A Deeper Insight into the Human Factor

in Project Risk Management

 

SECOND EDITION

By Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Tysiak

University of Applied Sciences and Arts

Dortmund, Germany

 



Abstract

A fundamental understanding of risk, risk attitudes, risk ethics etc. is the basis of each risk management approach – not only in project management. Risk management requires human judgement, and this is often influenced and distorted by individual perceptions. After presenting the historic development of the human perception of risk and the individual psychological attempts to handle this matter, we try to work out necessary consequences to project risk management.

This paper can be seen as a continuation of a contribution to a former conference of the same format here in Riga (Tysiak (2013)).

Key words: project management, risk management, cognitive bias, simulation

JEL codes: D91, O22, C63

Introduction and Background

In every project there is the need to implement some kind of risk management (cf. PMI (2013), Kerzner (2009), Schelle/Ottmann/Pfeiffer (2006)), which normally contains the following phases:

(1) risk management planning,

(2) risk identification,

(3) qualitative risk analysis,

(4) quantitative risk analysis,

(5) risk response planning, and

(6) risk monitoring and control.

Since this approach is more or less similar in a lot of disciplines that apply risk management (like financial engineering, software development, supply chain management etc.), let us first broaden our view and look at risk management in general and not only related to projects.

The tasks (2) to (6) have to be seen as a chain/loop that you permanently have to work through simultaneously. But, as always, a chain is as weak as the weakest link: If you are not able to identify the crucial risks, there is nothing to analyze. If you are not able to evaluate the risks and therefore cannot plan how to respond in an adequate way, you cannot handle the risks.

Especially while applying the tasks (2) to (4), we have to be aware that they are of course performed by human beings and therefore by people with different attitudes in risk acceptance, risk handling, risk culture etc. The term “risk” in this context is a little misleading: In everyday language this term is associated with a negative outcome of an uncertain event, whereas a positive outcome is normally denoted by “chance” or “opportunity”. In risk management the term “risk” is used as a synonym of “uncertainty” (cf. the definitions in PMI (2013), Schelle/Ottmann/Pfeiffer (2006)) and therefore covers positive and negative aspects. Following, we will identify possible reasons for the disparities in human behavior in the context of uncertainty handling and thus try to provide support to manage it.

We want to start with a short reflection about the historic development of the cultural relation to uncertainty and then look at the individual way how human beings estimate probabilities. The first part is mainly based on the interesting book by Peter L. Bernstein “Against the Gods” (Bernstein (1996)), whereas the second part is based on the findings of Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky (Kahneman/Tversky (1974), (1979), (2000)) and originates from several psychological textbooks (cf. Esgate/Groome (2005), Fetchenhauer (2011), McKenna (2000)). Subsequently we want to determine what we can learn from this in general and conclude, which consequences result from this, especially for risk management in projects.

Historic Development of the Relation to Uncertainty

In the book “Against the Gods” by Peter L. Bernstein (1996), the historic development is divided into four phases:

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the most recent Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States at the University of Latvia in Riga in April 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the authors and conference organizers

How to cite this paper: Tysiak, W. (2018). A Deeper Insight into the Human Factor in Project Risk Management; Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia, April 2018; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue X – October.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/pmwj75-Oct2018-Tysiak-Deeper-Insight-Human-into-Factor-in-Project-Risk-Management.pdf

 



About the Author


Prof Dr. Wolfgang Tysiak

Dortmund, Germany

 

 

 

In 1995 Wolfgang Tysiak became professor at the University of Applied Sciences and Arts in Dortmund. After studying mathematics, statistics, and business administration at the University Siegen, he received a doctoral degree from the University Wuppertal. After that he worked in the private sector for 12 years, mainly in a consulting firm. During this period most of his work was organized in projects and therefore he gained a lot of experience in applied project management.

At the UAS Dortmund he is a core member of the faculty of business administration. In the EuroMPM (European Master in Project Management) study program, he is mainly responsible for teaching risk management in project.

Wolfgang Tysiak is author/co-author of more than 40 publications, including books, articles in journals, and contributions to conferences.

Wolfgang Tysiak can be contacted at: [email protected].

 

 

Why hybrid projects fail

Development of a retrospective assessment method for hybrid projects

 

SECOND EDITION

By Benjamin Auer and Philipp Rosenberger

Vienna, Austria

 



Abstract

The project business in the IT sector is constantly growing and the budgets of IT departments are getting bigger and bigger, even though according to studies only 16,2% of all projects are successful. (Standish Group, 2015) There is a trend that tries to mix the classic and agile project methods. The target of this approach is to apply best practices of those two methods (e.g. faster “time to market” and flexibility) while trying to keep the organizational structures and -processes (Komus et al., 2015). A difficulty is that there is no exact definition of how a hybrid project should be executed. Another problem is that the role of project manager does not exist in the agile approach.

The other challenge is that projects are normally measured based on key performance indicators. But there is no clear definition on what a key performance indicator is and what it is not. Therefore, projects are not comparable with the use of key performance indicators. (Parmenter 2015). Do to this lack of measuring, project risks are increasingly threatening project success (Csiszarik-Kocsir et al 2017). According to studies there are eight reasons why projects fail and by means of expert interviews those eight reasons have been confirmed and the list was expanded, including four additional reasons (Coolman A. 2016).

This paper presents a review system for hybrid projects with which it is possible to check if projects have failed due to known obstacles. In addition, two possible definition models for hybrid projects are presented in detail, as well as the possible results of each individual phase (start, execution and close-down) that every project passes through. By means of literature research and interviews, stumbling blocks were identified as to why projects could fail. Based on these stumbling blocks, questions were developed for a retrospective assessment method. Based on these questions, an expert can evaluate whether the failure of the project coincides with one of the identified obstacles/reasons. In an excurs, possible key figures for hybrid projects are presented.

Key words: hybrid project, projects fail, key performance indicators,

JEL code: H43 (project evaluation)

Introduction

The 2015 Chaos Report found that only 16.2 percent of all projects could be considered successful. An additional 52.7 percent has come to an end, but at least one of the aspects was outside the magic triangle (quality, time and cost). The remaining projects were never completed and stopped in between. (Standish Group, 2015)

When the study published by the German Project Management Association (GPM) is used, 39 percent of the projects in the surveyed companies are executed with using a hybrid approach. In 25 percent of the projects, a situational approach is selected (classic, agile or hybrid). If one assumes that the 25 percent can be split linearly, one recognizes that more than 47 percent of the projects in the surveyed companies are handled with a hybrid approach. (Komus et al., 2015)

The challenge of hybrid projects is that they try to do the splits between two mythologies. On the one side, there are the existing structures and organizations of a company, on the other side one tries to use the advantages of the agile approach. For this purpose, an attempt by Mr. Habermann was published, in which the interaction between an agile approach and a classical approach in a laboratory simulation was recreated. (Habermann 2013) The result of this simulation containing 26 teams and showed, that a hybrid approach was superior to full agile or full classical project approaches. Based on this conclusion, it seems that hybrid models can become more common in the future.

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the most recent Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States at the University of Latvia in Riga in April 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the authors and conference organizers

How to cite this paper: Auer, B., and Rosenberger, P. (2018). Why hybrid projects fail – Development of a retrospective assessment method for hybrid projects; Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia, April 2018; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue X – October.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/pmwj75-Oct2018-Auer-Rosenberger-Why-Hybrid-Projects-Fail.pdf

 



About the Authors


Benjamin Auer

Vienna, Austria

 

 

 

Since 2006 Benjamin Auer has been working as a team leader and project manager in various projects and industries. Currently he is working in the insurance sector as an IT project manager in a program that replaces the existing ECM group-wide. Before that he was an IT project manager in the field of individual software development with a focus on the introduction of ERP systems. Prior to that he worked as project manager for a tunnel construction project in the field of communications engineering. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in project management and IT and a Master of Science in technical management.  Benjamin Auer can be contacted at [email protected]

 


Philipp Rosenberger

Vienna, Austria

 

 

 

Philipp Rosenberger is a lecturer at FH Campus Vienna at master program technical management focusing on IT project management in an agile development context. After many years in aftersales and business consulting as well as project management and especially IT project management development in Europe and China, he got into the financial sector, managing the implementation of a current account financial product implementation project at ING DiBa Online bank in Vienna and in parallel starting his consulting company ROSCON.at. Philipp now focuses on scientific research of hybrid IT project management models, fulfilling the both needs of a tightly managed classical project regarding budget, cost, quality, predictability and reliability, as well as the needs of an agile culture in the development part of the project. Philipp can be contacted at mailto:[email protected]

 

 

How to Kill a Project Before it Kills You

and Survive to Tell it

 

SECOND EDITION

By Edgardo Suáre

Air Liquide

Houston, Texas, USA

 



Abstract

What happens when a project is raised out of very good reasons and intentions, but the timeline puts it in the midst of other major efforts that would come at the same time?

Are you as a project manager obliged to just run the project as directed? Or do you have the obligation to stop it if you see the risks to be high? Or at least, do you have the obligation to bring up the risks and let others decide?

What exactly is your obligation and how do you carry it out?

We will present a real case of one such project, one that had very good reasons to run and could provide great benefit, it had a deadline to complete (still several months away at the time of the discussions) and given other efforts and projects in the portfolio, it could have resulted in a major body of work at a very high risk that could derail not only this project but the others in the portfolio for the year.

We will present and describe details of the problem project and surrounding context (what other projects and events were in the horizon), how this project was getting coordinated and worked, and the reasons why it was believed to be creating high risks.

We will then describe what actions were taken to best determine if risks were really present, provide quantitative and qualitative data and raise awareness, and ultimately the specific action/s used to help define recommend a direction and a decision to continue or not, and the alternatives provided.

Keywords: project management, project risk, project portfolio, manager duties, manager responsibility, corporate culture

JEL code: M150, M140


Introduction

This paper describes a practical and real life case. It is however anchored in the PMBoK methodology and practical project management practice best practices as well as taking into account the cultural and financial aspects of the organization various stakeholders across various countries and continents.

The case involves a project started to migrate from a data centre into another from the same provider, which was initiated with considerable delay and which at a later point was used to “piggyback” a much larger project to consolidate data centres.

Many of the assumptions initially taken were proven to be incorrect and/or in conflict with the deadlines and timelines in discussion. A major issue was that the lack of consideration of the portfolio of projects and other potential events for the following months and year.

In the opinion of the enterprise architect, the risk of such a project (the consolidation of data centres) was too large to undertake and thus he communicated same to the hub CIO for further discussion and to raise it to a higher level.

Documentation as to the risks and costs, as well as a more sensible alternative were prepared and presented and ultimately, the consolidation project was hold for another time and only the original data centre migration was approved.

Some projects look great in paper, and a more formalized analysis with factual data can result in an entire different outlook.

This paper attempts to describe the dilemma of a PM as to whether he/she blindly runs a project or brings up the risks to stop it before it causes harm to the organization carrying it. With a smaller project, the PM would have a lower level of difficulty in steering to the right direction, the high stakes and visibility on the project we are presenting defines a different dynamic altogether.

