice) was dedicated to association activities adding to the classes. After this, she left France for a few months to live in Thailand for a communication internship and discover a new world.

She came back to school the next scholar year starting by Brazil (Belo Horizonte) in a SKEMA campus to go then for the next semester in China (into the SKEMA Campus in Suzhou) where she participated in a humanitarian association for children before travelling alone during 2 months over there. Julie then used her gap year to return to Brazil for a stronger cultural immersion. To reach that goal, Julie chose to work in a Farm hotel far from famous places to discover a hidden Brazil and to control the language. Enjoying contrasts, after this experience Julie worked for 6 months in Paris Champs-Elysées at Ogilvy Paris, an international advertising agency. Working in the Public Relations unit, Julie was part of a development team working to improve the (e-)reputation of great corporations creating and implementing communication campaigns targeting journalists and influencers and so readers and communities. Following this gap year, Julie started then her MSc. at Skema in Paris.

Currently certificated by AgilePM and Prince2 for PM, Julie has worked during this MSc to actively improve her assets by organizing event like the Video Games day and participating to the *Amazon Campus Challenges 2017 adding to her class, assignments and Thesis.  (*The Amazon Campus Challenge is a challenge that asks by team to find a startup to create and implement its Amazon e-store and make a commercial strategy to boost its sells during 6 months.)

Julie’s main long term goal is to be able to help ethical and environmentally friendly organizations to grow in a complex market as an accomplished and ethical Project Manager. Challenger, passionate, expressive and audacious are her personal assets that will help her to reach her goals.  Julie can be contacted at [email protected] or www.linkedin.com/in/julie-iuso

 

[1]Edward W. Werrow. (1983). Cost Growth In New Process Facilities. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/papers/2005/P6869.pdf

[2]Marom , S. (2010, July 8). Project Risk Management and the application of Monte Carlo Simulation. Retrieved from http://quantmleap.com/blog/2010/07/project-risk-management-and-the-application-of-monte-carlo-simulation/

 

 

Assumption of Risk

Who Takes Responsibility? Owner? Contractor? Or the Party Best Able to Manage the Risk?

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Marie Osée Tchoyo Agoume

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France

 



ABSTRACT

Appropriate risk management in projects counts for at least 50% of its success. As such, clearly identifying, qualifying, determining the risk probability and giving adequate responses is the base for risk management. However, attributing a risk responsibility between present parties i.e. the owner and the contractor will enable a better control of the risk. The aim of this paper is to show who takes responsibility of a risk between the owner and the contractor. The owner and the contractor can either assume all risk solely, they can share the risk evenly or split it based on which party can best manage the risk. The result of the analyses carried out shows that, it is better to split the risk based on who is best able to manage it or share the risk among both parties, depending on the type of contract and risk.  The paper goes further to give some recommendations on how to reduce risk occurrence.

Keywords: Risk management, Contractor responsibility, Owner responsibility, Project risks, Responsibility, Risks, Parties, Contractor and owner responsibilities, Best able to manage


INTRODUCTION

It is a natural tendency to worry about risks. The PMI define risks as “an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on a project’s objectives.” Therefore, to successfully manage a risk, it must first be identified, assessed, prioritized and later acted for. So, identifying risks in projects helps the project manager to anticipate responses or avoid bad scenarios, that might lead to an early closure of the project. A clear risk owner and risk “actionee”[1] should therefore be identify, to better attribute responsibility between the owner and the contractor.

“A project owner bears the owner rights and owner responsibilities of the project”[2]. The business dictionary defines the contractor as an independent entity that agrees to furnish certain number or quantity of goods, to another independent entity called project owner. As such, there are generally at least two parties in contracts, and depending on the risk type, one or both parties take responsibility, as risks could be potential loss for the project. This can either be the contractor or the project owner.

Moreover, “Project success depends, among other factors, on the ability to successfully manage the interaction between the key stakeholders—namely, the project owners and management team of each project”[3]. It is therefore not bold to say project success highly depend on the ability of both the contractor and the owner to take appropriate corrective actions vis-à-vis a risk in a project, to help reduce its chances of occurring.

However, should the risk occur, someone must take responsibility for it. The project owner or the contractor? The aim of this paper is to answer the following questions:

  • What are the limits of the owner’s responsibility in risk management?
  • What are the limits of the contractor’s responsibility?
  • In which case both parties can manage risk together based on who can best manage the risk?
  • In which case can both parties they can split the risk?
  • What actions should be taken to reduce risk occurrence on both the contractor and the owner side?

