Towards Systems Management in the Electric Power Sector

for Physical Facilities in Nigeria: Issues, Challenges and New Directions

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Dr. Felix Osita Ikekpeazu

Nnamdi Azikiwe University

Anambra State, Nigeria

 



ABSTRACT

This paper is an investigation into the application of systems management in the operation of public utilities in Nigeria, specifically, in the electric power sector; towards the effective utilization of electric energy for physical facilities, namely, residential, commercial and institutional buildings, etc.  The paper commences with a definition of terms, especially, systems management, system failure and system collapse, in connection with regulation, management and ownership in the electric power sector. It then proceeds to an elaboration of the phases or steps in the historical evolution of the electric power industry in Nigeria and the associated factors which can be isolated in each stage of the historical development of utilities. It then progresses to an examination of the problems of electric power generation, transmission and distribution within the organizational framework of the new Power Holding Company of Nigeria PLC (PHCN), in terms of the Power Sector Reform Act 2005. The paper provides an elucidation of the existing and proposed strategies for policy implementation in the Power Holding Company of Nigeria PLC (PHCN). In this regard, it highlights the operational link between PHCN, management on the one hand and its supervisory board, supervisory ministry (the Federal Ministry of Energy) and the Presidency on the other hand. These strategies set the stage for new directions and management. This paper then reaches the conclusion of the centrality of adequate power supply to family life and business life in the country; that a stable power supply creates a positive multiplier effect in the whole economy. Indeed, that low service delivery in the Nigerian electricity sector is, perhaps the greatest developmental drawback facing the country in the areas of residential development and industrialization.

Key words: Power disruption, Deregulation, System Collapse/System Failure, National Grid, Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Power Sector Reform Act, Organizational Change, Privatization and Stable Power Supply.

INTRODUCTION

The frequency of power disruption and instances of system collapse has created the imperative for organizational change in the operation of electric power utilities in Nigeria. The new appellation, Power Holding Company of Nigeria PLC (PHCN), is a reflection to some extent, of this new organizational change. The impending deregulation of the electric power sector will engender competitiveness in the electric power sector with its attendant economic revitalization.

Indeed, the envisaged role of systems management in the electric power sector in Nigeria, will focus on the general dynamics of system integration, in time as well as in space, of system dysfunction or system collapse/system failure and the dynamics involved in system change and revitalization.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT

According to Klein (1977), in addition to the surveys of the basic social and behavioural sciences, the past thirty years have seen the development and blossoming of several fields of inquiry which, together, may be termed ‘system sciences’. They may be characterized, in general, as being more interdisciplinary and holistic in their approach to problems than are the more traditional disciplines. They may also be said to be somewhat more problem-oriented or applied, although this may not characterize every scholar or practitioner. As the interests here relate to the role of management, it seems appropriate to label this last discipline to be reviewed, ‘systems management’.

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About the Author


Dr. Felix Ikekpeazu

Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Anambra State, Nigeria

 

 

Dr. Felix Ikekpeazu holds a Bachelor of Architecture (B. Arc) and a Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Architecture, specializing in Housing delivery systems. He joined Nnamdi Azikiwe University in Anambra State after serving as Chief Architect at the Enugu State Housing Development Corporation. He is currently a senior Lecturer in the Department of Architecture. His research interests are in Housing delivery systems, Green buildings and energy efficiency in buildings. Dr. Ikekpeazu is a registered Architect and has published in many local and international journals. He can be contacted at [email protected]

 

Event Chain Diagrams

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Lev Virine, Michael Trumper, Eugenia Virine

Ontario, Canada

 



Relationships between project risks can be very complex. Risks can be assigned to different activities and resources, have different probabilities and impacts, and have correlations or act as triggers with each other. Due to this complexity, we recommend visualizing project events and event chains using event chain diagrams. Event chain diagrams use the familiar structure of a Gantt chart to visualize the relationships between project risks. State tables are also a useful tool and can be used to define the state of an activity. This paper provides a specification of Event chain diagrams and State Tables along with advice on how to use them effectively.

Event Chain Methodology

Event chain methodology is an extension of “traditional” and event-based quantitative risk analysis. Event chain methodology is an uncertainty modeling and schedule network analysis technique that is focused on identifying and managing events and event chains that affect project schedules. It is a logical formula to model and analyze a wide variety of different problems related to managing uncertainties in project schedule (Virine and Trumper 2007, Virine and Trumper 2013).

According to Event chain methodology activities in project schedule are affected by external events that transform them from one state to another (Virine 2013). The notion of state means that activity will be performed differently as a response to the event. This process of changing the state of an activity is called excitation. For example, an activity may require different resources, take a longer time, or must be performed under different conditions. As a result, this may alter the activity’s cost and duration. The original or planned state of the activity is called a ground state. Other states, associated with different events are called excited states. For example, in the middle of an activity requirements change. As a result, a planned activity must be restarted. Similarly to quantum mechanics, if a significant event affects the activities, it will dramatically affect the property of the activity; for example, cancelling the activity (Agarwal and Virine 2017).

Each state of activity in particular may subscribe to certain events. It means that an event can affect the activity only if the activity is subscribed to this event. For example, an assembly activity has started outdoors. The ground state the activity is subscribed to the external event “Bad weather”. If “Bad weather” actually occurs, the assembly should move indoors. This constitutes an excited state of the activity. This new excited state (indoor assembling) will not be subscribed to the “Bad weather”: if this event occurs it will not affect the activity.

Some events can cause other events. These series of events form event chains, which may significantly affect the course of the project by creating a ripple effect through the project. Here is an example of an event chain ripple effect:

  1. Requirement changes cause a delay of an activity.
  2. To accelerate the activity, the project manager diverts resources from another activity.
  3. Diversion of resources causes deadlines to be missed on the other activity
  4. Cumulatively, this reaction leads to the failure of the whole project.

Events can also cause execution of activities and group of activities. Risk response efforts are considered to be events, which are executed if an activity is in an excited state. Risk response events may attempt to transform activity from excited state to the ground state.

Analysis of project schedules with event and event chain are performed using Monte Carlo simulation. The result of analysis is a risk adjusted project schedule. The event and event chains can be ranked as a result of analysis. Events and event chains, which affect the project the most are called critical events or event chains.

Information about events and event chains, particularly probabilities and impacts of risks should be monitored and updated as part of project control.

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About the Authors


Lev Virine, PhD

Intaver Institute
Alberta, Canada

 


Lev D. Virine
, Ph.D. has more than 25 years of experience as a structural engineer, software developer, and project manager. He has been involved in major projects performed by Fortune 500 companies and government agencies to establish effective decision analysis and risk management processes as well as to conduct risk analyses of complex projects. Lev’s current research interests include the application of decision analysis and risk management to project management. He writes and speaks around the world on the decision analysis process, the psychology of judgment and decision-making and risk management. Lev can be contacted at [email protected]

 


Michael Trumper

Intaver Institute
Alberta, Canada

 


Michael Trumper
has over 20 years’ experience in communications, software design, and project risk and management. Michael is a partner at Intaver Institute Inc., a vendor of project risk management and analysis software. Michael has authored papers on quantitative methods in project estimation and risk analysis. He is a co-author of two books on project risk management and decision analysis. He has developed and delivered project risk analysis and management solutions to clients that include NASA, DOE, and Lockheed Martin.

 


Eugenia Virine, PMP

Alberta, Canada

 


Eugenia Virine
, PMP, is a senior manager for revenue development at Greyhound Canada. Over the past 12 years Eugenia has managed many complex projects in the areas of transportation and information technology. Her current research interests include project risk and decision analysis, project performance management, and project metrics. Eugenia holds B. Comm. degree from University of Calgary.

 

Elements of the Mathematical Theory of Human Systems, Part 5

Quantitative analysis of the benefits and losses of two human systems in the regime of confrontational equilibrium of their interrelations

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Pavel Barseghyan, PhD

Yerevan, Armenia and

Plano, Texas, USA

 



Abstract

Quantitative analysis of confrontation and acute conflict situations between human systems makes it possible to evaluate and predict the results of different scales of collisions between people in the form of potential benefits and losses.

From the point of view of an adequate quantitative representation of the confrontation between human systems, it is advisable to use such parameters and notions that are universal in nature and invariant with respect to the systems under study.

In other words, these models should operate with universal concepts such as stability and equilibrium of the state of the system, conflict of interests of the opposing sides, the magnitude of the expected benefits, losses and mutual concessions, and so on, which are characteristic of all opposing and conflicting human systems.

Like other activities carried out by people, the process of conflicts between them is also a certain sequence of their mutual actions, which can be quantitatively described by the equations of state of opposing human systems.

This article is devoted to the qualitative and quantitative assessment of losses arising as a result of the conflict between two human systems.

In the first part of the research, the graphic analysis of the process and results of the conflict are carried out, and the second part is devoted to the development of linear and nonlinear mathematical models of confrontation between people and their losses.

Mathematical models of confrontation of two human systems, presented in this article, will later become a platform for quantitative modeling of more complex situations in the clash of three or more conflicting parties.

Key words: Human systems, mathematical theory, state equations, equilibrium, non-equilibrium, benefits, losses, conflicts, confrontational equilibrium, interrelations, pressure on human systems, upper limits of mutual pressure, power of human systems

Introduction

To ensure the safety, prosperity and sustainable development of human systems, a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the equilibrium and non-equilibrium states of their interactions is necessary [1].

The method of equations of state of human systems is a convenient tool for the practical realization of this goal, namely the representation of the relationships between these systems in the form of a system of equations of states, where each of these equations reflects the behavior of the relationships between the two of these systems.

In addition, in modeling, it should be taken into account that the interactions between pairs of human systems are not symmetrical, and for this reason, the mutual influences of the parties are represented by separate equations, each of which splits into two equations, one of which presents a positive pressure on the opposite side, and the other – negative pressure on the same opposite side.

Thus, the mathematical model of the relationship between each pair of interacting human systems in the general case is a system of four equations of state.

This means that with the increase in the number of human systems , the number of equations of state of their mutual relations will increase sharply and in the case  for this purpose we will have 12 equations, and in the case  we will deal with 24 equations.

In addition, since the pressure on each side of the confrontation can be divided into different types of pressures, such as political pressure, economic pressure, financial pressure, etc., the number of equations representing the state of human relations can be increased even more rapidly.

Naturally, under such conditions, the targeted use of the behavioral models under consideration based on a large number of state equations representing the relationships between human systems is possible only within the framework of modern expert information systems.

On the other hand, in cases where the relationships between human systems are only of a confrontational nature or only the nature of cooperation, the number of equations in the corresponding models can be reduced by half.

From a practical point of view, mathematical modeling of the relationships between the three human systems is of great interest, since this case is relatively simple from the mathematical point of view, but it is already quite complex in the meaningful sense.

In particular, in this case it is already possible to make an object of quantitative consideration the problems of the emergence and degradation of coalitions of people (important from the point of view of the productivity of design teams), organizations (important from the point of view of business) and countries (important from the geopolitical point of view).

In any case, a quantitative analysis of the relationships of an arbitrary number of human systems is based on models of interaction between two human systems that are the subject of further consideration.