We will present and discuss such a case inclusive to the details surrounding the state of affairs within the organization and considerations leading to the decision to hold…

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the most recent Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States at the University of Latvia in Riga in April 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the authors and conference organizers

How to cite this paper: Suárez, E. T. (2018). How to Kill a Project Before it Kills You, and Survive to Tell it; Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia, April 2018; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue IX – September.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/pmwj74-Sep2018-Suarez-how-to-kill-a-project-before-it-kills-you.pdf

 



About the Author


Edgardo Suárez

Houston, TX, USA

 

 

 

Edgardo Suárez has been since 2013 the Chief IT Architect Americas with Air Liquide based in Houston USA. Before and from 2003 to 2013 was Sr. Enterprise Architect with Sysco Foods in Houston USA. Prior to that had several technical and strategic roles in various other organizations.

He has more than 25 years of international experience in business transformations, information systems, process automation, process re-engineering and strategic planning, more than 15 years’ experience in supply chain and project management as well as enterprise architecture in various organizations in the US and South America.

Some of his international speaking invitations are: PMI Global Conference, South America 2009 to 2016, ICEX Intellectual Capital Exchange, USA – 2010 and 2015; SAP Sapphire, USA – 2012; Oil and Gas SAG Symposium, Germany – 2013; EAC-Enterprise Architecture Conference Europe, UK – 2015;  10th ECISM-European Conference in Information System Management, Portugal – 2016; 7th International Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic Countries, Latvia – 2018

Mr Suárez can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

Increase Resource Capacity without Hiring

 

SECOND EDITION

By Chris Vandersluis

HMS Software

Montreal, Canada

 



Introduction

Good project management practices can make the most out of available resources but lack of sufficient resources is a universal challenge. Collaboration at the project tracking and timesheet level between project personnel and human resources personnel can generate resource capacity you didn’t know you had. Using a timesheet to categorize non-project work opens a source of data that can be used to free up staff from tasks that are not productive and thus increase project resource capacity.

The Project Constraint Triangle

Project planners live with a well-known triangle of constraints.  For any project, the scope, duration and resources can change but each one will affect the other.   Want to do a set scope of work in less time?  Think about adding resources.  Need to do that scope of work with fewer resources, think about it taking a longer period of time.  Have both resources and deadline reduced?  Expect that the complete scope won’t get accomplished.

The classic response to these constraints has been:

  • If you are constrained by resources, hire sub-contractors to resolve that constraint.
    (This is less likely to be acceptable when the work is highly technical making it difficult for sub-contractors to get up to speed quickly or during a period when the economy is challenged.)
  • Reduce the amount of work so the existing resources can complete it within the deadline.
    (This is quite unlikely in a global economy where competitors exist not just from around the corner but from all over the world.)
  • Work slower so the existing work can be done by the existing staff but be delivered much later.
    (When there are many competitors with inexpensive labor, missing deadlines can be a short path to disaster.)

There are ways to be more effective of course.  Project Managers specialize in exactly these techniques. Over the last 30 years, project management techniques have been promoted and taught to the point that they are now mainstream learning.  There are numerous graduate programs in project management at top universities around the world and the term “project manager” is no longer characterized by a grizzled veteran dangling from an exposed I-beam at the top of a skyscraper in mid-construction.  Project managers are now more likely to be thought of as many other mid-level managers within the organization.

Aside from specialized project management training, we find project management in mainstream business courses, IT courses, management classes and more.  All of this has made an impact.  It’s now quite common to walk into a business environment and find that many project management techniques and processes have been adopted.  A challenged economy helps this by providing even more incentive for organizations to do more with less.  Even where project management processes are less formal, we find that projects often run fairly efficiently.  In more sophisticated organizations, attention has turned to project portfolio management (PPM) to try to extend project efficiencies to even before the project becomes active and to give tools to management to identify those projects which will provide the best return on investment.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium in May 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Vandersluis, C. (2018). Increase Resource Capacity without Hiring; presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium, Richardson, Texas, USA in May 2018; published in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue IX – September. Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/pmwj74-Sep2018-Vandersluis-increase-resource-capacity-without-hiring.pdf

 



About the Author


Chris Vandersluis

Montreal, Canada

 

 

 

Chris Vandersluis is the president of HMS Software based in Montreal.  HMS Software has been a leading provider of project management and enterprise timesheet systems and services since 1984. HMS Software’s TimeControl is recognized around the world as the most flexible project-oriented timesheet system.

Mr. Vandersluis has a degree in economics from McGill University and over 30 years’ experience implementing enterprise timesheet and project management systems.  Mr. Vandersluis spent five years on Microsoft’s Enterprise Project Management Partner Advisory Council and has worked with Oracle-Primavera and Deltek on their project management systems.

Mr. Vandersluis’ has been published in a number of publications including Fortune Magazine, PMNetwork magazine, Microsoft’s TechNet and is the author of the popular project management blog EPMGuidance.com.

Mr. Vandersluis has taught Advanced Project Management at Montreal’s McGill University and has been a member of PMI since 1986.

Mr. Vandersluis can be reached at: [email protected]

 

 

 

Taming the Tsunami

Governance Strategies for Project Portfolio Management

 

SECOND EDITION

Susan Hostetter and Sherri Norris

United States Census Bureau

Washington, DC USA

 


 

 

Executive Summary

The U.S. Census Bureau has made project portfolio management a priority for its programs over the past five years. The best known program at the Census Bureau is the population census that is conducted every ten years, but there are other large program areas at Census, such as IT investment, survey methods research, and economic and demographic survey areas, that manage hundreds of projects within their portfolios. Each area has a unique set of programs, projects, investments, stakeholder and oversight obligations and each faces a tsunami of project information produced by its portfolio of projects. For example, the 10-year Census is a $15 billion program with a high volume of technical projects and investments that face extensive internal and external oversight, the IT area has the responsibility of managing IT investments without direct funding for IT purchases, and the economic and demographic areas have hundreds of small survey programs with a multitude of funding sources and customers.

To manage these different portfolio situations, each area has developed governance strategies to handle the management demands of their project portfolios. This paper and presentation will profile project portfolio management challenges common to all organizations and provide governance strategies from the Census Bureau that will help other organizations to tame their tsunami of project information and ensure that their leaders have the right information for decision making. We will cover governance strategies that successfully gain and maintain traction and discuss why they work.

Introduction

What do we mean by “Taming the Tsunami?” Every organization has a mission and a vision either stated explicitly or implicitly and the projects and activities within the organization that are for the mission and vision, intentionally or unintentionally. These projects and activities are the moving parts of the organization and each requires attention and maintenance to run smoothly. Leadership’s job is to guide, direct and manage those parts through information, a constant flow of information, a literal tsunami of information.

A leader can be overwhelmed by the information or a leader can implement governance structures and strategies to “tame the tsunami” of information. Project portfolio management is a collection of processes and methods to select, direct and manage the tsunami of project information that competes daily for leadership attention. It is a governance structure that will collect, channel and control all project information within a portfolio so that leadership can make data-driven decisions about the organization’s activities to achieve mission goals and outcomes and strategic goals for future vision. This is what we mean by “Taming the Tsunami,” it is a deliberate leadership process to drive decision making for strategic mission and vision outcomes through the use of project information.

Why Project Portfolio Management?

Why would an organization invest time and resources into portfolio management? We talked to program managers involved in portfolio management at the Census Bureau and our conversations uncovered the challenges and business impact that would lead them to implement portfolio management. We have characterized them into the following statements:

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium in May 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Hostetter, S. and Norris, S. (2018). Taming the Tsunami: Governance Strategies for Project Portfolio Management; presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium, Richardson, Texas, USA in May 2018; published in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue IX – September. Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/pmwj74-Sep2018-Hostetter-Norris-Taming-the-Tsunami.pdf

 



About the Authors


Susan Hostetter

Texas and Washington, DC, USA

 

 

Susan Hostetter, PMP, is a Project Manager at the U.S. Census Bureau in Washington, DC, USA. As a data analyst and project management professional, she has been instrumental in standing up and improving PMO processes for risk management, project management, portfolio management, schedule management, cost management, performance management and strategic planning. Her papers have been published in the PM World Journal and she has presented project management topics at PMI chapter events and at the University of Maryland’s and University of Texas at Dallas’ PM Symposiums. She has a Master’s Certificate in Project Management from George Washington University, a Master’s Degree in Management with Project Management emphasis from University of Maryland’s University College and a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration, with a minor in Economics, from Mary Baldwin College. Susan can be contacted at [email protected]

 


Sherri Norris

Washington, DC, USA

 

 

Sherri Norris is a project management and statistical professional with over twenty years of public policy, project management and operations experience. Ms. Norris has coordinated and implemented schedule, requirements, performance management, and governance processes for survey and Census Programs. She has a Public Policy Master’s Degree in Justice: Law and Society from American University, a Master’s Certificate in Program Management from George Washington University and a Bachelor’s Degree in Criminal Justice from University of Delaware. Sherri can be reached at [email protected]

 

[1] This paper is released to inform interested parties of ongoing operations and to encourage discussion of work in progress. Any views expressed on operational issues are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Census Bureau.

 

CPM Scheduling and Pull Planning

Two Pillars of the Bridge to Innovation

 

SECOND EDITION

Satinder Baweja and Lori Vidak

Texas, USA

 


 

Introduction

In business, there are misperceptions of and a need for innovation, especially in the construction industry, which trails behind other industries. Causes of this failure to innovate are examined. Two competing methods of planning are presented as two supporting pillars that will mitigate these factors, providing a process and an environment, (the bridge to innovation), that nurtures the many forms of thinking necessary for strategic innovation.

One pillar of the bridge, CPM scheduling, is shown to promote the necessary control needed to keep projects on track and lower risks, preventing an avalanche of challenges that so threaten the project that there would be little time for anything but reacting. The CPM master schedule, schedule updates and documentation build upon what is known to provide a reasonable security from which to launch creative thinking and give purpose to innovation.

The other pillar, pull planning, is shown to produce a quality CPM schedule, and when done regularly throughout the life of the project, encourages creativity among all the key participants in the project.

The proper blending of both methods becomes the framework of the bridge allowing companies ongoing travel from the shores of the status quo to the unknown future of projects and the industry.

Innovation Misperceptions

Because innovation is the introduction of something new, it requires creativity. Most consider creative thought to be the playground of thinkers like Albert Einstein, Bill Gates, Leonardo da Vinci, Benjamin Franklin, Marie Curie, and Jane Austen.

However, this is not true. New ideas from so-called average people pop up by the thousands every day. Everyone has creative thoughts, or the occasional lightbulb, but few know how to encourage, nurture, and harvest them. Only a small percentage of them become noteworthy and even fewer motivate change within an organization.

So, why bother initiating changes to encourage innovation that may only clutter up the project management process with untested ideas? After all, the majority already deal with ongoing delays and challenges; they are expected. The resulting higher costs and lower return on investment (ROI) than projected are accepted. They are normal.