The above questions can be summarized into two main questions: Should risk occur in projects, who takes responsibility?

The expected result of this paper is, on the one hand to show the responsibility of each party in risk management approach and on the second hand, to recommend preventive actions to reduce risk for each party.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Tchoyo Agoume, M. O. (2018). Assumption of Risk: Who Takes Responsibility? Owner? Contractor? Or the Party Best Able to Manage the Risk? PM World Journal, Volume VII, Issue X – October.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/pmwj75-Oct2018-Tchoyo-Agoume-assumption-of-risk-student-paper.pdf

 



About the Author


Marie Osée Tchoyo Agoume

Paris, France

 

 


Highly motivated to be a good and respected project manager tomorrow, Marie Osée TCHOYO AGOUME is a young Cameroonian who began her studies in her native country, Cameroon, where she got a bachelor’s degree in advertising and a master’s degree in corporate communication and marketing at the Advanced School of Mass Communication. In 2015, she went forward to pursue her studies in France at SKEMA business school, where she is enrolled in a Master’s degree program in project and programme management and business development. She likes working in a multicultural environment as well as facing the challenges of complex projects. In her previous role, she had the opportunity to work in CRM projects as an assistant in customer retention. Her dream is to work with one of the UN humanitarian organisms, as she is very interested in working with refugees, disabled and homeless people.

 

[1] The Risk Actionee is someone who is assigned to carry out a particular action and they support the Risk Owner. (PRINCE2 wiki)

[2] Olsson, N., & Berg-Johansen, G. (2015). Project ownership in theory and practice. Project owners type 1 and type 2.

[3] Krane, H. P., Olsson, N. O. E., & Rolstadås, A. (2012). How project manager-project owner interaction can work within and influence project risk management – (Turner & Mueller, 2004)

 

 

The Importance of Customer Focus

in Project Management

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Nédale Triyeh

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France

 



ABSTRACT

We cannot manage what we cannot measure and that’s the main purpose of this article. Nowadays, the customer’s focus approach during project management is overshadowed by other issues on which project teams will more pay attention. However, it could be really easy and interesting to familiarize Project Managers with some Key Performance Indicators that concern customers and above all customer’s satisfaction. It is possible to use some metrics to highlight and evaluates customer’s loyalty, customer’s happiness and customer’s effort. Through this paper, three scores will be analysed; the Net Promoter Score (NPS), the Customer Satisfaction Score (CSAT) and the Customer Effort Score (CES) to understand their impact and to determine which is the most relevant.

Keywords: Customer focus; customer centered orientation; customer’s loyalty; customer satisfaction; customer relationship management; customer service; customer complaints


INTRODUCTION

There is no successful project without a satisfied customer. Nowadays, customers have more than ever a huge importance in business. The customers are the party who will receive or consume a product or a service. They represent the most unpredictable stakeholder for a company because it is hard to know if the product or the service offered to them will meet their expectations and so if the company will make benefits.

Furthermore, companies consider customers as a whole and not just as individuals. Even if it is true that generally marketing departments and customer relationship management develop special customer oriented actions, it has to be enhanced to ensure to each project and to each company a good understanding about customer’s needs and expectations. For instance, when a Project Manager is asked to create a product and a service, the risks concerning the project will be analysed. And even if the Project Manager is not involved anymore after the project, the product deliverables will be evaluated by the final customers who are also source of expected benefits.

The point is that customer experience does not stop with the sale of the product. Companies need to know how they can enhance their relationship with customers and how they can keep them in long term. It is important to think about how companies can keep its customers in long term. Keeping an old customer is easier and less expensive than getting new ones. Companies have a vested interest in satisfying the customers in all levels and so the satisfaction even after the sale should be strongly considered. It is now well-common to notice a real awareness about the importance of customer service, the way to take into consideration customers’ complaints and the way to care about their opinions

  • Problem definition

Nowadays, different tools have been developed to quantify customer’s satisfaction. But the fact is that each indicator measures this satisfaction in a different approach or each indicator can be measured in different ways. These elements can demonstrate how vague is the method to define clearly the customer’s satisfaction and so, it can halt the Project Managers to be interested in using the customer satisfaction measurement. The goal of this paper will be to demonstrate how efficient these tools can be, and highlight which one could be the most useful for a Project.

How customer orientation is important in projects and contracts to strengthen customer’s loyalty?