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About the Author


Pavel Barseghyan
, PhD

Yerevan, Armenia
Plano, Texas, USA

 

 

Dr. Pavel Barseghyan is a consultant in the field of quantitative project management, project data mining and organizational science. Has over 45 years’ experience in academia, the electronics industry, the EDA industry and Project Management Research and tools development. During the period of 1999-2010 he was the Vice President of Research for Numetrics Management Systems. Prior to joining Numetrics, Dr. Barseghyan worked as an R&D manager at Infinite Technology Corp. in Texas. He was also a founder and the president of an EDA start-up company, DAN Technologies, Ltd. that focused on high-level chip design planning and RTL structural floor planning technologies. Before joining ITC, Dr. Barseghyan was head of the Electronic Design and CAD department at the State Engineering University of Armenia, focusing on development of the Theory of Massively Interconnected Systems and its applications to electronic design. During the period of 1975-1990, he was also a member of the University Educational Policy Commission for Electronic Design and CAD Direction in the Higher Education Ministry of the former USSR. Earlier in his career he was a senior researcher in Yerevan Research and Development Institute of Mathematical Machines (Armenia). He is an author of nine monographs and textbooks and more than 100 scientific articles in the area of quantitative project management, mathematical theory of human work, electronic design and EDA methodologies, and tools development. More than 10 Ph.D. degrees have been awarded under his supervision. Dr. Barseghyan holds an MS in Electrical Engineering (1967) and Ph.D. (1972) and Doctor of Technical Sciences (1990) in Computer Engineering from Yerevan Polytechnic Institute (Armenia).  Pavel’s publications can be found here: http://www.scribd.com/pbarseghyan and here: http://pavelbarseghyan.wordpress.com/.  Pavel can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

A Supply Chain Management (SCM) Framework

for Construction Project Delivery in Nigeria: An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) Approach

 

FEATURED PAPER

*1Amade, B., 2Akpan, E. O. P., 3Ukwuoma, F. P. O., 4Ononuju, C. N., and 5Okore, O. L.

*1,4,Department of Project Management Technology
Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri, Nigeria

2,Department of Mechanical Engineering
Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin, Nigeria

3,National Centre for Technology Management
Obafemi Awolowo University,P.M.B. 012 Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

5,Physical Planning Department
Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author email: [email protected]

 



ABSTRACT

This study sought to analyze the results of a survey that aims to develop a SCM framework for the successful delivery of construction projects using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The study adopted an exploratory research design with the aid of both quantitative and qualitative methods of research. Purposive and convenient sampling techniques were utilized with the aid of semi-structured interview, case study and questionnaire in selecting respondents from a construction firm in Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were used as instrument for primary data collection after it was pre-tested via a pilot study for purposes of validity and reliability. The data collected were later analyzed using the AHP. Findings from the study shows that the following main factors; trust and long term relationships (TLR=0.283), supply chain finance (SCF=0.189), continuous performance measurement (CPM=0.154), information technology (IFT=0.099), quality (QTY=0.096), supplier management (SMT=0.078), top management’s support (TMS=0.055) and supply chain orientation (SCO=0.046) are key to the successful delivery of construction projects using the SCM approach. The findings indicates that when delivering construction projects via the SCM approach, more emphasis should be skewed towards the eight (8) (critical) factors in the hierarchy as they would drive the critical ingredient to achieving success in the delivery of projects using SCM. In a nutshell, the framework would kick start the drive to ensuring a drastic increase and improvement in the business of construction in Nigeria.

Key words: Analytical hierarchy process, Construction projects, Case study, Framework, Supply chain management

INTRODUCTION

SCM according to Shakerian et al.(2016) has become one of the important features through which the global industry can compete and as such is likely to remain a major element in worldwide competition. Given the current economic crisis engulfing nations and coupled with the competitive nature of most environments, there is the need to optimize supply chain activities of most organizations to help stem the tide of this recent upsurge. The term “supply chain” as stated by Irizarry et al.(2013), entails the delineation of the stages through which construction resources viz materials, equipment, and personnel proceed from supply (source) points to the constructions site

Tamošaitienė et al.(2017) stated that the main objective of SCM is to maximize value in the supply chain (SC) environment. SC in construction is concerned primarily with the planning and directing discrete quantities of materials to the construction site where the proposed project is articulated from incoming (raw) material components. A look at the industry indicates that a large proportion of waste generated ensues as a result of the poor management of the material SC viz; service delivery, inventory, communications.

SCM as opined by Tamošaitienė et al.(2017) was initially used in the 1980s, and is described by Ab Talib and Hamid (2014) as a systematic and strategic means of integrating business functions, from an end user perspective through to the original supplier by adding value to end products, services and information for users and other key stakeholders. A SC consists of all activities, functions, and facilities that are involved in the flow and transformation of goods and services from the material stage (raw state) to the end user (final stage). In this era of globalization and innovation, the delivery of construction projects needs to be achieved with the aid of technical skills and techniques that would contribute to an effective and efficient production of construction project and its sustainability in the nearest future (Mohammad et al., 2014). Hence, there is need for the construction industry to shifts its attention towards addressing the manufacturing of their products/deliverables in relation to keeping abreast with sustainability issues and waste generation within the construction environment. As opined by Albaloushi and Skitmore (2008), SC within the context of the construction industry, consists of all construction processes that starts from the initial demands made by the client/owner, through to the design and construction, to maintenance, replacement and subsequent demolition of projects. It further consists of firms involved in the construction process, viz the client/owner, designer, main contractor, subcontractor, and suppliers. Albaloushi and Skitmore (2008) further stated that, construction SCM is adjudged to be a group of firms, individuals working collaboratively in a network of interrelated processes that is structured in such a way that the end users needs are satisfied while also rewarding the entire constituents of the chain.

According to Aloini et al.(2012), the construction industry differs a great deal from the SCs noticeable within the goods and services sectors per se, largely as a result of the high complexity and uncertainty associated with the production process; the transitory state of its site during construction configuration; the high rate of customer influence on the deliverable; the fragmented state of its operations; and the complex state of its network of stakeholders involving multiple organizations and relationships amongst others. The peculiar nature of the industry alongside other cultural ties is some of the causes of the encumbrances militating against its inability to replicate some of the positive gains being experienced from other industries. From the information acquisition point of view, some of the problems associated with construction projects usually emanate from the aspect of data and information generation from construction sites. The effectiveness and efficiency of information and data flow between the office and the construction site is most time affected generally by the use of written documents, drawings, specifications and shop drawings causing the duplication of data and information, lack of data and information, and subsequent confusion. The means of processing information and data accumulation are not only time-consuming, but rather expensive thus leading to a compromise on project management performance in information acquisition process (Wang et al.,2007). With the advent of technology and culture, a lot of changes have been witnessed in the construction industry in recent time. Studies have shown that the industry is still not effective as a lot of problems bedeviling construction supply chain (CSC) could be identified easily. Majority of these problems to a greater extent are SC related that originate at the interface between the individual actors or stages involved in the CSC activity (Wang & Xue, 2004).

The  broad  objective  of  the  research  reported  in  this  paper,  therefore,  was  to  develop a SCM framework for the successful delivery of construction projects to fruition using the AHP. More specifically, the aim was to obtain an insight into the applicability of SCM practices in construction project delivery in Nigeria, with a view to gaining insights into the business of modern day use of cutting edge technology associated with SCM adoption on project performance and delivery in the Nigerian construction industry.

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About the Author


Benedict Amade, PhD

Federal University of Technology
Owerri, Nigeria

 

 

Benedict Amade is a Project Manager by Profession. He read and obtained a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) Degree in Project Management Technology from the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. He is a member of the Project Management Institute (PMI) U.S.A. and presently lectures in the Department of Project Management Technology of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria for the past 9 years. His areas of research interest include construction project management, computer based project management and construction supply chain management. He has authored over 20 scientific publications in international refereed journals and is actively involved in other consultancy works. He can be reached on [email protected] or [email protected]

 


Edem Okon Peter Akpan, PhD

Akwa Ibom State University
Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria

 



Akpan, Edem Okon Peter
is a distinguished figure in the field of Project Management, Industrial Engineering and Information Technology. He is currently the Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and a Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Akwa Ibom State University. Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria. He read and obtained a B.Sc in Management and Engineering Production from the University of Wales, Institute of Science and Technology, Cardiff and an M.Sc and a Ph.D in Aston, Birmingham and Bradford respectively. He has published widely both in the local and international journals and in recognition of this feat has since been honoured to join the editorial boards of International Journal of Production Planning and Control of Taylor and Francis London and the Journal of Construction Engineering and Management of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). He is a registered Engineer (COREN), Member Nigerian Institute of Production Engineers, Member Nigerian Institute of Industrial Engineers as well as a consultant to many organizations. Professor Akpan can be reached on [email protected]

 


Festus Prince Okechukwu Ukwuoma, PhD

Obafemi Awolowo University
Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

 

 

Ukwuoma, Festus Prince Okechukwu is a Professor of Project Management and Chemical Engineering and currently the Director General of the National Centre for Technology Management (NACETEM), a Parastatal of the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State. He was a former Head of Department of Project Management Technology and also a Former Associate Dean of the School of Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. He is also one of the founding Lecturers of the Department of Chemical Engineering, Enugu University of Science and Technology (ESUT). His research interests are in the areas of Environmental Management, Project Risk and Safety, Process Design. He received a B.Sc. in Chemical Engineering, University of Ife, Ile-Ife. M.Sc. in Chemical Engineering, University of Ife, Ph.D.  Chemical Engineering/Project Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology.  He is a Fellow of the following bodies; Nigerian Society of Engineers, Nigerian Society of Chemical Engineers, American Academy of Project Management, Renewable and Alternative Energy Society of Nigeria amongst other awards.  He can be reached on [email protected]

 


Charles Nnamdi Nonuju, PhD

Federal University of Technology,
Owerri, Nigeria

 

 

Ononuju, Charles Nnamdi is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Project Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. He was the former Director of FUTO Water Limited at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. His research interests are in the areas of Construction Project Management, Contract Law and Arbitration. He received his B.Eng. in Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, as well as an M.Sc. and PhD in Project Management Technology both at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Dr. Ononuju has also worked with Private Construction Firms as a Consulting Civil Engineer in the past before joining the Federal University of Technology, Owerri. He is a COREN Registered Engineer and a Member of the Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE). He can be reached on [email protected]

 


Ogaga Linus Okore

Auchi Polytechnic
Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria

 



Okore, Ogaga Linus 
obtained a B.Sc – Building from Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. Thereafter, he acquired an M.Sc – Project Management Technology from the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Presently, he is currently undergoing a doctorate degree program in Construction Management at the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaira. He works with the Auchi Polytechnic Auchi as a Building Officer in the Physical Planning Department. He can be reached on [email protected]

 

Mapping ERP “Chart of Accounts” to Building Information Modeling Software

Using Omniclass Coding Structures and Activity Based Costing/Management- A CONTRACTOR’S perspective

 

FEATURED PAPER

Dr. Paul D. Giammalvo, CDT, CCE, MScPM, MRICS

Jakarta, Indonesia

 


 

Introduction

As the world of construction becomes increasingly automated through the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM), particularly during the early design phases, when the opportunity to find errors/omissions is high and the cost to make corrections is low, it is apparent that those responsible to execute the projects- the owners and contractors project managers, cost estimators, schedulers, document controllers, project controllers et al have not yet caught up with our architectural and engineering counterparts to ensure the work we do is consistent with,  complimentary to and supportive of the use of BIM and related evolving technological advances, specifically, the use of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems.

The inherent problem with “flat file” or single dimension WBS/CBS structures lies with the fact that not all stakeholders need to see the project deliverables shown in the same way.  This led to the evolution of multi-dimensional, “relational” or “object oriented” database coding structures.

The idea or concept of multi-dimensional Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) or Cost Breakdown Structures (CBS) is not new.  After World War II, building construction specifications began to expand, as more advanced materials and choices became available.[1] The Construction Specifications Institute (CSI)[2] was founded in 1948 and began to address the organization of specifications using a numbering system like the Dewey Decimal System used by libraries. The purpose or objective of this effort was to ensure that a specification appeared once and only once in any set of contract documents, thus helping to eliminate redundancy or conflicting information in the contract documents, and thus reducing claims and disputes.