The Need for Innovation

Innovation requires thinking differently. Creative, associative, and critical levels of thought must be added to the analytical and lateral way of thinking (imaginenatincomau, 2016). All these thinking processes are pieces of and various steps to innovation. They are only a handful of the gazillion methods or ways of thinking that can be found on the internet. Why are people writing about, researching, and reading about different ways of thinking? People want to be better problem solvers and innovators. They recognize the need.

In the world of business, 90% of companies surveyed place a priority on innovation (SHUKLA, 2017). It drives wealth creation. Without it there is no strategy in strategic planning and no sustainable business growth (SHUKLA, 2017).

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium in May 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Baweja, S., Lori Vidak, L. (2018). CPM Scheduling and Pull Planning: Two Pillars of the Bridge to Innovation; presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium, Richardson, Texas, USA in May 2018; published in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue IX – September.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/pmwj74-Sep2018-Baweja-Vidak-cpm-scheduling-and-pull-planning.pdf

 



About the Authors


Satinder Baweja

Texas, USA

 

 

Satinder Baweja is the founder and CEO of Milestone Consultants, with over 25 years of experience assisting corporations manage large programs, launch products, and enter new markets. His expertise is in planning large scale complex initiatives and the turnaround of troubled programs and projects. He has a Masters in Engineering from Texas A & M. Satinder has lived, worked, and studied in East Africa, India, and the US, giving him a unique global perspective and an ability to work with diverse cultures.  He can be contacted at [email protected]

 


Lori Vidak

Texas, USA

 

 

Lori Vidak is the researcher and marketing director for Milestone Consultants. She owned and managed a small silk-screen and promotional products business for over 30 years. She is also a fitness instructor certified in aquatic and group fitness, Pilates, and kickboxing. Both her business experience and fitness training give her insights into creative problem solving, ethics, and stress management.  Ms. Vidak can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

Is the Matrix Fad a Fast Fading Flower?

 

SECOND EDITION

Robert Youker

(Formerly of the World Bank Institute)  

Maryland, USA

 



Abstract

Fads come and go.  Matrix has come.  If it goes, it will have been a fad.  Is the bloom off the matrix rose and will the matrix soon fade away?

This paper reviews current criticisms of the matrix organizational structure, especially by Peters and Waterman in the best selling book, In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies.  It reviews several alternatives to the matrix and concludes that the switch to a matrix structure is often just one step in a larger process of developing an effective system for managing projects.

Is the Matrix Organization a Fad?

In the past decade there has been an explosion of interest in the matrix form of organization.  There have been a host of articles and papers on the matrix in the Project Management Journal (Quarterly) and at the PMI Symposiums.  The PMI has even published a book which deals extensively with matrix organizations. [6] Many companies have adopted matrix structures and lecturers and consulting organizations have been busy telling businessmen how to set up matrix structures and how to survive within the matrix.

Recently, however, there has been increased criticism of the matrix approach.  In 1982 two consultants from McKinsey and Company, Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman, wrote a best-selling and influential book entitled In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies. [1] Peters and Waterman analyzed 62 high performing companies and found that not one used the matrix structure…

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally prepared for the PMI Symposium in Philadelphia, PA, USA during 8-10 October 1984.  It is republished here with the author’s permission.

How to cite this paper: Youker, R. (1984). Is the Matrix Fad a Fast Fading Flower? Proceedings, PMI Annual Seminar/Symposium, Philadelphia, PA, USA; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue IX – September Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/pmwj74-Sep2018-Youker-is-the-matrix-a-fast-fading-flower-pmi-1984.pdf

 



About the Author


Robert Youker

World Bank (retired)

 

 

 

 

Robert (Bob) Youker is an independent trainer and consultant in Project Management with more than forty years of experience in the field.  He is retired from the World Bank where he developed and presented six week project management training courses for the managers of major projects in many different countries. He served as the technical author for the bank on the Instructors Resource Kit on CD ROM for a five week training course on Managing the Implementation of Development Projects.  He has written and presented more than a dozen papers at the Project Management Institute and the International Project Management Association (Europe) conferences many of which have been reprinted in the Project Management Institute publications and the International Journal of Project Management (UK).

Mr. Youker is a graduate of Colgate University, the Harvard Business School and studied for a doctorate in behavioral science at George Washington University.  His project management experience includes new product development at Xerox Corporation and project management consulting for many companies as President of Planalog Management Systems from 1968 to 1975.  He has taught in Project Management Courses for AMA, AMR, AED, ILI, ILO, UCLA, University of Wisconsin, George Washington University, the Asian Development Bank and many other organizations. He developed and presented the first Project Management courses in Pakistan, Turkey, China and Africa for the World Bank.

A few years ago Mr. Youker conducted Project Management training in Amman, Jordan financed by the European Union for 75 high level civil servants from Iraq who implemented the first four World Bank projects in Iraq. He is a former Director of PMI, IPMA and asapm, the USA member organization of IPMA. Most recently he has been consulting for the US Government Millennium Challenge Corporation on project management training in Africa.  Bob can be contacted at [email protected]

To see more works by Bob Youker, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/robert-bob-youker/

 

 

Using Schedule Data to Improve Project Management

 

SECOND EDITION

Anne E Johnson

Contributing Author: Susan Hostetter

Demographic Statistical Methods Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census

Washington, DC, USA

 


 
ABSTRACT

Like many project managers, I faced challenges such as under-estimated costs and effort, timelines and budgets too tight to meet the needs of sponsors, and the inability to make data-driven decisions. In response to these challenges, I developed methods using schedule data to improve the overall management of my projects. In this paper, I will describe my methods and discuss how these methods contribute to specific project management benefits such as:

  • Identifying cost efficiencies
  • Managing the budget more effectively
  • Improving cost estimation and resource planning
  • Reducing overall project risk
  • Improving transparency with staff and sponsors
  • Supporting informed, real-time decision making

INTRODUCTION

My Division

The Demographic Statistical Methods Division (DSMD) of the U.S. Census Bureau operates in a unique environment within the Federal Government. DSMD provides a variety of statistical services, such as sampling, quality assurance, and survey methodology research in order for the Census Bureau to execute over twenty demographic surveys. The work DSMD performs on all of these different surveys is sponsored by several external government agencies that each have their unique operating styles, needs, and requirements.

Although much of DSMD’s work is essential to successfully executing each survey, DSMD also has the capability and staff expertise to perform research and analysis in order to improve surveys leading to cost savings and improved efficiencies. Given the current environment of the federal government, we are constantly at risk of decreasing budgets, and therefore find ourselves competing for our research-type work to take priority and receive the appropriate funding. Additionally, there are risks to operating in a reimbursable work environment, making it essential for DSMD to keep costs low and quality of deliverables high.

Project Server at the Census

The US Census Bureau introduced Microsoft Project Server a few years ago to improve project and portfolio management, as well as, provide required reporting information to the Chief Information Officer and to Congress. Microsoft Project Server is a web-based application that serves as a database of project schedules and associated information, a portal for employees to charge their work hours to tasks on projects, as well as providing customizable reports for resource and schedule management, amongst other useful project management features.

A bureau-wide mandate was put in place for all staff to report their weekly work hours into Project Server to the associated mission-enabling service or survey life-cycle component. At the same time, the need for project management was becoming increasingly realized across Census. Having the project server infrastructure in place allowed Project Managers to execute and manage schedules based on actual work hours charged by project teams. Added benefits to collecting this schedule data are to analyze and use the data to improve planning for future projects, create transparency with our sponsors and survey directors, and improve resource and cost management.

It is important to note that this did not happen overnight or without a few headaches. Developing quality schedules and getting staff to accurately charge their work hours was necessary in order to successfully collect useful data. To accomplish this, the project managers needed to create comprehensive and manageable schedules with tasks that staff could easily understand and charge their work hours through Project Server. This was no easy task. It took the Demographic Statistical Methods Division (DSMD) approximately two years to achieve reportable project schedules.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 5th Annual University of Maryland PM Symposium in May 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Johnson, A. (2018). Using Schedule Data to Improve Project Management; Proceedings of the 5th Annual University of Maryland Project Management Symposium, College Park, Maryland, USA in May 2018; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue IX – September.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/pmwj74-Sep2018-Johnson-using-schedule-data-to-improve-project-management.pdf

 



About the Author


Anne Johnson

Washington, DC, USA

 

 

Anne Johnson graduated from the University of Pittsburgh with a Bachelor’s of Science in Mathematics and Economics in 2012. Shortly after graduating, Anne began her career at the US Census Bureau working in the Economic Directorate as an analyst on the Service Annual Survey and the 2012 Economic Census.

Anne joined the Demographic Statistical Methods Division as a project manager in February of 2015. She has provided project management support to the American Housing Survey, National Survey of College Graduates, the Current Population Survey Supplements, and Survey Methodology research projects. In this role, Anne has developed and managed over 50 project schedules, produced cost estimates for survey work and research projects, monitored the budgets for reimbursable projects, created reports to assist management with resource allocation and budget management, developed training materials, and managed contracts as a COR.

Anne received a Master’s Certificate in Project Management and her PMP certification in 2016 and her COR certification in 2017.

Anne Johnson can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

Critical Success Factors for Earned Value Analysis

in Managing Construction Projects

 

SECOND EDITION

By Mohamed Morad and Sameh El-Sayegh

American University of Sharjah

Sharjah, UAE

 


 
Abstract

Completing construction projects on time and within budget is important to achieve project objectives. Project Managers use Earned Value Analysis (EVA) in order to evaluate project performance at certain points in time to ensure successful project completion. The use of EVA, in construction projects, is on the rise due to its importance. Several barriers make it difficult to implement EVA in construction projects. This paper evaluates the main barriers and critical success factors for implementing Earned Value Analysis in construction projects in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The main barriers and success factors were identified through literature review. A survey was then developed and distributed to construction professionals in the UAE. Thirty-Five surveys were analysed since their companies are implementing EVA. The results indicate that the main benefits of using earned value analysis include providing a database of completed projects that can be used for comparative analysis, achieving project cost objectives and providing early warning signals for performance problems. The main limitations of EVA include dependency on past performance for forecasting, independency of activities and difficulty in incorporating scope changes. The results also indicate that the main barriers to EVA implementation include cultural resistance, ill scope definition and lack of expertise. The Critical Success Factors (CSFs) include top management support, high level of acceptance among project managers and strong administrative and technical ability of project managers. The paper also presents recommendations for the successful implementation of Earned Value Analysis (EVA) in construction projects.