Through this research paper, we will try to understand:

  • How it is possible to contribute to customer’s loyalty.
  • See how far this customer’s orientation can be implemented and if it is really efficient.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Triyeh, N. (2018). The Importance of Customer Focus in Project Management, PM World Journal, Volume VII, Issue X – October.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/pmwj75-Oct2018-Triyeh-the-importance-of-customer-focus-in-project-management.pdf

 



About the Author


Nédale Triyeh

Paris, France

 

 

Nédale TRIYEH, French, who after 4 years of studies in Public and Business Law is now currently enrolled in a Master Programme Grande Ecole, specialized in “Project and Programme Management and Business Development for Business Excellence” at SKEMA BUSINESS SCHOOL in Paris and also strongly interested in customer relationship management. Several experiences in customer care departments of luxury brands strengthen her willingness to keep a customer focus approach through each Project where she is involved. Nédale can be contacted at [email protected] or www.linkedin.com/in/nédale-triyeh-3b524a108.

 

 

Flexible Contracts for NWOWS Implementation

A Good Idea Only at First

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Clémence Lambin

SKEMA Business School

Paris, France

 



ABSTRACT

New Ways of Working (NWOWs) bring a fresh look to the methods of work, with the great development of teleworking, co-working in third places and non-fixed offices. Their implementation by companies through a project brings a question about the management of contracts with the different stakeholders of this project. We analyse and compare the traditional approach of negotiating contracts, a new approach based on flexibility, and the possibility to create an informal change. This paper shows that even if the project is about a flexible and innovative product/service implementation, the traditional negotiation of every need and outcomes of contracts with every stakeholder is still an appropriate approach.

Keywords: Adapting contract, Project management, Co-working & teleworking, Big company, Flexible contracts, Third places, Change management


INTRODUCTION

In 2011, a study revealed that between 20 and 35% of employees of Anglo-Saxon companies were working at home, according to Felix Traoré. Teleworking is an increasing practice and is considered as part of the New Ways Of Working (NWOWs). NWOWs especially correspond to a global change in the ways of working, promoting flexibility in terms of time, space and management, autonomy, and nomadism.

This model, used to be mostly attributed to start-ups and small companies may be visible with teleworking, co-working and creation of third places for example. Since about a decade, NWOWs (New Ways Of Working) are being more and more implemented in big companies.

In this context, the promotion of these new practices to employees passes through a project in the company. In big companies, it is usually upon the wish of top management or the Human Resources (HR) division, and covers many aspects of the company’s life. Indeed, NWOWs may be implemented for example through the authorizing and / or the promotion of teleworking, co-working in third places or even creating a third place within the company’s building, and the abandonment of fixed offices for employees within the building. These examples constitute the physical and visible aspects of the NWOWs, to which interest is given in this paper.

A project toward NWOWs implies to reconsider existing contracts, and to establish new ones, especially in terms of Information Technology (IT), HR, Procurement and Facility Management. It is thus considered that Contract Management becomes an important part of the said-project. Unlikely, it mostly appears that each department arranges or adapts existing contracts, or creates new ones, by its side. Contract management should then inquire about the changing or new needs consequential of the establishment of NWOWs and then adapt contracts, or create new ones, in collaboration with departments.

  1. Problem definition

To summarize, this research paper aims to analyse and answer the following issues:

  • What areas of companies are the most affected by NWOWs?
  • What solutions may be used to be able to adapt contracts to the needs, quickly and simply?

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To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Lambin, C. (2018). Flexible Contracts for NWOWS Implementation: A Good Idea Only at First, PM World Journal, Volume VII, Issue X – October.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/pmwj75-Oct2018-Lambin-Flexible-Contracts-for-NWOWS-Implementation.pdf

 



About the Author


Clémence Lambin

Paris, France

 

 


Clémence Lambin
is a student of Project and Programme Management and Business Development in Skema Business School (Paris, France). She was previously studying hospitality and tourism. She thus combines competences and knowledge about these two domains, to enter the professional life. She can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

Negotiating a Contract

 

STUDENT PAPER

By Raghu Kuppa

SKEMA Business School

Lille, France

 



ABSTRACT

The paper provides a procedural explanation of how a contract is negotiated. It explains the terms negotiation and leverage, and how gaining leverage is the main outcome of negotiating a contract. The paper looks into various negotiation tactics and analyzes them with reference to a survey. The final goal is to determine the best tactic to perform during negotiation. This is concluded upon the analysis which was done on all the tactics recognized by AMA survey. The paper mainly answers the questions – “what are the tactics followed by negotiators” and which is the best in terms of overall efficiency. A Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) based on satisfying conditions is used to approach the problem. A tactic by the name highball/lowball is concluded as the best tactic to follow by a negotiator. The paper also provides a post evaluation and performance monitoring for the result obtained. No negotiation tactic is more influential than the other however, under most of the conditions one of them is likely to perform better over the others if followed properly.