In 1963, CSI published a format for construction specifications, with 16 major divisions of work. These 16 divisions were built around work packages normally and customarily sub-contracted by prime contractors to specialty sub-contractors (e.g., Site work, Concrete, HVAC, Electrical) or prime contractors would supply their own workforces (e.g., general building, masonry, finishes, doors, and windows).

This need for multiple ways to sort or view work and their associated costs was reaffirmed by the Norwegian government, who, back in 1992, initiated a project to STANDARDIZE the Cost Coding structures coming from their production sharing contractors drilling for oil in the North Sea. The STANDARIZED Cost Coding structure is known a “Norsok Z-014”[3] has withstood the test of time and is still in use after 26+ years undergoing 2 revisions or updates.

In the early- to mid-1970’s, around the same period that MasterFormat was evolving within CSI, the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), in conjunction with the U.S.-based American Institute of Architects (AIA), commissioned Hanscomb Associates, Inc. to create a standardized construction cost-coding structure, originally named ‘Mastercosts.’  The GSA and AIA renamed this ‘UniFormat, which enabled capture and summation of costs by building components.  ASTM[4] International began developing a standard for classifying building elements (1989), based on UNIFORMAT, and renamed to UNIFORMAT II.[5]

When CSI’s “Masterformat” and ASTM’s “Uniformat” were combined, this provided us with a two-dimensional sort capability used to “view” or see our project deliverables.

The OmniClass Construction Classification System (known as OmniClass or OCCS) originated around 2000 as a product of the Construction Specifications Institute. (CSI) It incorporates other extant systems currently in use as the basis of many of its Tables – MasterFormat™ for work results, UniFormat for elements, and EPIC (Electronic Product Information Cooperation) for structuring products[6]

The OmniClass Construction Classification System (OmniClass or OCCS) is a means of organizing and retrieving information specifically designed for the construction industry. OmniClass is useful for many applications for Building Information Modeling (BIM), from organizing reports and object libraries to providing a way to roll up or drill down through data to get the information that meets your needs. OmniClass draws from other extant systems in use to form the basis of its Tables wherever possible — MasterFormat™ for work results, UniFormat™ for elements, and EPIC (Electronic Product Information Cooperation) for products.

OmniClass is designed to provide a standardized basis for classifying information created and used by the North American architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) industry, throughout the full facility life cycle from conception to demolition or reuse, and encompassing all the different types of construction that make up the built environment. OmniClass is intended to be the means for organizing, sorting, and retrieving information and deriving relational computer applications.

OmniClass consists of 15 hierarchical tables, each of which represents a different facet of construction information. Each table can be used independently to classify information, or entries or it can be combined with entries on other tables to classify more complex subjects. This is the basis for the use of multi-dimensional Work and Cost Breakdown Structures.

More (with footnotes and references)

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About the Author


Dr. Paul D. Giammalvo, CDT, CCE, MScPM, MRICS

Jakarta, Indonesia

 

 


Dr. Paul D. Giammalvo
, CDT, CCE (#1240), MScPM, MRICS, is Senior Technical Advisor (Project Management) to PT Mitratata Citragraha. (PTMC), Jakarta, Indonesia. www.build-project-management-competency.com.

For 25+ years, he has been providing Project Management training and consulting throughout South and Eastern Asia, the Middle East and Europe.  He is also active in the Global Project Management Community, serving as an Advocate for and on behalf of the global practitioner. He does so by playing an active professional role in the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering International, (AACE); Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) and the Construction Management Association of America, (CMAA). He previously served on the Board of Directors of the American Society for the Advancement of Project Management (asapm) http://www.asapm.org/ and served previously as the Chair of the Certification Board of the Green Project Management organization. http://www.greenprojectmanagement.org/ He is active as a regional leader and a compensated consultant to the Planning Planet’s Guild of Project Controls. http://www.planningplanet.com/guild

He has spent 18 of the last 45 years working on large, highly complex international projects, including such prestigious projects as the Alyeska Pipeline and the Distant Early Warning Site (DEW Line) upgrades in Alaska.  Most recently, he worked as a Senior Project Cost and Scheduling Consultant for Caltex Minas Field in Sumatra and Project Manager for the Taman Rasuna Apartment Complex for Bakrie Brothers in Jakarta.  His current client list includes AT&T, Ericsson, Nokia, Lucent, General Motors, Siemens, Chevron, Conoco-Philips, BP, Dames and Moore, SNC Lavalin, Freeport McMoran, Petronas, Pertamina, UN Projects Office, World Bank Institute and many other Fortune 500 companies and NGO organizations.

Dr. Giammalvo holds an undergraduate degree in Construction Management, a Master of Science in Project Management through the George Washington University and a PhD in Project and Program Management through the Institute Superieur De Gestion Industrielle (ISGI) and Ecole Superieure De Commerce De Lille (ESC-Lille- now SKEMA School of Management) under the supervision of Dr. Christophe Bredillet, CCE, IPMA A Level.  “Dr. PDG” can be contacted at [email protected].

To view other original work by Paul Giammalvo, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/dr-paul-d-giammalvo/

 

[1] Construction Specifications Institute History (n.d.) http://www.lacsi.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=59

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construction_Specifications_Institute

[3] Norsok Z-014 (2002 version) http://www.standard.no/pagefiles/951/z-014.pdf

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASTM_International

[5] Charette, R. P.  Uniformat II, retrieved from: www.uniformat.com/index.php/using-uniformat-ii/building-design-management#astme1557

[6] From “About Omniclass” (n.d.) http://www.omniclass.org/about/

 

Labor Productivity Improvement

in Construction Projects Using WBS & OBS Integration

 

FEATURED PAPER

Essam Mohamed Lotfi, PMP, CCP

Abu Dhabi, UAE

 


  1. ABSTRACT

Abu Dhabi is one of the cities in GCC where the Construction field is booming very fast; this technical paper is intended to show the effects of labor productivity on construction projects profits, the factors which result in productivity loss and how to improve productivity using WBS & OBS framework. The author seeks to illustrate how loss productivity will affect direct labor cost which may result in reducing project profits by using Earned Value management (Accomplished man-hours). Upon applying earned value calculations, the negative deviation from planned man-hours will be analyzed and root cause of productivity loss and how it may affect the direct labor cost. Hence establish WBS & OBS integration matrix to recover this loss. Examples and figures used in this report are adopted from On-going construction project within Abu Dhabi city and estimated productivity rates are limited to this project only. The results of this study will show the effect of establish WBS & OBS integration matrix to monitor the project performance and improve the labor productivity by assigning works to appropriate organizational units using right combination between Responsibility assignments’ matrix and organizational breakdown structure by identifying the individual responsibility for performing the work.

  1. ITRODUCTION

Labor productivity is one of the most vital challenges during construction projects life cycle (Productivity is critically important in construction projects, both large and small. Construction contractors are typically paid for work completed in place that conforms to the terms of the contract. This is sometimes referred to as pay item work and is generally true whether the contract is lump sum/firm fixed price, cost reimbursable, target cost, unit cost or pay item work or as a percentage of Previously defined categories of work often referred to as a schedule of values or bill of quantities. That Is, unlike automotive manufacturers, construction contractors are rarely paid on the basis of the entire Completed product. And, unlike craft labor, construction contractors are rarely paid by hours of labor. Therefore, productivity is related to project cash flow and profitability. Refer AACE International Recommended Practice No. 25R-03).

It was noticed that most project managers can’t achieve either planned labor productivity or their organization strategic plans in this regard. Failure in achieving required or planned labor productivity may affect the direct labor cost and incurred huge losses to the project. In most of construction projects if the standard and or planned productivity rates are compared to actual accumulative accomplished productivity it may shows that the actual productivity is less than planned due to many circumstances’ illustrated later in this technical paper, which means that the actual manpower used to accomplished specific task is greater than the planned that should be used for the same task and this may escalate the labor direct cost and may affect the planned budget of the project, this can be cleared if simple Earned Value management is applied which will show that the project till specific period of its life cycle is over budget.

This difference of labor productivity may be because of lack of duly supervision and or non availability foundation to assign work to appropriate organizational units to ensure right combination between project works and responsibility assignment matrix and organizational breakdown structure, Hereinafter this technical paper goal is to show how to achieve the labor productivity improvement using proper methodology to analyze the weakness of labor productivity and how to improve it as well. In this technical paper the actual accomplished labor productivity will be compared to standard and or planned productivity rates to analyze the deviation and its reasons then study the effect of using WBS & OBS integration matrix to ensure that each work package will have a single point of responsibility which will be used as main objective of controlling direct labor cost and to identify the individual responsibilities for performing the work to monitor the project performance.

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About the Author


Essam Mohamed Lotfi

Abu Dhabi, UAE

 

 

Essam Lotfi, PMP, CCP is ELV Projects Manager, BSc. in Electrical Engineering, Power Distribution through Zagazig University, Egypt since 2001. He has pursued and achieved his certificates in Project Management (PMP®) from PMI-USA since 2013, and certificate in Cost Management (CCP®) from AACE International since june-2014. Essam has 15 years extensive hands on experience in various aspects of projects and project management within maintenance, power distribution networks, monitoring and supervision, and construction projects as well.

He has volunteered at PMI-Global Congress EMEA-2014 – Dubai during 5th to 8th May 2014. He has made technical presentations at PMI-AGC 15th International conference –Bahrain 19th to 21st January 2015; the 54th AACEi-SF Bay Annual Western Winter Workshop, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, USA; and the 55th AACEi-SF Bay Annual Western Winter Workshop, Indian Wells, CA, USA. He has authored and co-authored papers previously published in the PM World Journal and now contained in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/essam-lotffy/

An independent project management, cost engineering and cost control consultant and instructor, Mr. Lotfi can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

Adjudication

A Dispute Resolution Mechanism for Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Christian Azuka Olele

Project Implementation Manager
EdgeGold Concept Services Limited 

Lagos, Nigeria

 



ABSTRACT

Adjudication is an alternative dispute resolution method introduced by the judiciary. The study evaluates the essential frameworks from the contractual and legal aspect, it talks about applicable skills and on hand training that could be offered, and ascertains the important and impact in the practice of adjudication. Adjudication emerges to have been accepted in the Nigerian construction sector, however it is concluded that the sector has not being able to realize the full potential of adjudication, the main reason for this is lack of Information.

This paper is aimed at exploring requirements for the full realization of the potentials required for adjudication.

Key Words: Adjudication, Alternative Dispute Resolution, Nigerian Construction Sector, Litigation, Conflicts, Infrastructure Development

INTRODUCTION

In the process of doing business, it is anticipated that differences of opinions will arise intermittently among business partners or connected persons. However, it is a known fact that commercial disputes are universal and frequent; the way and manner they are dealt with can have a philosophical impact on the outcome of the business. It is proven that unresolved disputes are factors affecting business ventures, scare investors and also affect the stock market performance of a registered business.

Disputes are normally an unavoidable part of human dealings which may be naturally domestic, civil, commercial or economic in character. Litigation has been the conventional process of settling disputes, which may arise as a result of defaulting (sometimes not deliberate) by an accomplice. Ultimately, the procedure of litigation has turn out to be guzzling time, costly and weighty which leads to overcrowding and setback in passing their resolutions.

According to Uff (2005), increase in globalization and the contemporary business world has been a reason in the improvement of more flexible way of resolving disputes that provide alternatives to court-based litigation governed by the law and procedure of a specific country.