Key words: Earned Value Management, project management, construction projects, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

JEL code: L74: Construction; O22: Project Analysis

Introduction

The early phase of Earned Value Management (EVM) goes back to the 1960s. It became a standard in 1998. In May 1998, an earned value management commercial standard was approved and it was adopted in 1999 as the official US Department of Defence (DOD) approach (Webb, 2003). EVM consists of a framework which integrates project’s scope, cost, and schedule together. Earned Value Analysis (EVA) is a quantitative technique that is used in project management to evaluate performance and predicate final project outcomes, by comparing executed work and their cost against planned work and their cost (Lukas, 2008). Earned Value management is a management methodology of integrating scope, schedule and resources, for objectively measuring project performance and progress (Storm, 2008). The method depends on quantitative approach to measure preformed work. Managing using Earned Value Method considered as “managing with open eyes” because project manager and site team can obviously see the difference among what have been accomplished, what was planned and actual cost (Snog and Shalini, 2009). EVM is a powerful tool that assists the decision process by providing indicators (indexes) which act as alarms to keep the project on time and budget (Kerzner, 2006). Studies showed that the application of Earned Value Management is successful in projects that have clear and tangible objectives; these projects indicate better results in the use of EVM (Vargas, 2003). EVM is considered as a crucial method for project management that can facilitates project control and forecasts the expected final project cost and duration (Lipke, 2009). EVM works as supportive tool for forecasting future cost depending on schedule and budget although many authors has critiqued the assumptions of forecasting in EVM.

The UAE experienced a period of construction boom. Many construction companies had participated in breaking the ground for new buildings and facilities. Dubai has built outstanding projects that no any city can do such as Burj Khalifa, Palm Jemeriah, and world’s islands. Our concern is what kind of system did construction companies used to control the project budget and duration. The objective is to determine the status of Earned Value Management in UAE and especially in Dubai, including its barriers, limitations and success factors. EVM has been widely used in construction companies. Construction companies in Dubai have been controlling their projects through control systems. Although it has been developed long time ago, the method has some imperfections and weaknesses. This paper focuses on the barriers that prevent the proper implementation of earned value management. These barriers considered as obstacles such as company’s qualification, people culture, staff responsibility, project conditions, processes and procedures, and measuring methods. Furthermore, the paper addresses the several limitations in earned value management concept. The paper also presents recommendations for the successful implementation of Earned Value Analysis (EVA) in construction projects.

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the most recent Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States at the University of Latvia in Riga in April 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the authors and conference organizers

How to cite this paper: Morad, M. and El-Sayegh, S. (2018). Critical Success Factors for Earned Value Analysis in Managing Construction Projects; Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia, April 2018; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue IX – September.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/pmwj74-Sep2018-Morad-ElSayegh-critical-success-factors-for-earned-value-analysis.pdf

 



About the Authors


Mohammed Morad

Ontario, Canada

 

 

Mohamed Morad is currently a project manager with Castlewall Developments in Ontario, Canada.  He holds a Masters and Bachelor’s degrees from the American University of Sharjah, UAE and an MBA, Project Management from the University of New Brunswick, Canada

 


Dr. Sameh El-Sayegh

Sharjah, UAE

 

 

Dr. Sameh El-Sayegh is a professor of construction and project management in the Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  He hold a PhD in Civil Engineering (Construction Engineering and Project Management), Texas A&M University, USA, 1998; MSc (Construction Management), Texas A&M University, Texas, USA, 1996; BSc (Construction engineering), American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt, 1993

Prior to his academic career, Sameh Monir El-Sayegh worked in the construction industry in Greece and Yemen with CCIC and in the US with the Morganti Group. His areas of research and teaching interest are construction and project management, project control and construction contracting. He is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) from the Project Management Institute.  Contact: [email protected]

 

 

Towards a Culture of Innovation

How Agile and Organizational Change Management Contribute to the Success of Culture Change

 

SECOND EDITION

By Katharina Kettner, PhD

Canada & USA

 



It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change.
(Charles Darwin)


Same goes for organizations in the jungles, swamps, and rough seas of the global economy, dealing with the constant need to adapt to technological and economic changes. Even – and especially – industries and regions on the periphery of change now feel the pressure to innovate to respond to markets, industry regulations, and customer demands.[1] So how does one achieve that goal?

As a young consultant I was approached by the newly appointed VP of Innovation and Creativity for a large tech company to discuss a concept for some changes he wanted to make. He explained to me that it was high time for the company to become more creative and innovative, and that he couldn’t understand how the employees, who were so creative in their cottages, clubs, and allotments, were “withholding creativity and innovative spirit from the company”.

That was around the turn of the century and two decades later I am still puzzled by this leader’s perspective. This company’s employees were – and still are – recruited for superior technological and engineering skills, for exact analysis, and precise measurement. Moving an organization with 10000+ employees worldwide towards a culture of creativity is not an easy feat.

Fast forward into the 21st century and I am doing an impact analysis on a project. In OCM (Organizational Change Management) stakeholder impact analyses often start with the primary source of information (key stakeholder, business lead, SME) stating “not much of a change really, we’re just introducing a few new standards and procedures”. In this case, with some careful question technique it turned out that this change will affect hundreds of employees working in operations and require them to assess risks autonomously and in cross-functional teams across deeply ingrained silos. The mutual conclusion at the end of the interview is that the change of mindsets and behaviors is actually quite large.

Far beyond initiatives that introduce bean bags and bright colors to common rooms, this is what Culture Change looks like. It’s quite technical on the surface, but is actually about touching mindsets and changing the way an organization has been working for decades, sometimes longer.

Culture is the answer to the question “how we do things around here” and all its underpinning mindsets. Culture is an iceberg[2]: Behaviors, artifacts, policies, industry standards, logos, the way of dressing etc. are visible and above the water line. Values, beliefs, informal communication (water cooler talks, rumours etc.) are below and can only be reached via behaviors. Norms are around the water line: Dress code is a good example, it may be “unwritten law” or stated explicitly.

To the members of a culture, the invisible factors are deeply rooted, often they are not consciously aware of them[3]. Without holistic Organizational Change Management, based on experience and including factors such as stakeholder engagement and organizational culture, many of the “invisibles” will go unnoticed in organizations, leaving leaders wondering why nothing is moving forward.

Despite the fact that executives and business consultants tend to avoid the word culture, awareness for Organizational Culture is in fact on the rise. Surveys and research show that executives, managers, and co-workers place a great deal of importance on their organizational culture, even if it may not be readily admitted in everyday life.

 

Figure 1: http://www.strategyand.pwc.com/media/file/Strategyand_Cultures-Role-in-Enabling-Organizational-Change.pdf [4]

A useful model to categorize company culture is the grid of Trompenaars/Hampton-Turner[5] (see diagram). It characterizes organizational culture without going into too much detail:

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium in May 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Kettner, K. (2018). Towards a Culture of Innovation: How Agile and Organizational Change Management Contribute to the Success of Culture Change; presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium, Richardson, Texas, USA in May 2018; published in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VIII – August. Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/pmwj73-Aug2018-Kettner-towards-culture-of-innovation-utd-paper.pdf

 



About the Author


Katharina Kettner, PhD

Canada / USA

 

 

 

As an innovative Sr. Organizational Change Manager with over 25 years of experience in designing and implementing programs for corporate clients in Europe and Canada, Katharina Kettner has been involved in large transformations (IT, M&A, reorg), including enterprise & portfolio CM and strategic planning. She also worked with start-ups, artists and in patent projects. Katharina is well-versed in waterfall & agile, a strong facilitator, and an expert in organizational culture & leadership development. She holds a PhD in Communication & Media, a certificate in Economy & Business Studies (Strategic Management & Leadership), and certifications in PRINCE2, Scrum, PROSCI ADKAR, and Business Process Management. She has published articles and a book on OCM Best Practices in IT projects published by gpm-ipma and is active in professional networks.

Dr. Kettner can be contacted at [email protected].

 

[1] One example for this phenomenon is the insurance industry, where the term Insuretech has been coined, https://www.techopedia.com/definition/33220/insuretech . Several large consultancies have explicitly included this industry in their strategies to cater for the wave of innovation & technology and its current needs & trends, i.e. speed to market, deep innovation, micro innovation etc., large conferences are devoted to the topic: http://insuretechconnect.com

[2] Often cited, one of the earliest mentions in: Edward T. Hall Beyond Culture by Anchor Books, 1977

[3] Trompenaars

[4] Strategy& (formerly Booz & Company), Culture’s role in enabling organizational change, November 2013, accessed on April 10, 2018. Respondents’ organizational level: 12% C-suite 17% Director 24% Manager 47% Other.

[5] Trompenaars Seven Dimensions of Culture https://sevendimensionsofculture.wikispaces.com/Trompenaars%27+Seven+Dimensions+of+Culture
For more info watch https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aS1K_rl8PrQ&feature=player_embedded

 

 

Driven to Distraction

Surviving Information Overload in the Age of Connectivity

 

SECOND EDITION

(Conference Paper)

Vince Yauger, AIA, CCCA, CCM, LEED AP, PMP

University of Texas at Dallas

Richardson, TX, USA

 



ABSTRACT

We live in an age of connectivity, the consequence of which is we work in an environment filled with constant interruptions and distractions. If not properly managed, instant access to information can bog down project managers, resulting in decreased efficiency and increased project risk. Most Project Managers deal with multiple projects, so the ability to stay current with project metrics is critical to project success. Yet the sheer magnitude of information can be overwhelming.

In this paper, we explore tools to effectively sift through this mountain of details, focusing on what is most important to the success of your projects.

DEALING WITH INFORMATION OVERLOAD

The rate of technological advancement over the last thirty years is overwhelming. Contrast changes in communication in the table below:

Office Communication in 1978 Office Communications in 2018
  • Letters (snail mail)
  • Phone (VOIP, LL, cell, etc.)
  • Facsimiles
  • Video calls (Skype, etc.)
  • Routing Slips (courier)
  • Email (multiple accounts)
  • Phone Conversations (land lines)
  • Teleconferencing
  • Face-to-Face (meetings, etc.)
  • Videoconferencing
 
  • Texting
 
  • Instant Messaging
 
  • Social Media Alerts
 
  • Letters (snail mail endures)
 
  • Face-to-Face (meetings, etc.)

While the benefits of modern technology are unquestionable, an unintended consequence of instant access to all this data is “information overload.” This proliferation of helpful technology provides helpful tools that can quickly become demanding taskmasters.

Ask yourself these questions:

  • Do you feel like you’re always on call?
  • Do constant interruptions disrupt your work flow?
  • Do you check work email even when not at work?
  • What does “time off” mean to you?
  • Do you ever think “if I don’t do it, it won’t get done?”
  • Is your phone a time-saving or time-wasting device?

Modern meetings often include both computer and cell phone usage. How effective do you think the communication is in meetings where everyone is distracted by their cell phones? Is anyone really paying attention? If not, what is the point of meeting in the first place?

Ever had someone in a meeting answer their cell phone, then say “I can’t talk now – I’m in a meeting?” Are you taking full advantage of the capabilities of your smart phone? Like, say, voicemail? If it’s critical that you take the call, you could step outside before answering the phone. While response by Text is a more discreet way to deal with inability to answer calls, it still involves you being distracted in meetings.

Information overload can be further complicated by ineffective or political management. Many employees currently in management roles (leadership) advanced up from the PM ranks. They may have great technical skills but lack leadership training and experience. How many PM’s typically receive HR and employee management training? Technical skills alone may not prepare you for leadership.