Keywords: Negotiation, Business Contract, Finance & Banking, Mergers & Strategic Transaction, Intellectual Property, Litigation & Disputes, Agreement.


INTRODUCTION

Negotiation is a discussion which aims at reaching an agreement by the contractor and the client. It is a process that is found as a part of contract management. Negotiation becomes a necessity as it is vital that the contractor and the client are on the same grounds when making decisions that can affect an organization or a company. The negotiator might encounter a few problems during negotiation which include falling into a dilemma due to the exposure to a large amount of facts and figures or might sacrifice the negotiation stance due to an unarguable offer.  In the process of negotiation, it necessary to take into consideration the views of the client and make deals that wouldn’t drastically effect the contractor as well. Hence it is vital to follow a certain rules and methodologies to negotiate successfully.

The concept of leverage is an influential part of negotiation. Leverage can be considered as the political advantage a contractor has over the counter-part which can help him/her seize the deal. It is directly proportional to the ability to award benefits to the counter-part. Gaining leverage is the final goal of negotiation. It is important to understand why the client may not agree with the contractor’s position to discover the client’s goals. It is also important to analyze the position of the counter-part. Another leverage point would be to align the contractor’s interest with that of the client’s necessities.

The contractor is compelled to understand the position of the counter-part by understanding the needs of the other party. A major problem is the misunderstanding of the position which might stall the negotiation. Not having a wide range of options might also be a problem because it aids in settling onto an agreement at a faster pace. One of the major problems also include ‘authority of negotiation’. It occurs when the contractor makes a deal with the counter-part without knowing if he/she has the authority to make decisions. This is a massive disadvantage to the negotiator as it is a waste of time and effort. Negotiations can be intimidating. Sarcasm and bully tactics are commonly used to make the party feel inferior and uncomfortable to gain one’s demands. In a negotiation, the purpose is to come to a mutual agreement. At times, aggressive behavior might build up a hostile environment and poor relationships. The two parties might not understand each other’s needs due to a rise in emotions which leads to concentrating on the needs of their own rather than coming to a common ground for settling an agreement.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Student papers are authored by graduate or undergraduate students based on coursework at accredited universities or training programs.  This paper was prepared as a deliverable for the course “International Contract Management” facilitated by Dr Paul D. Giammalvo of PT Mitratata Citragraha, Jakarta, Indonesia as an Adjunct Professor under contract to SKEMA Business School for the program Master of Science in Project and Programme Management and Business Development.  http://www.skema.edu/programmes/masters-of-science. For more information on this global program (Lille and Paris in France; Belo Horizonte in Brazil), contact Dr Paul Gardiner, Global Programme Director [email protected].

How to cite this paper: Kuppa, R. (2018). Negotiating a Contract, PM World Journal, Volume VII, Issue X – October.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/pmwj75-Oct2018-Kuppa-negotiating-a-contract-student-paper.pdf

 



About the Author


Raghu Kuppa

Paris, France

 

 

 

Raghu Kuppa is a design engineer currently pursuing a Master’s degree in Program and Project management and Business development in Skema Business School, Paris. He has an experience on managing a design project as the design lead for 2 years and two years as a design engineer at Premium Composite Technologies.  He has also designed high performance racing yachts IRC52, MAXI 72, TRANSPAC 52, MELGES 40 and CARKEEK 40 using polymers and composites and is especially experienced with plastics.

He also worked at Johnson Controls for one year and at L&T for 2 years. He is highly experienced in the field of design and has knowledge of 4 professional design software. He has an overall experience in design including Cars and Nuclear submarines. Most of his projects use carbon fiber as the fundamental material. Raghu has a knowledge of the software Catia V5, Rhino, AutoCAD and the Microsoft tools. He is also an RYA qualified Sailor and has participated in offshore races in Dubai and PRO-AM race from Volvo Ocean Race.

Raghu finished his education in Sanketika Vidya Parishad engineering college, Vizag, India, specializing in Mechanical engineering and has a vital experience in solid modelling, Assembly design, Reverse Engineering and output design.