For the first time in Nigeria, Adjudication and other forms of Alternative Dispute  Resolution (ADR) is backed up constitutional in section 19(d) of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (CFRN) 1999 and it provides for the settlement of disputes by Arbitration, Mediation, Conciliation, Negotiation and Adjudication.

According to Odiri (2004), every business sector which brings people together to work and achieve a common goal, there is likelihood that disagreement, variance and arguments may arise.  These factors are common in the construction sector. As you may know, conflict and dispute may perhaps signify same meaning since the duo involves a disagreement over some issues at hand. However, there are various theoretical dissimilarities between the two terms. Conflict as it is explained, subsists wherever there is an incongruity of concern. The Oxford English Dictionary describes conflict as a serious disagreement or argument; a prolonged armed struggle. However, Suleman (2015) is of the view that a thorough assessment of the socio-political atmosphere of the construction sector in Nigeria disclosed growing occurrences of varied opinions and disagreements among stakeholders. In turn, this also explain that the implementation of Infrastructural Development master plan for Nigeria led to the Increase in Economic activities in and around the construction sector and relationships needs to be managed so as to understand the clauses that makes up contracts being signed by parties whom have come together for a common goal.

Adjudication was introduced into the FIDIC, NEC and GCC conditions of contract as the standard means of dispute resolu­tion early 2000 as an international rule practice.  Adjudication as it is known is comparatively a new model which is not implicit as all adjudicators are well trained and have experience in the other forms of dispute resolution. The rationale behind this paper is to examine the requirements on how to apply adjudication in construction and Infrastructure development in Nigeria. To aid this, the researcher reviewed the essential framework and other permissible factors, discuss­es significant skills and available training, and establishes the impartation of adjudication in Nigeria…

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About the Author


Christian Azuka Olele

Lagos, Nigeria

 

 

Christian Azuka Olele is a project manager experienced in the Construction Sector in Nigeria, West Africa. He received his B.Sc. and PGdip degrees in Geology from the University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Nigeria; and his M.Sc. degree in Project Management from the University of Liverpool, Liverpool; U.K

Christian Azuka Olele worked on the Lekki Toll Road Infrastructure Project, Victoria Island Lagos; Osborne Jetty Terminal, Ikoyi, and Several Roads Construction Projects in Lagos & Abeokuta, Nigeria. He is currently the Project Implementation Manager for Uyo Women Development and Skill Acquisition Center, Akwa Ibom State. A Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Project of TOTAL Upstream Nigeria Limited (TUPNL), Lagos, Nigeria.

He is Interested in Managing Projects in Nigeria and Africa.

He can be reached via email at [email protected]

 

The Evolution of Programme Management

Towards Governance of Industry 4.0 Organisations

 

FEATURED PAPER

Dr Pieter Steyn and  Elzabe Zovitsky

Cranefield College

Pretoria and Western Cape, South Africa

 


 

  1. Introduction

Steyn and Semolic (2017, March) aver that the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0) is characterised by increasing digitisation and interconnection of products, value chains and business models. Competitiveness no longer depends solely on optimisation of own resources, but total inter-organisational value chain innovativeness and supportive partner technologies, products, services and systems. With the aid of partners, organisations are co-creating innovative inter-organisational value and supply chains that operate in a local, regional and international collaborative business ecosystem.

The complexity of today’s technologies, artificial intelligence, mass data, robotics and internet of things calls for specialisation and sustainable collaboration among organisations. Consequently, organisational design, development and governance have entered a challenging new phase. This inevitably requires strategic transformation and change of Industry 4.0 organisations and demands the introduction of new horisontal supply and value chain business models. Virtual value chains shape organisations into strategic, collaborative, value-driven entities where non-core activities are performed by carefully selected partners.

A competitive edge is gained by collaboratively performing strategic activities more effectively and efficiently. This approach demands exceptional governance, supported by transformational leadership excellence and a systemic knowledge of applied programme management. Effective and efficient cross-functional and inter-organisational programme management of projects and programmes in virtual networks is a critical enabling competency for the Industry 4.0 economy. The advantages of programme management have become profoundly important in the Fourth Industrial Revolution economy.

In research done towards a Master’s degree at Cranefield College, Zovitsky (2014) avers that by 1990 organisations already realised that competitiveness had become the driving force to win customer orders in project work. Competitiveness entails developing a business model that embeds sound project management methodologies and techniques. Organisations realised that competency in project management constituted a primary input in planning and executing strategy with the ultimate purpose of creating sustainable competitive advantage. This required strong leadership initiative and support, and a firm belief that project management contributed to the bottom line of the organisation.

Rothwell (1994) identified that during the 1970’s and 1980’s organisations reoriented research and development (R&D) management to consolidate, readjust costing and shorten the path between knowledge and new technologies. Moreover, they started utilising matrix organisational structures. This ultimately led to incorporating project, programme and portfolio management into R&D management thinking. The focus was transferred from the product to the entire business system. Planning, production and product marketing were integrated into the entire process that enhanced systems, flexible innovation processes and networking models with customers and suppliers. This development was the forerunner of what is experienced today where leaders in the Industry 4.0 economy learning organisations focus on collaboration and the creation of virtual networks of partners to be more effective and efficient.

From the year 2000 project management maturity models and mechanisms assisted organisations to achieve rapid performance improvement. Several integrating mechanisms such as creating a formal hierarchy; standardising organisational policies and procedures; and introducing cross-functional teams emerged. These mechanisms were the forerunners of cross-functional project and programme-managed value chain structures utilised in modern day learning organisations.

  1. Early Period Literature

Stretton (2009:3) argues that the terminologies ‘programme’ and ‘project’ have been used interchangeably since the 1960s and particularly in the US Department of Defence and NASA. There was no definite distinction between the usage of ‘programmes’ and ‘projects’ at that time, and large projects were often described as programmes. According to Weaver (2007), the Manhattan initiative to create the atomic bomb in the 1940s was probably the first programme, while since the 1950s numerous programmes crystallised in the US military. Milosevic et al (2007) mention that the Japanese implemented quality improvement programmes long before the United States. Quality project and programme management developed in the United States only in the early 1980s due to a dearth in America of quality management practices, which led to difficulties in competing nationally and internationally.

The 1970s was the period during which the focus moved to project control with the development of computer-based management systems capable of integrating cost, time, and quality. Before that (the 1950s and 1960s) the emphasis was on the time span of projects and ways of reducing it.  The result was that many organisations introduced integrated management systems in the early 1980s, but most of them still failed to deliver successful projects with regard to cost, time, and quality.  According to Harpham (2003 [a]), this resulted in organisations looking for project managers who could manage in a matrix system with minimum “given” authority. The result was that organisations started paying increasingly more attention to the skills of project managers, inter-alia, leadership, motivation and team-building…

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About the Authors


Prof Dr Pieter Steyn

Founder, Director, Principal
Cranefield College of Project and Programme Management
Pretoria & Western Cape, South Africa

 


Dr
Pieter Steyn is Founder and Principal of Cranefield College of Project and Programme Management, a South African Council on Higher Education / Department of Education accredited and registered Private Higher Education Institution. The Institution offers an Advanced Certificate, Advanced Diploma, Postgraduate Diploma, Master’s degree, and PhD in project and programme-based leadership and management. Professor Steyn holds the degrees BSc (Eng), MBA, and PhD in management, and is a registered Professional Engineer.

He was formerly professor in the Department of Management, University of South Africa and Pretoria University Business School. He founded the Production Management Institute of South Africa, and in 1979 pioneered Project Management as a university subject at the post-graduate level at the University of South Africa.

Dr Steyn founded consulting engineering firm Steyn & Van Rensburg (SVR). Projects by SVR include First National Bank Head Office (Bank City), Standard Bank Head Office, Mandela Square Shopping Centre (in Johannesburg) as also, Game City- and The Wheel Shopping Centres (in Durban). He, inter alia, chaired the Commission of Enquiry into the Swaziland Civil Service; and acted as Programme Manager for the Strategic Transformation of the Gauteng Government’s Welfare Department and Corporate Core.

Pieter co-authored the “International Handbook of Production and Operations Management,” (Cassell, London, 1989, ed. Ray Wild) and is the author of many articles and papers on leadership and management. He is a member of the Association of Business Leadership, Industrial Engineering Institute, Engineering Association of South Africa, and Project Management South Africa (PMSA); and a former member of the Research Management Board of IPMA. He serves on the Editorial Board of the PM World Journal. Pieter is also Director of the De Doornkraal Wine Estate in Riversdale, Western Cape.

Professor Steyn can be contacted at [email protected]. For information about Cranefield College, visit www.cranefield.ac.za.

 

 
Elzabe Zovitsky

Cranefield College of Project and Programme Management
Pretoria & Western Cape, South Africa




Elzabe Zovitsky
holds a B A Degree (Anthropology) from the University of Pretoria and a Master’s Degree in Programme Management from Cranefield College.

She is Head of the Principal’s office at Cranefield College, where her duties include project and programme management research and administering Cranefield’s specialised and short course programmes.

Before joining Cranefield College in 2006, she was actively engaged in managing anthropology and genealogy projects.  These projects ranged from solving tribal succession disputes in KwaZulu Natal to systemising the genealogies of the Zulu tribes.

 

 

 

Elements of the Mathematical Theory of Human Systems Part 4

Quantitative interpretation of the victory, defeat and concessions of human systems by the method of state equations

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Pavel Barseghyan, PhD

Yerevan, Armenia and

Plano, Texas, USA

 



Abstract

The mathematical theory of human systems has many applications in the fields of analysis, synthesis and optimization of confrontations and conflicts between the groups of people of different scales.

The clash between human systems arises from a conflict of interest, be it the usual conflict of interests in people’s daily lives or a serious clash of interests in international relations, or a clash of civilizations.

The purpose of the article is to show that the problems of quantitative description and analysis of conflicts between human systems can be reduced to the method of state equations.

According to this method, the activities of each party to the conflict can be represented by the equation of state, on the basis of which the benefits and losses obtained from the activities of the parties are evaluated.

In the case of significant differences between the benefits and losses of the conflicting parties, the balance of power between them can be violated, which can lead to non-equilibrium phenomena such as the victory of one of the parties.

In the work on the basis of quantitative assessments of the benefits and losses of the conflicting parties, quantitative interpretations of the victories and defeats of people are also given.

The methods discussed in the article may have many practical applications, including the analysis of different types of competition between human systems, as well as assessments and predictions of the results of the conflict between countries and their various blocs and alliances.

Key words: Human systems, mathematical theory, state equations, systems theory, equilibrium, non-equilibrium, benefits, change management, losses, victory, defeat, concessions, conflicts.

Introduction

For mathematical modeling and simulation of confrontations and conflicts between human systems, it is necessary to have an adequate quantitative description of their activities and relations among themselves.

The mathematical theory of human systems, the axis of which is a quantitative description of the actions and activities of people by means of the equations of state, is also suitable for studying and managing confrontations and conflicts between different groups of people.

In different cases, the conflicting parties may be negotiators in business and diplomacy or participants in a scientific debate whose opinions differ on the issues under discussion, or the equation of state may partially describe the relationship between the client and the seller, or between the customer and vendor, etc.

In addition, in the context of the further effective penetration of quantitative methods into the sphere of human systems management, the symbiosis of the possibilities of behavioral models of people’s life based on the equations of state [1] and the basic propositions of systems theory is very important [2, 3].

Such symbiosis allows, along with traditional qualitative methods of studying human systems, to create new scientific methods for analyzing, synthesizing and optimizing the behavior and activities of people on the basis of quantitative approaches of a fundamental nature.

The essence of quantitative methods of analyzing the behavior and activities of people, based on the equations of the state of human systems, is as follows.