SOME INCONVENIENT TRUTHS

  • The fate of the free world does not depend upon you being immediately accessible by phone or email at all times
  • You work with flawed human beings – you are also one of them
  • Every team is dysfunctional – some are just better at it than others
  • Technology is here to stay – your sanity hangs on your ability to manage information efficiently

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium in May 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Yauger, V. (2018). Driven to Distraction: Surviving Information Overload in the Age of Connectivity; presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium, Richardson, Texas, USA in May 2018; published in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VIII – August. Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/pmwj73-Aug2018-Yauger-Driven-to-Distraction-utd-paper.pdf

 



About the Author


Vince Yauger, AIA, CCCA, CCM, LEEP AP, PMP

Texas, USA

 




Vince Yauger
has 37-years’ experience in design and construction, working as a project manager for both private industry and the government sector. His construction experience covers a broad spectrum of building types, ranging from small residences to multi-million dollar multi-family high-rise, airport terminals, and higher education projects. Vince currently serves as the Senior Resident Construction Manager for the North and East Texas Regions of the University of Texas System Office of Facilities Planning and Construction – managing new construction and major renovation projects at the University of Texas at Dallas campus since 2007.

Vince earned a Bachelor of Environmental Design (Architecture) from Texas A&M University, with additional graduate studies in Architecture and Management. He holds multiple professional certifications:  Project Management Professional (2011), CSI – Certified Construction Contract Administrator (2006), CMAA – Certified Construction Manager (2017), LEED Accredited Professional (2004), and Registered Architect (1999 – Texas).

Past speaking engagements include the 2017 UT PM Symposium, one of several keynote address at the 2015 UTD PM Symposium, 2016 Virtual Construction and Field Technology Conference, UTD Applied Project Management Forum, 2013 Texas Society of Architects Convention, 2013 UTD Facilities Management Conference, and multiple UT System OFPC annual conferences. He also serves as a guest lecturer for UTD’s PM core curriculum program, speaking to groups of foreign graduate students visiting UT Dallas, and conducting construction site tours on campus.

Vince Yauger can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

The Job of the Project Manager

 

SECOND EDITION

Robert Youker

(Formerly of the World Bank Institute)  

Maryland, USA

 



Introduction

For any organization and for any project manager it is vitally important to know what are the specific duties or Terms of Reference for the Project Manager, what tasks he or she must perform and what is their authority and responsibility that should be documented in a Project Brief or Project Charter. Yet in the literature of Project Management there are few references or specific examples of these much needed details. This paper presents examples of three key documents relating to the Project Managers job. The contents are appropriate in any project where a fairly high degree of “ceremony” is required to keep proper track of all responsibilities. While these three documents serve different purposes, there are obviously overlaps, as well as similarities and differences between them:

  1. The Project Manager’s on-the-job tasks
  2. A list of duties or Terms of Reference and
  3. A Project Charter defining organizational relationships.

Document #1 is a list of tasks organized by the typical sequence of activities on a project. The list has been derived from the titles of twelve modules contained in a training package on Managing the Implementation of Development Projects developed for the World Bank Institute. The list assumes that the Project Manager was not appointed until the start of the Implementation Phase and so has not previously been involved in project preparation activities.

Document #2 is a sample list of the Duties or Terms of Reference (TOR) for a Project Manager. It is less detailed than the on-the-job tasks list and is organized by topic rather than by chronology. The content would vary by organization and specific project but the basic content would be the same. The list should be useful in recruiting Project Managers and defining their job responsibilities, typically in a job description.

Document #3 is a sample of a Project Charter defining the authority and responsibility of a Project Manager. It is primarily intended to establish the role and responsibility of the Project Manager vis-à-vis the functional managers in the organization in a matrix structure. Again the details would be different for different organizations and specific project situations.

I hope that these three documents will serve as drafts for organizations preparing their own Checklists, Terms of Reference and Project Charters.

Document #1: On-the-job tasks for the Project Manager

This Document #1 is a list of tasks organized according to the typical sequence of activities on a project. The list assumes that the Project Manager was only appointed at the start of the Implementation Phase and so is not familiar with any of the previous activities. Hence, the heading for the first step is to study the existing documentation and find out what the project is all about.

As I said, these documents are part of the World Bank Institute’s, Managing the Implementation of Development Projects, and it is available as a Resource Kit for Instructors on CD-ROM. For information please contact John Didier at [email protected]. The kit is divided into Modules each of which include very detailed list of tasks that form useful checklist for the Project Manager, the project team and the rest of the organization including functional managers.

The twelve Modules are as follows and their respective detailed activities are presented in subsequent pages:

  1. Understanding the Project and Project Management
  2. Structuring the Project Organization
  3. Building the Team
  4. Analyzing the Project Context
  5. Refining Objectives, Scope, and Other Project Parameters
  6. Preparing the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  7. Planning and Scheduling with the Critical Path Method
  8. Obtaining Management Approval and Support
  9. Designing Control and Reporting Systems: Cost, Time, Resources, and Scope (including Performance and Quality)
  10. Organizing Procurement
  11. Executing and Controlling the Work
  12. Terminating the Project.

Module 1: Understanding the Project and Project Management

This Module’s activities are:

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper is an update of a paper prepared for the June 2002 IPMA Conference in Berlin. It contains content from various training materials developed for the World Bank. The current paper is copyright to Robert Youker, © 2007. Republished with author’s permission.

How to cite this paper: Youker, R. (2018). The Job of the Project Manager; Proceedings, IPMA 2002 World Congress, Berlin, Germany; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VIII – August.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/pmwj73-Aug2018-Youker-job-of-project-manager-second-edition.pdf

 



About the Author


Robert Youker

World Bank (retired)
Maryland, USA

 

 

 

 

Robert (Bob) Youker is an independent trainer and consultant in Project Management with more than forty years of experience in the field.  He is retired from the World Bank where he developed and presented six week project management training courses for the managers of major projects in many different countries. He served as the technical author for the bank on the Instructors Resource Kit on CD ROM for a five week training course on Managing the Implementation of Development Projects.  He has written and presented more than a dozen papers at the Project Management Institute and the International Project Management Association (Europe) conferences many of which have been reprinted in the Project Management Institute publications and the International Journal of Project Management (UK).

Mr. Youker is a graduate of Colgate University, the Harvard Business School and studied for a doctorate in behavioral science at George Washington University.  His project management experience includes new product development at Xerox Corporation and project management consulting for many companies as President of Planalog Management Systems from 1968 to 1975.  He has taught in Project Management Courses for AMA, AMR, AED, ILI, ILO, UCLA, University of Wisconsin, George Washington University, the Asian Development Bank and many other organizations. He developed and presented the first Project Management courses in Pakistan, Turkey, China and Africa for the World Bank.

A few years ago Mr. Youker conducted Project Management training in Amman, Jordan financed by the European Union for 75 high level civil servants from Iraq who implemented the first four World Bank projects in Iraq. He is a former Director of PMI, IPMA and asapm, the USA member organization of IPMA. Most recently he has been consulting for the US Government Millennium Challenge Corporation on project management training in Africa.  Bob can be contacted at [email protected]

To see more works by Bob Youker, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/robert-bob-youker/

 

 

Project Management at Top Business Schools

 

SECOND EDITION

By Marco Sampietro

SDA Bocconi School of Management, Milan, Italy

and

Antonio Nieto-Rodriguez

Visiting Professor at Duke CE, Durham, USA

 



Abstract

If we summarize what all companies and organizations around the world do, we can state that they perform two types of activities: they execute processes to produce, sell, and distribute products and services, and they implement projects to ensure that the organization survives and keeps growing in the mid and long term. Based on this reasoning, leaders, such as managers and executives, should possess process and Project Management competencies. Many current and future managers and executives go to learn the skills needed to lead a business at Business Schools. In fact, Business Schools are particularly relevant as they are well known for creating the next generation of leaders and for strengthening the competencies of existing leaders. The main question is: are Business Schools teaching Project Management? Since Business Schools all around the world are almost countless, we decided to focus on top Business Schools. From a methodological perspective, we started by defining and identifying “Top” Business Schools. In order to do that we took the leading sources of Business School rankings as inputs. In particular, we considered global rankings, avoiding regional or national rankings. We listed all the Business Schools present in the rankings and removed duplicates. The final list was made up of 197 Business Schools. We then explored their websites in order to identify and analyze:

  • Project Management courses in MBA programs,
  • Project Management courses in Online MBA programs,
  • Project Management courses in Executive MBA programs,
  • Project Management courses in Specialized Masters,
  • Certificates in Project Management,
  • Open Executives Programs in Project Management

Results indicate that Project Management courses are not very frequent among Business Schools and differences can be found depending on the type of training programs.

Key words: Project Management, Business Schools, rankings

JEL code: M54

Introduction

All the companies and organizations around the world do execute processes to produce, sell, and distribute products and services, and they implement projects to ensure that the organization survives and keeps growing in the mid and long term. While most traditional organizations are process-based, it is hard to find an organization that does not perform projects as well.

Yet, over the past decade, organizations have been relying more and more on projects. The reason is quite simple, in fact, access to broader and cheaper information, fierce competition and customer preferences have:

  • Shortened product life-cycles by about 25% (Roland Berger, 2012) and 50 percent of annual company revenues across a range of industries are derived from new products launched within the past three years (Inform, 2012), that is, new products become obsolete much faster and ask for replacements or enhancements more frequently.
  • Reduced the possibility to have best seller products. The long-tail effect (i.e. sales less concentrated on a few products) has pushed for an increase in the product variety, which is more than doubled in the past 15 years (Roland Berger, 2012).

As a result, new products or services have to be developed more frequently and processes have to be improved and updated (significant process improvements, such as digitalization, or business model transformation, represent huge transformation projects) more often as well.

The bottom line is that organizations perform more project compared to the past and not having the competencies to successfully manage projects can be detrimental to the current performance and to the ability of the organization to succeed in the long term. As pointed out by many authors (Archibald and Archibald 2015, West 2010, Englund and Bucero 2006, Love and Love 2000, Pinto and Slevin, 1988), project success is not only influenced by Project Managers and Team Members but also from middle and top management roles who can support projects activing as project sponsors or can design an organization that supports the proper management of projects. Based on this reasoning, leaders, such as managers and executives, should possess Project Management competencies. Many current and future managers and executives go to learn the skills needed to lead an organization at Business Schools. In fact, Business Schools are particularly relevant as they are well known for creating the next generation of leaders and for strengthening the competencies of existing leaders. The main question is: are Business Schools teaching Project Management?

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the most recent Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States at the University of Latvia in Riga in April 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the authors and conference organizers

How to cite this paper: Sampietro, M. & Nieto-Rodriguez, A. (2018). Project Management at Top Business Schools; Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia, April 2018; republished in PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VIII – August.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/pmwj73-Aug2018-Sampietro-Nieto-Rodriques-project-management-at-top-business-schools.pdf

 



About the Authors


Marco Sampietro, PhD

SDA Bocconi School of Management
Milan, Italy

 

 

Since 2000 Marco Sampietro has been a professor at SDA Bocconi School of Management, Bocconi University, Milan, Italy. SDA Bocconi School of Management is ranked among the top Business Schools in the world (Financial Times Rankings). He is an Associate Professor of Practice at SDA Bocconi School of Management and teaches Project Management at the MBA – Master of Business Administration and GEMBA – Global Executive Master of Business Administration. He is also responsible for the following executive education courses: Project Management, Agile Management and Team Leadership. He is also a Faculty Member at SDA Bocconi Asia Center, the Indian subsidiary of SDA Bocconi School of Management.

Since 2001 he has been a contract professor at Bocconi University where he teaches Project Management and Project and Team Management. In 2008 and 2009 he has been Vice-Director of a Master Degree in IT Management at Bocconi University. He is also Contract Professor at
the Milano Fashion Institute where he teaches Project Management. Some of his international experiences are: speaker at the NASA Project Management Challenge 2007, 2008, and 2011, USA; speaker at the PMI Global European Congress, 2010; speaker at the IPMA-GPM Young Crew  Conference, 2008, Germany; Visiting Professor at IHU-International Hellenic University, Greece and Visiting Instructor at the University of Queensland, Australia.

He is author or co-author or editor of 11 books on project management and 7 books on IT management. Finally, he is an author of internationally published articles and award-winning case studies.

Dr Sampietro can be contacted at: [email protected]

 


Antonio Nieto-Rodriguez

Belgium

 

 

 

 Antonio Nieto-Rodriguez (www.antonionietorodriguez.com) is the world’s leading champion of Project Management and Strategy Implementation. He is the creator of concepts such as the Hierarchy of Purpose, featured by Harvard Business Review, or the Project Revolution; which argue that projects are the lingua franca of the business and personal worlds from the C-suite to managing your career or relationships.

Antonio’s research and global impact in modern management has been recognized by Thinkers50 with the prestigious award “Ideas into Practice”.

A seasoned practitioner, he has held senior executive roles at major corporations, currently, he is Director of GSK Vaccines’ Global Project Management Office. Antonio is the former chairman of the Project Management Institute and co-founder of its Brightline Initiative.

His next book, “The Project Revolution: How to Succeed in a Project-Driven World”, endorsed by Alan Mulally, Roger Martin, Rita McGrath, Marshall Goldsmith… will be published by LID early 2019. Previously he authored the best-selling book “The Focused Organization” and contributed to several other books.

Antonio is a much in demand keynote speaker at events worldwide. Over the past 15 years, he has presented at more than 160 conferences around the world, including European Business Forum, Global Peter Drucker Forum, Gartner PPM Summit…

A pioneer and leading authority in teaching strategy execution and project management to senior executives; he is visiting professor at some of the world’s top Business Schools: Duke CE, Instituto de Empresa, Solvay, Vlerick, Ecole des Ponts, and Skolkovo.

Born in Madrid, Spain, and educated in Germany, Mexico, Italy and the United States, Antonio has an MBA from London Business School and is fluent in six languages. He can be reached via email: [email protected]

 

 

The Relevance of Project Success Criteria

and Requirements in Project Management

 

SECOND EDITION

By Ágnes Csiszárik-Kocsir, habil. PhD

Associate Professor, Óbuda University

Budapest, Hungary

 



Abstract

Projects have become key players in national economies today. Projects are concrete manifestations of investments, there are no investments without projects, and without them the economy can not grow substantially. However, projects are unsuccessful in many cases, because they aren’t prepared in time, don’t achieve the required performance they expect from them. A common cause of project failure is a poor planning process, budgetary problems, the missed investment calculations, or the omission of sustainability, relevance, and feasibility.

These expectations are expressed in every project management course, all of the literature dealing with the projects, but the project actors don’t give the required relevance to them. The aim of this paper is to examine the above-mentioned triple success criteria system based on the opinion of Hungarian companies, in addition to measuring the elements of a classical project triangle.

Key words: project success, project management, primary research, SME

JEL code: O10, M10

Introduction

Projects are always temporary arrangements that are established for pre-set objectives. Success for a project means achieving the objectives, but the road to success is paved with various risks and difficulties. Therefore in many cases the expected success of a project turns into failure. Several organizations have already tried to estimate the number of unsuccessful projects. An organization called Wellingtone (n.d., a.) defined the project as such a change-inducing endeavour that has to meet three criteria for the sake of success:

  • Alignment to the strategy of the project promoter,
  • Must have priority over other initiatives, which are in competition with the project for scarce resources,
  • Must have a positive impact in the future.

Based on some surveys, 70% of the projects fail due to inadequate planning. The most common mistakes are the underestimation of the budget and the insufficient management of risks. The failed projects will not be able to contribute to the increase of the investment ratio and to the promotion of the economic growth. Hence the failed projects will always appear as a loss or damage, for which the organization wasted the resources in vain. These effects also show up at the level of the national economy as a loss in the form of lost growth.

The above cited organization also interpreted success in three dimensions:

  • Successful project management that is capable of delivering the predefined result on time and within the budget, in which setting up the correct milestones has a huge role,
  • Successful project, which reaches the pre-set business goals,
  • Successful enterprise, which is able to approach the strategic goals, meeting the expectations of all actors (owners, managers, employees, other stakeholders).

The organization provided methodological recommendations as well (n.d., b.) for the sake of achieving the project’s success. Based on their theory there are six steps leading to the success of the project: preparation, planning, communication, monitoring, controlling and review.

The annual project management survey conducted by the organization examines the key factors along the project characteristics, through which success is measureable and the tendencies can be determined too. The results are summed up in the diagram below.

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the most recent Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States at the University of Latvia in Riga in April 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the authors and conference organizers

How to cite this paper: Csiszárik-Kocsir, A. (2018). The Relevance of Project Success Criteria and Requirements in Project Management; Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Conference on Project Management in the Baltic States, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia, April 2018; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VIII – August. Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/pmwj73-Aug2018-Csiszárik-Kocsir-Relevance-of-Project-Success-Criteria.pdf

 



About the Author


Ágnes Csiszárik-Kocsir

Budapest, Hungary

 

 

 

Professor Ágnes Csiszárik-Kocsir works as an associate professor of Finance at the Óbuda University, Keleti Faculty of Business and Management. She is a doctor of Management and Business Administration. She received her Ph.D. degree from Szent István University Management and Business Administration PhD School in 2010. Title of her dissertation is “The education funding aspects at local governments”. After it, she did her habilitation in 2017 at University of Kaposvár.  She worked at Central European University as a project manager and a visiting professor from 2004 till 2007. She managed several research projects in that time, and she was responsible for the finances of the projects.

From 2007 she is a professor at Óbuda University. Her research fields are financing and the crisis. In recent years she had several research projects in connection with her courses: financial culture, corporate financing, investment funding, project management and the project financing. She was a visiting professor in Romania, and in Poland (CEEPUS Award and Erasmus+ scholarships).

She has more than 220 national and international publications, articles and conference proceedings as well. She helped in organizing more than 20 conferences, and she is a member of editorial boards in  national and international journals (Lépések, The Macrotheme Review, Journal of Competiveness, Journal of Financial Management and Accounting), and she is a review board member in 2 international journals (Journal of Process Management – New Technologies International, International Journal of Trade). From 2015 she is an editor of the “Business Development in the 21th Century” book published by the Óbuda University. In 2009 she was the Young Researcher of the Year at Óbuda University.

Ágnes can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

Does Your Project Have a Pulse?

 

SECOND EDITION

By Lon Roberts, Ph.D.

Principal Partner
Roberts & Roberts Associates

Texas, USA

 



Abstract:
Are your projects vibrant and alive—a breeding ground for innovation and creative thinking? Or, are they better described as zombie projects—brain-dead creatures that plod along but are devoid of life and vitality? And more to the point, does it really matter one way or another, assuming the job gets done? The author of this paper defends the position that creativity and innovation are essential in contemporary projects, despite the fact that they create special challenges for project leaders—especially those who take comfort in routines and highly-scripted plans. Distilling lessons learned from his research, the author offers a set of principles for seeding creativity and innovation by creating a project environment that fosters a healthy curiosity on the part of individuals and project teams. The paper ends with a valedictory challenge to project leaders to become curiosity-curators for their projects.

Few would argue with the assertion that a healthy curiosity is a good thing, but not everyone agrees on what constitutes a healthy curiosity. As a case in point, consider an experiment that a young man who would later become one of the history’s greatest scientists and mathematicians conducted on himself.

When he was a student at Cambridge University in the 1660s, Isaac Newton was curious about the nature of light and color. While some of his contemporaries speculated that color is an inherent property of the light itself, there were others who argued that the perception of color is due to the optical characteristics of the eye. To satisfy his curiosity—in other words, to bridge the gap between what he knew and didn’t know—Newton used himself as a guinea pig. Newton took a narrow, pointed object called a “bodkin” and inserted it beneath his lower eyelid and under his eye in order to test how changing the pressure on the back of his eye (with the aid of the bodkin) would affect his perception of color. The following illustration is an excerpt taken from one of Newton’s notebooks. It documents how he carried out this rather risky and cringe-inducing experiment.


Though it’s questionable whether or not the outcome of this experiment succeeded in answering the original question to young Newton’s satisfaction, it’s clear that he was willing to take greater personal risks than most of us would engage in to satisfy his curiosity. Newton’s curiosity was intense, but in this case, not so healthy.

The Color of Wonder: Perceptual Curiosity

The innate urge to fill the gap between what we know and don’t know is called perceptual curiosity, since it often involves observation or other forms of sensual perception. Perceptual curiosity was the force that compelled Newton to conduct his risky eye experiment—to act on the urge of his curiosity to bridge the gap between what he knew and didn’t know about the optics of light and color—to experience, with his own senses, how manipulating the pressure on his eyeball with the bodkin affected his personal perception of light and color.

Perceptual curiosity is what compels us to seek novelty and also explore outliers. Often these outliers go unnoticed, or they’re simply written off because they are outside the norm. But, to a scientist, an analyst, a problem solver, or a project leader who understands the importance of paying attention to anomalies, outliers are the source of considerable curiosity. In the words of the Nobel Prize winning physicist, Richard Feynman, “The thing that doesn’t fit is the thing that is most interesting.” And when the “thing that doesn’t fit” captures our attention, curiosity kicks in by asking—explicitly or implicitly—the “Why?” or “Why Not? questions that impel us to seek answers…

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium in May 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Roberts, L. (2018). Does Your Project Have a Pulse? Paper presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium, Richardson, Texas, USA in May 2018; published in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VIII – August. Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/pmwj73-Aug2018-Roberts-does-your-project-have-a-pulse-utd-paper.pdf

 



About the Author


Dr. Lon Roberts

Texas, USA

 

 

 

 

Dr. Lon Roberts is a principal partner with Roberts & Roberts Associates, where he is a speaker, seminar leader, and management consultant. He has held positions with E-Systems/Raytheon, Alliance for Higher Education, and Texas State Technical College. His areas of expertise include data analytics, measurement systems, project leadership, and process reengineering.