Each human system can be quantitatively described by an equation of state that incorporates the needed resources for people’s activities, their knowledge, skills and tools used by them and the results of their activities.

In this sense, the purpose of quantitative analysis of the behavior and activity of human systems is to evaluate and predict the results of their activities in the form of gain and losses based on the equation of state and the characteristic data of the system (the number and motivation of people, the effectiveness of their activities and tools used, etc.).

In the case of confrontation and conflicts of human systems, the problem of analyzing their behavior and activities is to assess the results of their clash in the form of victory (or gain) and defeat (or loss), having the data of the conflicting parties.

The problem of the synthesis of human systems is that by having the desired results of its behavior and activity, by inverse calculation on the basis of the equations of state, find those values of the system parameters that can provide the given desired result.

In the case of confrontation and conflicts between human systems, the problem of synthesis in planning the behavior and activity of one of the parties is to use the method of state equations to find those values of the system parameters with which it will be possible to defeat the potential enemy or, at least, not to be defeated by him.

Since any synthesis problem has a lot of solutions, the goal of optimal synthesis or optimization of systems is to choose from this set of solutions those that are more preferable in terms of price, quality, risk and feasibility.

The method of the equations of state has a deterministic character and describes the problem of analysis, synthesis and optimization at the level of average values of the parameters of human systems.

But, as is known, mathematical modeling of systems at the level of mean values of parameters can be considered as a first approximation, which does not always lead to comprehensively grounded solutions to problems [4].

From this point of view, for a more detailed consideration of the problem, the parameters in the equations of state of human systems can be divided into three groups:

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About the Author


Pavel Barseghyan
, PhD

Yerevan, Armenia
Plano, Texas, USA

 


Dr. Pavel Barseghyan
is a consultant in the field of quantitative project management, project data mining and organizational science. Has over 45 years’ experience in academia, the electronics industry, the EDA industry and Project Management Research and tools development. During the period of 1999-2010 he was the Vice President of Research for Numetrics Management Systems. Prior to joining Numetrics, Dr. Barseghyan worked as an R&D manager at Infinite Technology Corp. in Texas. He was also a founder and the president of an EDA start-up company, DAN Technologies, Ltd. that focused on high-level chip design planning and RTL structural floor planning technologies. Before joining ITC, Dr. Barseghyan was head of the Electronic Design and CAD department at the State Engineering University of Armenia, focusing on development of the Theory of Massively Interconnected Systems and its applications to electronic design. During the period of 1975-1990, he was also a member of the University Educational Policy Commission for Electronic Design and CAD Direction in the Higher Education Ministry of the former USSR. Earlier in his career he was a senior researcher in Yerevan Research and Development Institute of Mathematical Machines (Armenia). He is an author of nine monographs and textbooks and more than 100 scientific articles in the area of quantitative project management, mathematical theory of human work, electronic design and EDA methodologies, and tools development. More than 10 Ph.D. degrees have been awarded under his supervision. Dr. Barseghyan holds an MS in Electrical Engineering (1967) and Ph.D. (1972) and Doctor of Technical Sciences (1990) in Computer Engineering from Yerevan Polytechnic Institute (Armenia). Pavel’s publications can be found here: http://www.scribd.com/pbarseghyan and here: http://pavelbarseghyan.wordpress.com/. Pavel can be contacted at [email protected]

To view works by Dr. Barseghyan previously published in the PM World Journal, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/dr-pavel-barseghyan/

 

 

An Overview of Governmental Rehabilitation Programmes in Nigeria

A Project Management Perspective

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Dr. Felix Osita Ikekpeazu and Dr. Uchenna Ajator

Nnamdi Azikiwe University

Anambra State, Nigeria

 



ABSTRACT

This paper addresses the project management issues related to governmental rehabilitation programmes, at the federal level, from a national perspective based on the national geopolitical coverage of the rehabilitation programme of the petroleum Trust fund, PTF, (a program of the military era) and the localized programme of the Niger Delta development commission NDDC, (a programme of the democratic dispensation). It commences with providing an insight into the role of a counter budget, a blueprint for changing national priorities, in the evolution of national rehabilitation programmes. It therefore, underscore the relevance of a counter budget which is designed to open federal spending to broad, public discussion, and the present a comprehensive, economic and political analysis of possible alternatives in the medium term. The paper then proceeds to a methodological review of the programmes of the PTF, Petroleum Trust Fund. It provides an overview of its urban interventions in the area of institutional and infrastructural rehabilitations with emphasis on the scope, process and impact. An overview of the performance of the Nigeria Delta Development commission in terms of rehabilitation programmes is also presented. The paper considers the proposition of the cost-benefit analysis approach to the evaluation of the socio-economic benefits of rehabilitation programmes in Nigeria. Finally, it concludes with the evident contrasts in development, especially in the rehabilitation of physical structures and infrastructure in Nigeria, emanating from different governmental initiatives and policies.

INTRODUCTION

In recent years, institutional rehabilitation programmes have become a national priority in Nigeria due to the advancing levels of physical deterioration of governmental institutional buildings and the associated infrastructure. These rehabilitation programmes span, the last few years of the military regime and then into the present democratic dispensation. From a national perspective, two institutional rehabilitation programmes, namely, the PTF, Petroleum (Special) Trust Fund and the Niger Delta Development Commission, were instituted by the military regime and the new democratic governance respectively. In a chronological sequence, the PTF progammes precede the programmes of the Niger Delta Development Commission.

THE ROLE OF A COUNTERBUDGET IN THE GENESIS OF NATIONAL REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES

The rehabilitation programmes of the military regime towards the last few years of its existence are an emanation of what is usually designated a counterbudget – a blueprint for changing national priorities.

The price of petroleum products was increased by the Federal Government in 1994. In order convince the citizenry of the propriety of the increase, the PTF was established to utilize the accruals from the increase for the resuscitation of social and infrastructural facilities which had become dilapidated as a result of neglect over the years. Indeed, there can be deficiencies in the way that a budget is shaped – deficiencies that, in the absence of reform, reduce the prospects for achieving significant change in our arrangement of priorities. One of the flaws is that budget allocations are often too determined through what might be called the let’s-see-what-we-gave-them-last-year-and-give-them-a-little-more-this-year approach. This practice militates against new ideas and tends to preserve programs that may no longer serve their original purposes. Another flaw is the lack of openness from beginning to end of the budget process. Secrecy reigns. There is little public participation.

The importance of a counter budget is expressed in the book, ‘Counter budget, A Blueprint for Changing National Priorities,’ in which the National Urban Coalition Steering Committee called upon the U.S.A. Federal Government to pursue six major goals, in reordering national priorities as part of the process of a counter budget:

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About the Authors


Dr. Felix Ikekpeazu

Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Anambra State, Nigeria

 


Dr. Felix Ikekpeazu
holds a Bachelor of Architecture (B. Arc) and a Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Architecture, specializing in Housing delivery systems. He joined Nnamdi Azikiwe University in Anambra State after serving as Chief Architect at the Enugu State Housing Development Corporation. He is currently a senior Lecturer in the Department of Architecture. His research interests are in Housing delivery systems, Green buildings and energy efficiency in buildings. Dr. Ikekpeazu is a registered Architect and has published in many local and international journals. He can be contacted at [email protected]

 


Dr. Uchenna Ajator

Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Anambra State, Nigeria

 


Dr. Uchenna Ajator
is an associate professor in the Department of Quantity Surveying, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, with vast experience in consultancy and construction. He also has also written a number of books on quantity surveying and cost management of oil and gas projects which has contributed immensely to the development of students and the quantity surveying profession in Nigeria. Ajator can also be described as a philanthropist, with numerous book donations to the university. His research interests are in cost engineering, construction economics and project cost control. He is a fellow of the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (FNIQS) and a registered member of the Quantity Surveyors Registration Board of Nigeria (QSRBN). You can reach him on [email protected]

 

 

Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

– based novel Performance evaluation technique

 

FEATURED PAPER

by Ashwani Kharola, Ravindra Mamgain, Ankit Jain

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Tula’s Institute

Dehradun, India

 



Abstract

In this study we have highlighted different performance evaluation techniques in order to carry out adequate performance based appraisal of employees working in different organisations. The paper briefly describes and compares both traditional as well as several modern Performance appraisal techniques which are currently in practice. In this study we have proposed a new soft-computing based appraisal technique which works by combining learning ability of artificial neural networks and reasoning capability of fuzzy logic theory. The results are validated by comparing working of proposed approach to conventional average based rating technique. The results further confirmed appropriateness of above mentioned technique over other traditional appraisal approaches.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Performance appraisal, soft-computing, ANFIS, fuzzy, Matlab.

  1. Introduction to Performance appraisal

Performance appraisal of an employee is a significant factor in success of any individual as well as for the growth of any organisation. An appraisal is considered to be good if it is performed fairly and motivates employees thereby resulting in improved performance of the organisation [1]. Sometimes performance appraisal does not results into a valid and reliable evaluation thus creating conflicts in the workplace [2]. These conflicts will affect the output and performance of both the employees as well as the organisation. Performance appraisal plays a vital role in both human resource management as well as strategic management and therefore widely employed for both theoretical and practical study [3]. In the past few years researchers have been showing keen interest to develop various appraisal tools and techniques [4]. A case study on effects of performance appraisal in the Norwegian municipal health services was carried out by Vasset et al. [5]. In the study authors evaluated the effect of job motivation, learning and self-assessment on performances of health personals. Shaout and Yousif [6] highlighted various methods and techniques for performance evaluation of employees. The study considered both traditional as well as new approaches for effective appraisals. The authors further proposed a fuzzy based appraisal technique for evaluating performances of academic staff in Sudanese Universities.

A new construct for performance evaluation of teachers was proposed by Yonghong and Chongde [7]. The study conducted literature survey, case study, interview and qualitative research for analysing reliability and validity of different empirical approaches. Keaveny and McGann [8] observed the effectiveness of different performance appraisal formats in terms of clarity. The different formats which were adopted for analysis were simple graphic rating scale, complete graphic rating scale and behavioural rating scales. The study highlighted superior performance of behavioured rating scale compared to other two scales. Jawahar [9] demonstrated a correlation between employee satisfaction and their performance feedback. The study considered a survey on 112 employees which proved that satisfaction with appraisal feedback was directly related to job satisfaction and organisational commitment and inversely related to turnover intentions. Banner and Cooke [10] explained some of the main conceptual issues in performance appraisals. The authors highlighted some practical dilemmas and their solutions which may arise during process of appraisals. The results concluded that one can morally justify use of appraisals under certain specific conditions. Osmani and Maliqi [11] carried out a study to examine the process of management and performance evaluation of employees. Authors focused on importance of individual performances, stages through which appraisal is realised, targets, key indicators and challenges faced during the process in both public and private organisations.

Sanyal and Biswas [12] examined the attitude of employees towards performance appraisal in software companies in West Bengal (India). A survey on 506 employees from 19 software companies was carried out followed by binary regression analysis. The authors identified main consequences of performance appraisal and their impact on motivation of employees. Min-peng et al. [13] proposed a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation approach for measuring performance of engineering R&D staff. The study considered different performance indicators based on morality, ability, diligence and performance to determine weight of every index. The proposed model is feasible and practical through empirical research. Wu and Hou [14] proposed an employee performance estimation model for logistics industry. The proposed model includes three modules for performance estimation i.e. direct performance determination, indirect performance determination and performance score analysis. The proposed model helped in accurate estimation of employee performance. Katerina et al. [15] identified different performance appraisal methods in agricultural organisations. The study initially described some formal appraisal techniques and further designed a questionnaire to rate different appraisal techniques in agriculture sector of Czech Republic. The results showed that most widely used techniques for performance appraisal includes goal-based appraisal, predefined standard outcome-based appraisal and appraisal interviews.

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About the Authors


Ashwani Kharola

Tula’s Institute
Dehradun, India

 



Mr. Ashwani Kharola
received B.Tech (with Honors) in Mechanical Engineering from Dehradun Institute of Technology, Dehradun in 2010 and M.Tech in CAD/CAM & Robotics from Graphic Era University, Dehradun in 2013. Presently he is working as Assistant Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering at Tula’s Institute, Dehradun. Earlier he has worked as a Research Fellow in Institute of Technology Management (ITM), One of premier training institute of Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India. He is pursuing PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Graphic Era University (Deemed University), Dehradun. He has published many Research papers in National/International peer reviewed ISSN Journals and IEEE Conferences. His current areas of work includes Fuzzy logic reasoning, Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) control, Neural Networks, PID, Mathematical Modeling & Simulation. He can be contacted at [email protected]

 


Ravindra Mamgain

Tula’s Institute
Dehradun, India

 



Mr. Ravindra Mamgain
completed his graduation in Mechanical Engineering from CCS University Meerut. He completed his Master’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from SLIET, Longowal University. Presently he is pursuing PhD from Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun. He has a total 12 years of Teaching experience and received best faculty award in 2008. He has also Published two books under his name. Presently he is working as Assistant Professor and HOD in Department of Mechanical Engineering at Tula’s Institute, Dehradun. He can be contacted at [email protected]

 


Ankit Jain

Tula’s Institute
Dehradun, India

 



Mr. Ankit Jain
has completed his graduation in Industrial & Production Engineering from Dehradun Institute of Technology (DIT), Dehradun in 2009. He has also completed his Master’s degree as M. Tech in Thermal Engineering from DIT. Presently he is pursuing PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Uttarakhand Technical University. He has a total of 8 years of Teaching experience. Presently he is working as Assistant Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering at Tula’s Institute, Dehradun. He can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

Dispute Mitigation Due to Un-Mature Change Management

in Construction Projects in Gulf Area

 

FEATURED PAPER

by Essam Mohamed Lotfi, PMP, CCP

Abu Dhabi, UAE

 



1.  Abstract

“Is Change Fact – of – Life”

Despite construction industry in GCC area is growing rapidly, there are apparent severe failures to meet the project objectives it was undertaken for, in terms scope, time and cost. However; change is Fact – of – Life unfortunately buyers and sellers usually fail to mitigate the risk of changes effectively due less maturity level of change management. The paper intends to expose the root cause of change in construction industry to enable buyers and sellers to eliminate the probability and impact of the change. It is inevitable to charter the scope baseline with necessary acceptance criteria and to develop a proper change management plan as early as possible to mitigate the root cause of prospective disputes due to change.

Keywords: Construction, GCC, maturity, change management, dispute

2. Objectives

Objectives of this research are to identify the relationship between the root cause of change in construction and maturity level of the organization in dealing with the change, to control all the implication on the whole project baselines in terms of scope, time & cost. The research will test:

  1. Organization understanding level of change management and change control.
  2. How organization’s maturity level influences the change management?
  3. What are the precautions or provisions that seller and buyer should include to control the change management plans?
  4. The pre-actions that could be undertaken by buyer and seller to mitigate the disputes due to changes.

3. Literature Review

In construction projects change is the significant cause of delays and dispute between buyer and seller. Despite both parties trying to stick with the contract obligations, disputes due to change arise and take place. Most of previous researches focused on description of the change types and how to mitigate the risks of the cost overrun and time claims due to incurred changes. However; the root cause of changes and the level of understanding of the value of change management are not to the level where each party seller and buyer could control and manage the changes and their impacts to achieve the project objectives smoothly and successfully.

Based on project life cycle approach either adaptive, predictive or incremental (1) PMBoK it is apparent that since project is progressing the impact of any change will drastically impact the project, hence there should be an escalation provision during the time of chartering the project during the development of project management plan and risk management plan as well that regularize any cost and time impact of prospective change. However; this is a practical approach neither seller nor buyer have the maturity level that enable them to eliminate the root cause of the change or mitigate the risk of potential changes by having extended collaboration sessions or workshops for collecting requirements as much as possible and developing a clear project scope statement with all necessary acceptance criteria as early as possible during initiation and planning phases of the project. Since change is fact of life (3) so failure to provide escalation provisions during project chartering and project management plan development will obviously impact the project and increased the possibility of disputes between seller and buyer.

In addition there will be inevitable changes due to seller’s failure to get project’s deliverables signed-off by the buyer or end-user due to seller’s lack of understanding the end-user requirements (4) or the difference between As-built and As-designed as the seller should take all necessary corrective actions or defect repair through change request and this will requires the seller to evaluate all the impacts due to his failure and consequently the result of this change request will be revising either scope, cost or schedule baselines.

At this point the low level of seller’s and buyer’s maturity will disrupt both parties towards achievement of project objectives and their organizations goal as well and the absence of agreed upon amount thresholds and tolerances should be re-evaluated, despite it is obviously known that every organization has it’s enterprise environmental factors.

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About the Author


Essam Mohamed Lotfi

Abu Dhabi, UAE

 




Essam Lotfi
, PMP, CCP is ELV Projects Manager, BSc. in Electrical Engineering, Power Distribution through Zagazig University, Egypt since 2001. He has pursued and achieved his certificates in Project Management (PMP®) from PMI-USA since 2013, and certificate in Cost Management (CCP®) from AACE International since june-2014. Essam has 15 years extensive hands on experience in various aspects of projects and project management within maintenance, power distribution networks, monitoring and supervision, and construction projects as well.

He has volunteered at PMI-Global Congress EMEA-2014 – Dubai during 5th to 8th May 2014. He has made technical presentations at PMI-AGC 15th International conference –Bahrain 19th to 21st January 2015; the 54th AACEi-SF Bay Annual Western Winter Workshop, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, USA; and the 55th AACEi-SF Bay Annual Western Winter Workshop, Indian Wells, CA, USA. He has authored and co-authored papers previously published in the PM World Journal and now contained in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/essam-lotffy/

An independent project management, cost engineering and cost control consultant and instructor, Mr. Lotfi can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

The Impact of Training and Development on Geosciences Employees

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Christian Azuka Olele

Project Implementation Manager
EdgeGold Concept Services Limited

Lagos, Nigeria

 



ABSTRACT

This paper is aimed at exploring requirements for the achievement of training and development and good return on Investment for Employees. Training and development is an enhancing performance and it is an important factor in the viable market environment. Institutions spending on valuable training and development for her staff shall achieve short and long term contract. Up to date, there has been much deliberation about what represents Geosciences and how it expands.

Key Words: Training, Development, Geosciences, Organization, Human Resources

Introduction

Achievement of objectives and good returns on investment could only be attained if human resources aspects of the human enterprise are properly developed through training and manpower development.

Halidu (2015) is of the opinion that an organization may have employees of ability and determination with appropriate equipment and managerial support yet productivity fails below expected standard. By and large, the missing factors in many cases are lack of adequate skills and knowledge which are acquired through manpower training and development.

In the light of the above mentioned, any organization, no matter how sophisticated in technology cannot be characterized by its Infrastructure; rather it is the achievement and development of human resource capital that is responsible for its increase in productivity.

Literature Review

According to Halidu (2015), training and development is seen to be the procedure of behavioral alteration to amalgamate organizational needs with their characteristics. Akpan (1982) as cited in Halidu (2015) further explained that training and development aims at budding competencies such as human, theoretical technical, and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth. In interpreting the hypothesis exceeding, Black and Lynch (1996) maintains that at the moment in time of technological change and innovation, the newly employed and existing work force need to be trained to acquaint them with the current skills and techniques obtainable currently to get their job going in order to achieve individual and organizational objectives.

French (1974) agreed with the fact that training is the practice of assisting employees in their near or potential significance through the development of suitable routine which involves ideas, actions, skills, knowledge and attitudes. Stone (1982) went on to support that training is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitude for the sole purpose of executing a specific job competently.

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About the Author


Christian Azuka Olele

Lagos, Nigeria

 




Christian Azuka Olele
is a project manager experienced in the Construction Sector in Nigeria, West Africa. He received his B.Sc. and PGdip degrees in Geology from the University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Nigeria; and his M.Sc. degree in Project Management from the University of Liverpool, Liverpool; U.K

Christian Azuka Olele worked on the Lekki Toll Road Infrastructure Project, Victoria Island Lagos; Osborne Jetty Terminal, Ikoyi, and Several Roads Construction Projects in Lagos & Abeokuta, Nigeria. He is currently the Project Implementation Manager for Uyo Women Development and Skill Acquisition Center, Akwa Ibom State. A Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Project of TOTAL Upstream Nigeria Limited (TUPNL), Lagos, Nigeria.

He is Interested in Managing Projects in Nigeria and Africa.

He can be reached via email at [email protected]

 

 

Strategic Innovation Leadership Framework

for Sustainable Management of Electricity Distribution Company in Nigeria – Post Privatization

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Habeeb A. Quadri

Haquad Group

New York, USA and Lagos, Nigeria

 



Introduction

The imperious relationship between economic growth and electricity management has been globally established and acclaimed. Wittily, in spite of being blessed with the largest potentials for electricity in Africa, Nigeria enduringly remains a developing nation because electricity capabilities are underexplored. Within the last century, electricity management in Nigeria has evolved from fully state owned monopoly to private owned enterprise where formerly state monopolized electricity generation, transmission and distribution got segregated and unbundled. Electricity distribution unbundled into 11 private owned distribution companies with 60% stake while the Federal Government of Nigeria has a 40% interest. Electricity generation unbundled into 6 while electricity transmission outsourced to Manitoba Hydro, a Canadian company.

The transformation aimed at strategic repositioning of the power sector to meet the ever-growing electricity demand in response to the growing economic activities required for GDP growth. However, a leadership appraisal of the electricity distribution company’s post-privatization revealed that significant improvements have not been recorded in operations, customer satisfaction and the privatization mandate. Meanwhile with zero investment by the FG of Nigeria throughout the 1990s, the new democratic party in 1999 spent well over $10b unproductively on the power sector between 1999-2015. This pre-privatization lack of impactful investment by the Federal Government of Nigeria for almost a quarter of a century, gives the picture of the monster inheritance the new private investors are up against.

This is why Africa has about 13% of the world population but over 600m Africans (about 47% of the world population without electricity) have no access to electricity with implications on economic activities and the GDP. Nigerian National Bureau of Statistics (NNBS) confirmed 200m Nigerian population require about 200,000MW of electricity to optimize. But less than 45% (about 80m) Nigerians have real access to the grid electricity although below the global standard per capita. The World Bank declared that countries with less than 80% level of electricity access struggle with sustainable economic growth.

To augment, over 70% of Nigerians run generating plants costing about $13b every year and about 86% of corporations, industries and small & medium enterprises in Nigeria run operations with self-generated electricity, these not only destroy the ecology but also constitute over 40% of the production cost with multiplier effects on the consumers and the GDP. You further get the picture right? These pictures confirm the World Bank assertion that any country with less than 80% level of electricity access struggle with economic growth. This is why Nigeria/Africa struggles with economic growth. There is a clear correlation between electricity and economic growth.