Lon has authored numerous articles and four books, and he has been a frequent contributor to Defense AT&L magazine. He earned a Ph.D. from the University of Oklahoma and B.S. and M.S. degrees from Oklahoma State University.

Lon’s interest in the phenomenon we call “curiosity” stems from his work as a science educator/entertainer. He routinely conducts science-magic shows for schools, libraries, scouting events, private parties, and corporate events, such as awards ceremonies and retreats.

Lon Roberts’ Contact Information

[email protected]  | www.R2assoc.com

[email protected]  | www.sciencefunguy.com

 

 

Case Study: Portfolio Management in the 2020 Census Program

 

SECOND EDITION

Susan Hostetter and Sherri Norris

U.S. Census Bureau

Washington, DC, USA

 



Executive Summary

The Decennial Census is the United States oldest and most comprehensive source of information about the U.S. population.  Most people know that the Census Bureau manages this very large, complex, multi-billion-dollar program and are familiar with the program and its purpose but they don’t understand that, while the 2020 Census will be conducted on April 1 2020, the planning, staging and operations of the Census happen over a timespan of more than 10 years. This case study will focus on the Portfolio Management structure that the 2020 Census Program has in place to select and manage the many investments needed to conduct such a large and complex operation. It will profile the types of investments, the governance and processes used to select, initialize and manage those investments and the investment and budget challenges affecting the 2020 Census Program.

In this paper, we will present:

  • The current structure of 2020 Census Program portfolio management
  • Our 2020 Census Portfolio Management questionnaire, a tool designed to gather information about 2020 Census portfolio management programs
  • Feedback from professionals involved with 2020 Census portfolio management processes

Key findings include:

  • Portfolio management is being actively practiced by the 2020 Census Program.
  • Decisions are being made by the 2020 Census Program governance structure.
  • Key processes are at different level of maturity.
  • Overall, stakeholders believe that portfolio management processes work reasonably well.

Introduction

In this paper, we describe the current 2020 Census Program portfolio management processes and the maturity of those processes.  Figure 1 shows governance structure for the 2020 Census Program. From its charter (U.S. Census Bureau, 2018), the 2020 Census Portfolio Management Governing Board (PMGB) provides key oversight and decision-making support for the 2020 Census Program. It oversees 2020 Census Program investments and escalates matters to the Executive Steering Committee (ESC) when appropriate or when a specified threshold is met for cost, risk, or impact has been reached. Currently, most 2020 Census Program Governance Meetings meet weekly, but as 2020 operations ramp up meeting frequency will increase with additional operations-focused meetings added. Weinberg (2012), discusses 2010 census management challenges, many of which help inform 2020. In our interview discussions and other research, we learned that a 2020 census program management plan, focused on the operational phase, will document procedures and provide information on how decisions are made and will be resolved regarding the 2020 Census. Once out of the approval phase, it will document key project management processes including risk management, schedule management, issue management, and change management.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Author’s note: This paper is released to inform interested parties of ongoing operations and to encourage discussion of work in progress. Any views expressed on operational issues are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Census Bureau.

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.   This paper was originally presented at the 5th Annual University of Maryland PM Symposium in May 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the authors and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Hostetter, S. & Norris, S. (2018). Case Study: Portfolio Management in the 2020 Census Program; Proceedings of the 5th Annual University of Maryland Project Management Symposium, College Park, Maryland, USA in May 2018; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VIII – August.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/pmwj73-Aug2018-Hostetter-Norris-portfolio-management-in-2020-census-program.pdf

 



About the Authors


Susan Hostetter

Washington, DC, USA

 

 



Susan Hostetter
, PMP, is a project management professional with over twenty years’ experience with Federal Statistical programs. Ms. Hostetter has been instrumental in standing up and managing risk management, project management, portfolio management, strategic planning, and performance management processes for large survey and Census programs. She has a Master’s Degree in Management with a Project Management emphasis from the University of Maryland’s University College, a Master’s Certificate in Program Management from George Washington University and a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration from Mary Baldwin University. Susan can be reached at [email protected].

 


Sherri Norris

Washington, DC, USA

 

 



Sherri Norris
is a project management and statistical professional with over twenty years of public policy, project management and operations experience. Ms. Norris has coordinated and implemented schedule, requirements, performance management, and governance processes for survey and Census Programs. She has a Public Policy Master’s Degree in Justice: Law and Society from American University, a Master’s Certificate in Program Management from George Washington University and a Bachelor’s Degree in Criminal Justice from University of Delaware. Sherri can be reached at [email protected].

 

 

Mindful Leadership

What is it? How can I apply it to my programs and projects?

 

SECOND EDITION

by Sandra Menzies, MS, ASQ-CQA, ASQ-CQM/OE, PMI-PMP

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research
U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Washington, DC, USA

 



Abstract

It’s a typical day.  You get-up, read the news, listen to the TV or radio, rush to get out of the house for your busy day at work.  Traffic is a snarl all the way into work.  As you travel, you are listening to the radio or a book to try and relax before work.  Once you get into work, there are emails awaiting your review and response, people are stopping at your door to ask questions or just wanting to chat, you have more meetings than work hours, and multiple tasks that need to be completed right now.  You do not have time to think or prepare.  All you want to do is, STOP!  Have you felt this way? What can you do?

This paper reviews the benefits of being a mindful leader.  It discusses how mindfulness helps you focus, cultivate being present (an external awareness) and the ability to pause (an internal awareness).  Being focused helps leaders minimize multitasking and pay attention to what is important.  Being present allows leaders to observe what is going on around them and actively listen to what is being said, so they can separate our self from a situation and reflect, thus allowing our inner knowledge to emerge.  When we pause we create space, so we can learn to respond and reframe a story instead of reacting in stressful situations.  In addition, managers who demonstrate and encourage the practice of mindfulness create an engaging and interactive team environment.

Mindful Leadership

Have you found yourself focusing on a meeting you had yesterday and what you could have done better or how the team could have reached a better solution?  Or maybe you find yourself worrying about tomorrow and what could go wrong even when you have planned for various contingencies.  This reflection is often not about learning and growing but about judging yourself and your abilities as a leader.  Mindfulness is defined as the practice of being present or being aware of your current situation, your emotions, and how you are feeling at any given time and in any given situation without judgement.  Mindfulness helps you focus on the tasks you need to accomplish right now so you can manage your project through all phases from initiation through closure.  Mindfulness also helps you be present and aware of what you can accomplish in this moment and acknowledge what is within your limits and current control.

Forbes defines leadership as “a process of social influence, which maximizes the efforts of others towards the achievement of a goali.”  Great leaders exhibit characteristics such as:  being focused, direct, clear in how they respond, creative, trustworthy, engaging, reliable, humble, understanding, self-aware, grounded, etc.  A mindful leader is “someone who embodies a leadership presence by cultivating focus, clarity, creativity, and compassion in the service of others.ii”  Great leaders are mindful leaders.

Having a mindfulness practice helps you focus, cultivate presence (an external awareness) and the ability to pause (an internal awareness).  Frequently our minds wander; we tune-out when we need to focus. How many times have we reached the end of an hour and wondered, “What have I spent my time on?”, “What have I accomplished?”  Maybe you get distracted by emails, news bulletins, comments from others, or pop-ups on your phone.  Many consider these activities multitasking.  Multitasking is defined as the ability to perform multiple tasks at the same time.  Earl Miller, a professor of neuroscience at MIT, shows that people appear to handle more than one task at a time, yet he or she actually switches between the tasks very rapidly.  This rapid-fire switching is a distraction that decreases productivity, causes mistakes, and limits creativityiii.  The lack of attention to a given task results in the task taking longer to complete and being more prone to errorsiv.  Dr. Miller recommends the following steps to counter multitasking and help you focus: block out periods of time to focus and eliminate as many distractions as possible such as putting away your smartphone, turning off extra screens, and shutting down your email.  If all else fails, take short breaks and move around.  Through a practice of mindfulness, you begin to learn how to let those distractions go and decide how you want to focus your time and attention to detail, so you can cultivate presence and the ability to pause.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 5th Annual University of Maryland PM Symposium in May 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Menzies, S. (2018). Mindful Leadership – What is it? How can I apply it to my programs and projects?; Proceedings of the 5th Annual University of Maryland Project Management Symposium, College Park, Maryland, USA in May 2018; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VIII – August.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/pmwj73-Aug2018-Menzies-mindful-leadership-second-edition.pdf

 



About the Author


Sandra Menzies

Washington, DC, USA

 

 

 

Sandra Menzies, MS, ASQ-CQA, ASQ-CQM/OE, PMI-PMP has been a senior member of ASQ since 2001 and a member of PMI since 2015. With over 25 years of experience, Ms. Menzies has held quality-related and project management positions at Biocon, Inc.; Otsuka Maryland Research Institute; TherImmune Research Corporation; and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).  Ms. Menzies is also Stephen Minister and Leader, yoga instructor, and a mindfulness advocate and practitioner. Ms. Menzies currently uses her knowledge of mindfulness to manage large, complex projects to improve internal business processes at the FDA. She can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

 

Implementing Change in Organizations

A Manager’s Guide

 

SECOND EDITION

By Robert Youker
(Formerly of the World Bank Institute)

Maryland, USA

 



Introduction

Workers in organizations are often faced with the problem of introducing change to procedures that may impact the status quo.  Some simple changes result in strong resistance, causing additional problems for management.  Other changes are usually accepted as worthwhile improvements.  The purpose of this paper is to define why some changes are resisted, while others are accepted, and to describe how managers can use procedures that may result in substantially higher rate of acceptance of proposed changes.  This will include a model for analyzing ways to improve the methods for introducing change in a given situation.

Although the change can be of any type, this article will focus on changes in administrative systems.  Examples of administrative systems would include the installation of a formal system of analysis of capital investments, using the discounted cash flow technique for calculating the return on investment; or the introduction of a system of development project planning and control based on the critical path method of network diagramming (CPM/PERT).  Both types of new administrative systems would require changes in the way some of the organization’s personnel carry out their daily work.

The history of the introduction of administrative system changes is replete with failures.  Some new systems were never implemented, while others had model initial success but then died out over time.  For example, a study by Davis [3] indicated that only 55% of the major construction firms in the USA were effectively using CPM.  A study of corporate models in management science indicated that only 3% had been implemented [12]. Each reader, I am sure, can think of several examples of systems that have been developed and not fully implemented.

More…

To read entire article, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally published in the Project Management Quarterly in March 1983.  It is republished here with the author’s permission.

How to cite this paper: Youker, R. (1983). Implementing Change in Organizations (A Manager’s Guide); Project Management Quarterly, March 1983, p. 34-40; republished in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VII – July. Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Youker-Implementing-Change-in-Organizations-PMQ-March-1983.pdf



About the Author


Robert Youker

World Bank (retired)

 

 

 

 

 Robert (Bob) Youker is an independent trainer and consultant in Project Management with more than forty years of experience in the field.  He is retired from the World Bank where he developed and presented six week project management training courses for the managers of major projects in many different countries. He served as the technical author for the bank on the Instructors Resource Kit on CD ROM for a five week training course on Managing the Implementation of Development Projects.  He has written and presented more than a dozen papers at the Project Management Institute and the International Project Management Association (Europe) conferences many of which have been reprinted in the Project Management Institute publications and the International Journal of Project Management (UK).

Mr. Youker is a graduate of Colgate University, the Harvard Business School and studied for a doctorate in behavioral science at George Washington University.  His project management experience includes new product development at Xerox Corporation and project management consulting for many companies as President of Planalog Management Systems from 1968 to 1975.  He has taught in Project Management Courses for AMA, AMR, AED, ILI, ILO, UCLA, University of Wisconsin, George Washington University, the Asian Development Bank and many other organizations. He developed and presented the first Project Management courses in Pakistan, Turkey, China and Africa for the World Bank.

A few years ago Mr. Youker conducted Project Management training in Amman, Jordan financed by the European Union for 75 high level civil servants from Iraq who implemented the first four World Bank projects in Iraq. He is a former Director of PMI, IPMA and asapm, the USA member organization of IPMA. Most recently he has been consulting for the US Government Millennium Challenge Corporation on project management training in Africa.  Bob can be contacted at [email protected]

To see more works by Bob Youker, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/robert-bob-youker/

 

 

Digital Transformation

through Product and Project Innovation Management

 

SECOND EDITION

By Curt Raschke

Richardson, Texas, USA

 



Technology Transformation and Innovation

The phrase “Digital Transformation” has become so ubiquitous in so many different contexts that the only commonality seems to be its use as a marketing concept to sell computer hardware, software and / or consulting services. It seems to have become an all-purpose generic “transformation” encompassing “agile transformation,” “cloud transformation,” “IoT transformation,” “big data transformation,” “as a service transformation,” “mobile application transformation,” “business intelligence transformation,” “process automation transformation,” “DevOps transformation,” etc.

The multitude of white papers, presentations, advertisements, webinars and blogs on the subject generally assert that through the proper mix of digital technologies and capabilities, companies can “transform” their business models, business processes, organizational structures, employee engagement, customer experience, etc. This literature also, unfortunately, generally fails to give much actionable direction on how to accomplish these desired goals. So how, then, can a company or organization decide how and when to utilize the many available digital tools to significantly grow its business and / or improve internal customer satisfaction?

Fortunately, while many digital technologies are indeed new, technology driven “transformations” are not, and provide useful “lessons learned” that can be applied to the question of how to best exploit the newest digital technologies. Examples of such “transforming” technologies in the last 200 years include steam, electricity, telegraphy, telephony, internal combustion, radio, powered flight, photography, television, computers, and the internet; each of which “transformed” businesses and eventually society.

While each of these transformational technologies were very different, in every case, the actual transformations occurred through the innovative products (goods and services) enabled by the technology that delivered services not previously available. The first lesson learned, then, is that all technology transformations actually occur not directly through the technology but through the use of products (goods and services) enabled by the technology, and the transformational value is through the service experience provided. The second lesson learned is that transformational products are very innovative either in how the product is used or in how the service is delivered; that is, transformation and innovation are inextricably linked.

Digital (Product) Transformation

Based on the history of these previous technology transformations, a simplified explanation of digital transformation might be along the lines of: Creation and widespread usage of innovative software enabled products that provide valuable, previously unavailable services to a broad range of customers and end users. Looking at digital transformation in terms of software enabled products and services makes it easier for businesses to choose which digital tools to invest in and estimate how their business models, organizational structures, employee engagement, etc. will have to change to accommodate the new products. This approach also allows a company to leverage the extensive body of knowledge on product development and product lifecycle management to achieve its specific goals.

The first question a company should ask, then, when contemplating digital “transformation”, is not what digital technologies it should embrace, but rather what customer base does it want to serve and what needs or desires do the customers and end users have that are not presently met by existing products? Once the first question is answered, the second question is to ask specifically which technologies should be developed or acquired to enable goods and services that satisfy the unmet customer and end user needs and for which the customer is willing to pay enough to generate adequate financial return.

Too often, when companies contemplate digital transformation by focusing primarily on technology options, rather than the customer and end user needs, they inevitably end up using the technology to lower costs, respond to competitive products, or extend existing product lines; all of which may make good business sense but are hardly transformational. No, meaningful business transformation requires the deployment of transformational products that are both significantly innovative in how the goods and services are used or delivered and provide significantly greater value than existing products. Such product innovation, in turn, drives changes to business processes, organizational structures, employee skill sets, etc., with the degree of change determined by the degree of innovation needed.

The third lesson learned, then, is that innovative products by themselves are necessary but not sufficient. The innovation must be carefully identified and managed so that the product enabled by the innovation provides significant value to both the vendor and the customer; the customer must be willing to pay enough for the product to generate adequate financial return on investment for the vendor. As will be discussed, this innovation management has both a product dimension and a project dimension.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 12th Annual UT Dallas Project Management Symposium in May 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Raschke, C. (2018).  Digital Transformation through Produce and Project Innovation Management; 12th UT Dallas Project Management Symposium, Richardson, TX, USA, May 2018; PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VII – July. Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/pmwj72-Jul2018-Raschke-digital-transformation-utd-conference-paper.pdf



About the Author


Curt Raschke, PhD

Texas, USA

 

 



Curt Raschke
is a product development thought leader, innovative project manager and business process change agent helping global high technology companies adapt their products, projects and processes to changing market opportunities. He also teaches an Executive MBA course on “Effective New Product Introduction” at the UT Dallas Center for Intelligent Supply Networks on using innovative product introductions as the basis for sustainable competitive advantage. Curt founded the UT Dallas Applied Project Management Forum in 2004 and served as Chair of the Project Management Institute’s New Product Development Specific Interest Group for five years. He has a Ph.D. in Solid State Physics with PMP and Lean Six Sigma certifications. He can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

Agile Quantitative Risk Management

 

SECOND EDITION

By Susan Parente

S3 Technologies, LLC

New York and Washington, DC, USA

 



ABSTRACT

In today’s world of fast paced technology and continually changing requirements and project scope, the need for Agile Project Management has greatly increased. This calls us to ask, how do standard critical project management methodologies like Risk Management fit into Agile Practices.

What is Agile Risk Management and when does it make sense to use it? How does Quantitative Risk Analysis relate to Agile and how it is incorporated into Agile Practices, will be evaluated? Recommendations for implementing Agile Risk Management will be provided along with best practices and how organizations are applying this into practice.

The nuances of how risk management is incorporated into agile practices are what generate project success. When requirements and environmental conditions are in flux, our ability to anticipate risk and plan for it, is critical to managing projects with agility.

OVERVIEW

The objectives of this paper on Agile Quantitative Risk Analysis are to explain what Agile risk management is, discuss risk analysis for Agile and provide recommendations for implementing Agile quantitative risk management. Lastly, the objective of this paper is to present risk as an opportunity to successful Agile project management!

With Agile project management replacing traditional project management in many organization and on many projects, it is important to understand how quantitative risk management is done in Agile projects.

WHAT IS AGILE?

In discussing Agile risk management, it is important to first clarify what we mean by Agile. Agile is a set of principles that guide teams and guide product development. It is a culture shift not a particular methodology or framework, but it consists of a number of methodologies and frameworks. Agile is a great solution for some types of projects but may not be the best solution for all projects. Agile entails open communication between teams, stakeholders, and customers. Agile is different from traditional project management in a number of ways, which will be detailed below.

Agile guidance consists of the Agile Manifesto and its 12 Principles, see the site www.agilemanifesto.org for the 4 values of Agile and its 12 Principles. Although Scrum is the most common framework of Agile, it is not by far the only framework. There are also other aspects of a project that make it an Agile project, versus a traditional project. These may include one or more of the following: rolling wave planning, iterative or incremental delivery, rapid and flexible response to change, and/ or open communication. Examples of Agile methodologies or frameworks include: Scrum, XP (eXtreme Programming), Lean and Test-driven Development (TDD), Kanban, and many others.

Why should you use Agile principles and practices for project management? Agile principles and practices are used to manage change, improve communication, reduce cost, increase efficiency, provide value to customers and stakeholders, and decrease project risk. One should consider an Agile approach when 1 or more of the following conditions are present:

  • Uncertainty (particularly in requirements and changing conditions)
  • Complexity (in content, integration, stakeholder management, or solution)
  • Innovation (new technology, content, or system)
  • Urgent (high priority or short timeline)

COMPARING TRADITIONAL TO AGILE

The triple constraint (time, cost, and scope) operates differently in traditional project management and Agile project management. Often quality is show in the middle of this triangle and Risk may be show as a cloud around the triangle, or in the background, as it is shown in figure 1 below.

More…

To read entire paper, click here

 

Editor’s note: Second Editions are previously published papers that have continued relevance in today’s project management world, or which were originally published in conference proceedings or in a language other than English.  Original publication acknowledged; authors retain copyright.  This paper was originally presented at the 5th Annual University of Maryland PM Symposium in May 2018.  It is republished here with the permission of the author and conference organizers.

How to cite this paper: Parente, I. S. (2018). Agile Quantitative Risk Analysis, presented at the 5th Annual University of Maryland Project Management Symposium, College Park, Maryland, USA in May 2018; published in the PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VII – July.  Available online at https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/pmwj72-Jul2018-Parente-agile-quantitative-risk-analysis-umd-paper.pdf



About the Author


Susan Parente

Washington, DC/ New York, USA

 

 

 

Susan Parente, PMP, PMI-RMP, PMI-ACP, PSM I, CSM, CSPO, CISSP, CRISC, RESILIA, ITIL, MS Eng. Mgmt. is a principal consultant at her company, S3 Technologies, LLC. She is a project engineer, consultant, speaker, author, and mentor who leads large complex IT software implementation projects, and the establishment of Enterprise PMOs. She has 19+ years’ experience leading software and business development projects in the private and public sectors, including a decade of experience implementing IT projects for the DoD and other federal government agencies. Ms. Parente is also an Associate Professor at Post University in CT. She has a BS in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Rochester in NY and has a MS in Engineering Management from George Washington University in DC. She also has a number of certifications, most of which she teaches and she is a CMMI and ISO 9001 Practitioner.

Ms. Parente is a Principal Consultant at S3 Technologies, LLC. Her company’s focuses on revitalizing projects through the use of risk management and implementing Agile practices. S3 Technologies does this by teaming with clients, stakeholders and vendors and using risk management and project agility to deliver project successes. Ms. Parente trains and mentors project managers in the areas of project management, agile project management, and risk management. She has developed a methodology which she uses to implement risk management programs for both small and large clients and is currently completing her manuscript for a book on implementing risk management.

Susan can be contacted at [email protected]

To view other works by Susan Parente, visit her author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/susan-parente/