These backdrops led to The World Bank forecast of electricity demand increase in Nigeria. Hence, the Nigerian power sector development remains one of the major strategic priorities of the US government under the Power Africa program. The World Bank (2018) approved the injection of $486m fresh credit facility and the proposed additional $2.6b 5-year intervention fund to reduce deficit, restore viability, improve transparency via sustainable cost reflective electricity pricing, ensure better service delivery to satisfy customers, reduce losses and reposition the Nigerian Electricity Supply Industry (NESI) for growth. These developments confirm the conclusion of the MD/CEO of Abuja Electricity Distribution Company, Engr. E. Mupwaya (2017) that: “A major problem that we are facing in the sector is characterized by liquidity challenge”.

These industry pictures reinforced the fact that Nigeria electricity industry remains a deficit market and a posterity venture. Therefore, electricity distribution companies in Nigeria need to employ unconventional leadership tools to remain sustainably competitive. Boal & Hooijberg (2001) noted that the global economy is experiencing a turbulent and dynamic phase that has created a society craving for speed, action, innovation and excellence. Corporate leaders face a tremendous pressure to deliver immediate results with fewer resources, which unfortunately, resonates unrealistically well with the electricity distribution companies…

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About the Author


Habeeb Adekunle Quadri

University of Maryland, College Park, USA
Haquad Group Incorporation, NY, USA & Lagos, Nigeria




Habeeb Quadri
, MSc, MBA, PMP, PMI-RMP, (PhD) is a PhD candidate in Project Management Engineering at the University of Maryland, College Park, United States. A New York-based Entrepreneur/Managing Partner at Haquad Group Incorporation, Habeeb was previously a senior executive in the Financial District of New York with professional certifications in project management and risk management including graduate degrees in Economics and Business Management.

Habeeb earned executive graduate certificates in Corporate Governance, Leadership, Management Consulting and Strategic Innovation from Harvard and Stanford, and currently a visiting Research Fellow in Energy and Power at University of Oxford and London School of Economics, UK. Habeeb is well versed in accomplishing strategic business goals and meeting critical deadlines. Habeeb is an author and a speaker with research interests in Leadership, Strategic Innovation, PMO, Value Engineering and Economic Analysis. Habeeb can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

Notes on increasing project management involvement

in senior management activities in production-based organizations

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Alan Stretton

Sydney, Australia

 



INTRODUCTION

For nearly as long as I can remember, many (but by no means all) project management writers have been concerned about project managers remaining in subordinate positions in the production-based organizations in which they operate (see definition below). Their essential concern is that senior management has been unaware of the benefits that project managers (PMs) can provide.

Some writers have expressed these concerns in somewhat generalised contexts. Other writers have been concerned with more specific issues, such as senior management making vitally important project initiation decisions, but with little understanding of how their decisions could adversely affect project execution and ultimate business benefits. The most obvious way to overcome this latter situation is to get project managers more involved in activities related to the initiation of projects. The question then becomes one of ways and means of achieving such involvement.

These two forms of concern strongly overlap, and this article looks at what various authors have had to say about ways of overcoming these concerns. But first we distinguish between two different types of organizations that undertake projects.

TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS THAT UNDERTAKE PROJECTS

I borrow from Cooke-Davies 2002 in describing the two different types of organization as production-based and project-based, and from Archibald et al 2012 (who use different descriptors) in describing them.

  • Production-based organizations derive most (if not all) of their revenue and/or benefits from producing and selling products and services. They utilize projects to create new, or improve existing, products and services; enter new markets; or otherwise improve or change their organizations.
  • Project-based organizations derive most (if not all) of their revenue and/or other benefits from creating and delivering projects / programs to external customers.

The relevant point to note here is that the above concerns apply primarily in production-based organizations. Such concerns are evidently rare in project-based organizations. As Debourse & Archibald 2017 observe (“project-driven” is their descriptor for what I have described as “project-based”):

From our face-to-face interviews we learned that, for “project-driven” companies, the job of project manager is an essential experience to become a CEO.

TWO RECENT CONTRIBUTIONS ON INCREASING PM INVOLVEMENT

“The calm before the storm” – Wake 2017

Wake’s article is a substantially generalised polemic which broadly says that project management is not doing enough to convince others of the value of project management. The following quotes give something of the flavour of his arguments.

The Project Profession has to get and maintain its voice.

It’s our fault we haven’t made our case as well as we should. And it’s our problem to fix. But time is ticking and things are not improving.

Project management needs to expand itself. Go into areas which create success. It sure as hell is not more process.

Where is your lobby to get a seat on the Board and the rest of the Board and its investors educated about your value? Where is the evidence? The proof?

Wake does not spell out the specific nature of the benefits that project management can offer to senior general managers. Like many writers, he appears to take the value of project management in such situations as being self-evident. But obviously, it is far from self-evident to many senior managers.

We now turn to quite a different perspective about the role of the project manager in the broader context of a production-based organization.

“Proposals to accelerate advancement from project manager to senior executive” – Debourse & Archibald 2017

The title of this article accurately reflects its contents. The authors set down proposals at three levels…

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Editor’s note: Alan Stretton, PhD (Hon), Life Fellow of AIPM (Australia), is a pioneer in the field of professional project management and one of the most widely recognized voices in the practice of program and project management.   Long retired, Alan is still tackling some of the most challenging research and writing assignments; he is a frequent contributor to the PM World Journal. See his author profile below.



About the Author


Alan Stretton, PhD

Faculty Corps, University of Management
and Technology, Arlington, VA (USA)
Life Fellow, AIPM (Australia)

 



Alan Stretton
is one of the pioneers of modern project management. He is currently a member of the Faculty Corps for the University of Management & Technology (UMT), USA. In 2006 he retired from a position as Adjunct Professor of Project Management in the Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia, which he joined in 1988 to develop and deliver a Master of Project Management program.   Prior to joining UTS, Mr. Stretton worked in the building and construction industries in Australia, New Zealand and the USA for some 38 years, which included the project management of construction, R&D, introduction of information and control systems, internal management education programs and organizational change projects. He has degrees in Civil Engineering (BE, Tasmania) and Mathematics (MA, Oxford), and an honorary PhD in strategy, programme and project management (ESC, Lille, France). Alan was Chairman of the Standards (PMBOK) Committee of the Project Management Institute (PMI®) from late 1989 to early 1992. He held a similar position with the Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM), and was elected a Life Fellow of AIPM in 1996. He was a member of the Core Working Group in the development of the Australian National Competency Standards for Project Management. He has published over 180 professional articles and papers. Alan can be contacted at [email protected].

To see more works by Alan Stretton, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/alan-stretton/.

 

 

Cruise from Personal Agility to Organizational Agility


FEATURED PAPER

By Raji Sivaraman, M.S, PMI-ACP, PMP, PMO-CP
Principal of ASBA LLC, Singapore/USA,
Adjunct Professor, Feliciano School of Business, Montclair University, USA,

and

Michal Raczka, MBA, PMI-ACP, PMP, CISA
IT Strategy Vice Director at mBank S.A.
Warsaw, Poland

 



Abstract

The aim of this paper is to show how the authors’ Personal Agility (PA) Lighthouse model; PA Lighthouse ™ is most germane in terms of the entrepreneurial and organizational element.  Specialist focus on practice regimes, planning and psychology of effective skills development relevant to self-evaluation and self-reflection alter courses as and when appropriate. Techniques relevant to resolution, negotiation and identity expansion for growth into the organizational agility space are touched in this paper. From a philosophical and practical perspective, the authors’ explore how the PA Lighthouse ™ might foster an approach to the idea and practice of professionalism. Whilst drawing from the agile mindset to inform aspects of preparation and practical skills development, the authors cruise through general extensions of motivation and building flexibility as the voyage travels from Personal Agility (PA) to Organizational Agility (OA). The authors’ journey implies the methods and approaches to go from where you are to where you want to be as the deliverable.

Keywords:  Personal Agility, Organizational Agility, Cruise, OKR, R&D, IDL

Introduction

The authors are going to attempt to guide the readers through a cruise from Personal Agility (PA) to Organizational Agility (OA). The business imperatives to attain organizational goals in the authors’ mind is when multi-faceted competencies are instituted. These alone according to the authors may not suffice. Exhibit 1 from the 2017 Baltic Project Management conference (Raji and Michal, 2017)i shown below illustrates the seven agility flavors to gain competitive advantage.

The authors have pondered over the ‘whys’ for the bumpy ride of the transformations in the agile/digital paradigm shift. McKinsey’s Aaron De Smet and Chris Gagnon (McKinsey & Company, 2017)ii explain what is driving organizational agility, why it matters, and what to do in their article “Going from fragile to agile”. They talk about value, integrity, collaboration and excellence. All of these are true indicators for convergence of markets as is a well-designed personal agility that needs to flow through to organizational agility. Therefore, if you want to make any kind of transformation in your company it is a good idea to reach a state of organizational agility and this can be made possible through the honing of the seven Personal Agility model at all levels.

Education Agility

In the authors’ context, education agility is to do ‘role-playing in companies’ (Etu.ie, 2017)iii, getting the feel of the pain points of the person sitting in a different chair and doing the roles that does not necessarily fall into your daily routine. Organizations learn and feel the new trends of business models in order to disrupt themselves. The question then is; what your core business (daily routine) is, and what could disrupt your core business? Does an organization have the ability to adapt? Put your organization into a disruptor’s shoes. Does an organization have the ability to experiment with new business models or innovate them? Thus when simple questions such as these get answered, then organizational agility is originated from the ability to adapt to changing environments or the ability to disrupt businesses. Especially now that it is very valid when the “digital era,” will soon replace the information age as quoted in the Disrupt or get disrupted by the “digital era”! (Forbes.com, 2017)iv

All industries are affected. Innovative breakthroughs in technology, medicine, transportation, machine learning are transforming, will all continue to transform the world we live and work in. Organizations and leaders when prepared can easily adapt to the “digital era”. Getting the feel of the pain points on a personal level can be achieved through mentoring with people who already exist where we want to be. On an organizational level this can be achieved using benchmarking with already disrupted industries in the current playing field. At another personal level we should also be aware of T-shaped (Wladawsky-Berger, 2017)v people. At an organizational level it can be achieved through networking with other industries or creating subsidiaries to learn the new business models. We could call it the T shaped Organization!

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About the Authors


Raji Sivaraman

Singapore / USA




Raji Sivaraman
, MS, PMI-ACP, PMP, PMO-CP, Principal of ASBA LLC, a Singapore citizen, helps USA/Singapore companies with strategic planning/overseas startups. She speaks several languages. Worked in Singapore, Thailand, India and the USA. She helps fortune 50/500 companies with CSR/BSR projects. She is a Consultant, Director, Strategic Advisor and an Advisory Board member for non-profit organizations. She has worked in IT, publishing, financial, standards and logistics industries. She is an Adjunct Professor at Montclair University, USA. She is a Researcher, Author, Contributor to Project Management books, published articles, research and white papers internationally. She is a global facilitator, keynote speaker, discussant. An Academic chair, Moderator CXO Forum and a panelist. She is an Agile practitioner with a Master of Science Degree in Project Management. She has held leadership positions with the Project Management Institute at the chapter/global level and conducts workshops around the world. In a nutshell, she is a Pracademic..LinkedIn: /raji-sivaraman ; Twitter: @RSNOLA;  Website: http://agilitydiscoveries.com;  Email: [email protected]

 


Michal Raczka

Warsaw, Poland

 

 

Michal Raczka, MBA, PMI-ACP, PMP, PSPO, AgilePM, CISA, is a project management expert, experienced in new technologies & digital leadership fields. Currently, he is the IT Strategy and Project Management Vice Director at mBank S.A. He is also a project management lecturer at the Executive MBA programs. He has conducted several organisational changes involving the optimisation of project management methods and agile transformations. Always keeps Team in the centre. Value and results focused with lean and agile approach. Individual with proven achievements in project & business management, process improvement and team leadership. Experienced in managing geographically distributed, multi-disciplinary projects and customer teams. Experienced in project excellence awards assessments. Conference speaker. Strategic Advisor. Lecturer. Volunteer. Mentor.  Follow Michal at LinkedIn: /mraczka; Twitter: @mraczka; About Me: /michal.raczka;  Website: http://agilitydiscoveries.com

Email:  [email protected]

 

 

Investigating the use Building Information Modeling (BIM)

in Managing Construction Claims


FEATURED PAPER

By Khaled Al Shami

Paris, France

 



ABSTRACT

As the complexity of construction projects is increasing, possibilities for problems are growing, drawing negative impact on projects’ cost, time and quality. Thus, triggering claims that are disruptive to projects, time consuming and costly. Building Information Modelling (BIM) holds huge potential in improving claim management practices. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate how and to what extent BIM can help avoiding and reducing claims in construction. The paper ran a literature review on recent research, industry reports, and other sources to see how they it identified claims, their sources and types. Also, the paper identified contemporary challenges in the claims field and the construction industry as whole. A framework of preventive effects and reactive actions to manage claims was identified. Then the paper established how each effect and action related to BIM’s features can contribute to claims practically. The obtained results have shown that BIM outperforms traditional claim management practices in many aspects including identifying and analyzing claims, where the benefits are realized in time and cost savings, less change orders, less rework. Also, the information and knowledge management that BIM provides can improve many aspects of claim management.

Key Words – Building information modelling (BIM), Contracts, Claim Management, Dispute, Avoidance, Mitigation

INTRODUCTION

Disputes became an indivisible part of construction projects. As the complexity of construction projects increases, it became impartial to adopt emerging technologies, innovative techniques, new standards, contracting and delivery methods. With all this, the number of claims and disputes has increased significantly and the need to adopt effective methods and tools in dispute resolution processes became more prominent.

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a powerful tool that has been changing construction projects and industry. For instance, BIM’s visualization capabilities make it possible to communicating one standardized holistic image about the project[1]. Moreover, BIM gives stakeholders the ability to navigate in 3D models and run walkthroughs, giving a real feel of the project before its even started. Thus, building a match in the as-built model to client’s expectations before construction takes place. BIM can keep different consultants’ interpretations away from any deviation or misinterpretation[2]. Using BIM’s database for sharing information, managing documents, communicating technical aspects can improve supporting, reviewing and managing claims. However, the maturity of BIM still is very limited in this area. This is emphasized through IP’s (2002)[3] findings that verbal and written ineffective information exchange and poor communication between parties are the main cause and catalyst for majority of disputes and claims.

  • Value of claims

Arcadis[4] have mentioned in their 2017 report that the global average value of disputes was US$42.8 million with a global average length of 14 months. The highest claim value for 2017 was worth US$2B. Despite the slight decrease, the trends show that a spike can occur at any time as seen in table 1.

More…

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About the Author


Khaled Al Shami

Paris, France

 

 


Khaled Al Shami
is a multilingual project management consultant, specialising in the construction industry’s expert services and consulting sectors. He has a BSc in Civil Engineering, MSc in Construction Management and currently he is completing his MSc in Project and Programme Management & Business Development from SKEMA Business School (a top tier school in France and globally). Also, Khaled is PMI CAPM, GPM-b, Prince2, AgilePM Credentialed.

Khaled possesses many international experiences by having worked as an intern project engineer across borders. His latest experiences in France include working as a project consultant and coordinator at SKEMA Conseil and a visiting lecturer at EMLV, a reputable management school in Paris.

Khaled can be contacted at:

E-mail: [email protected]

LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/khaled-alshami/

 

[1] Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Building Performance, (2016) Productivity Benefits of BIM [online] Building and Construction Productivity Partnership
[2] Al Shami, K. (2016). Critical investigation of BIM implementation and its impact on project collaboration and communication in Jordan (Dissertation of Master of Science). Coventry University.
[3] Ip, S. (2002). An overview of construction claims: how they arise and how to avoid them. British Columbia.
[4] Arcadis. (2017). Contract Solutions: Avoiding the Same Pitfalls (pp. 1-30).

 

 

Benchmarking Reported Schedules

Using GAO’s Schedule Assessment Guide Best Practices


FEATURED PAPER

By Hilal Al Rashdi

Oman

 



ABSTRACT

Oman power and water sector is developing with a continuous increasing demand of electricity and water. Currently, the project companies are delayed in delivering these project on time. The author suggest that quality of project schedule plays a crucial role in project delivery which can be improved.  Using Multi Attribute Decision Making and GAO Schedule Assessment Guide, a scoring model was developed to quality check the reported schedules. The outcomes from the scoring model will be displayed on a scorecard using scores for each of ten best practices and four scheduling characteristics.  A set of recommendations were provided to the management regarding the use of the scoring model as monitoring tool , modifications to the contracts, and the use of scorecard to communicate the results to project companies.

Key Words: GAO Schedule Assessment Guide, Oman Power and Water Procurement Company (OPWP), Multi- Attributes Decision Making (MADM), Project Management, Triple Constrains

INTRODUCTION

Delivering the project with in the triple constrains (cost, quality & time) is what every management is looking for. It is generally understood that any changes in any of these constrains will at least affect the other ones. Therefore, monitoring and controlling a project can be difficult depending on the complexity of the project. The one document that can capture all the information is the “Schedule”. The durations and time sequence for all the activities are provided within the schedule on the basis to achieve the key milestones. Therefore, “the schedule not only a road map for project execution but also a tool to gauge the project progress and identify potential problems” [1]at early stages of the project.[2]

Being the client/buyer to independent water and power projects, it is important to deliver the project within the timeframe specified and within budget allocated to ensure reliable operation for more than 15 years. Currently, water and power are important and essential resources for day to day demands. However, the projects not only being delayed but also delivered with reliability and safety problems which directly affects the end-users. A root cause analysis was conducted by the team and the causes identified were, among other causes, lack of resources, lack of quality control and unrealistic project duration which consequently leads to poor scheduling and reporting. Therefore, a benchmark needs to be set in order to evaluate the current reported schedules by power generators or water producers.

The GAO’s schedule assessment guide provides best ten practices that helps managers to determine the health of the schedule.  This assessment was developed by the U.S. Government Accountability Office[3] to address project delivery issues which includes project time delays and over budget specifically for projects that are funded by the government. The GAO’s schedule assessment guide suggests that four characteristics should considered for high quality and reliable schedule which are:

–        Comprehensive: The schedule should include all the activities required to achieve the deliverables in work break down structure (WBS). It should also include the information about the required recourses as well as the durations for each activity.

–        Well structured: The activities should be logically sequenced, critical path should identified and reasonable total float should be included. Unusual or unreasonable information should justified.

–        Credible: The schedule should be horizontally traceable to reflect the order of activities to achieve specific outcomes. It should also be vertically traceable to reflect the activities required to achieve certain milestone.

–        Controlled: Using the actual progress from the site and logic the schedule should be updated. Then, the current reported schedule should be compared to the baseline schedule.

To achieve these four characteristics, the implementation of the GAO best ten practices is required. The table below summarizes how scheduling characteristics and best practices are related.

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About the Author


Hilal Al Rashdi

Oman

 


Hilal Al Rashdi
is currently working with Oman Power and Water Procurement Company as a project engineer. After completing six months of training rotation in the company departments, he was assigned to Project Implementation Department to monitor the projects under implementation stage, specifically construction and commissioning stages. He has one year experience in Power and Water Project focusing in HSE requirement, contract compliance, interfaces and project quality and delivery to operation team.  Currently, he is monitoring two water desalination projects (Qurayyat Independent Water Plant & Barka IV Independent Water Plant) and one power generation project (Ibri Independent Power Plant). Hilal holds B.Sc. in Chemical Engineering from University of Kentucky, United States of America. He can be contacted at [email protected]

[1] GAO, GAO Schedule Assessment Guide: Best Practices for Project Schedules  
[2] Ibid
[3] Ibid

Quality Management in Construction Projects


FEATURED PAPER

Eng. Mosab Elbashir MSc, PMP, CQE ASQ.

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 



Introduction

The quality as a concept has a deep root in the history, anyway the quality profession greatly evolved after World War II when suddenly people’s lives could be destroyed by poor quality products (1). Edwards Deming one of the famous quality expert and scholar emphasized that the keys to quality are in management’s hand. According to him 85 percent of the quality problems are due to the system and only 15 percent are due to the employees. In other words, with a reliable system average people can achieve good results while, in the absent of the system it is difficult to achieve quality target. Joseph Juran is other famous quality scholar, and he is like Deming built his quality reputation in America and then took his expertise to Japan in 1950s.  Juran introduced his ideas into (Juran Trilogy) which can be described as following:

1-     Quality control: monitoring techniques to correct sporadic problems

2-     Quality improvement: a break through sequence to solve chronic problems

3-     Quality planning:  an annual quality program to institutionalize managerial control and review

Quality can have different definitions in different situation, in The Certified Quality Engineer     Handbook (1) published by American Society of Quality different definition can be found. The below list contains some of these informal definitions:

  • Quality is not program; it is an approach to business
  • Quality is a collection of powerful tools and concept that are proven to work
  • Quality is defined by the customer through their satisfaction
  • Quality includes continual improvement and breakthrough events

Beside the above definitions there are many other definitions for quality. Juran defined quality as “fitness for use” while, Philip Crosby a well-known quality expert defined quality as “Conformance to specifications”. The ISO 8402 Standard has a formal definition for the quality which is “Quality: the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Not to be mistaken for “degree of excellence” or “fitness for use” which meet only part of the definition” (1).

In construction industry the quality is an essential part in construction projects. It becomes a competitive advantage and, has a large impact in organization success and profit. There are three constraints in construction projects, cost, schedule and the scope. The successful project should be completed within the predetermined time line, cost, scope and should meet the agreed specifications.

Quality Management

The American society of quality (ASQ) glossary defines quality management as “the application of quality management in managing a process to achieve maximum customer satisfaction at the lowest overall cost to the organization while continuing to improve the process” (2).

Quality management is one of the knowledge area in the project management body of knowledge guide (3). It includes “all processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality polices, objectives and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs of which it was undertaken”.

Figure 1 illustrate the total quality system process; it shows that the quality is everybody responsibility in the organization (2).

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About the Author


Eng. Mosab Elbashir

Sudan – Saudi Arabia

 



Eng. Mosab Elbashir, Msc, PMP, CQE ASQ, Construction projects management expert with 15 years of experience. Graduated from University of Khartoum (Sudan), faculty of engineering, civil engineering department in 2003 (BSc). Mosab, obtained his Master degree from Lund University (Sweden) in Water Resources in 2007. Certified quality engineer from American Society of Quality (CQE ASQ) and project management professional (PMP –PMI). Currently works as a consultant with The Saudi Electricity Company in Saudi Arabia since 2012. Interested in projects control and quality management. For more information, please visit

https://www.linkedin.com/in/mosab-elbashir-44595a64/

Email: [email protected]

 

 

Appraising the Potentials of Alternative Dispute Resolution

as a Strategy for Resolving Conflicts on Construction Projects in Onitsha Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Ezeokoli, Fidelis O.1, Ugochukwu, Stanley C.2, Ilozulike Kaetonna A.3 and Agu, Nathan N.4

1,3Department of Building
2,4Department of Quantity Surveying

Nnamdi Azikiwe University

Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

 



ABSTRACT

The upsurge of construction activities in Onitsha Metropolis has led to difficult management of relationships among various contracting parties. Consequently, the study examined the use of ADR as a strategy for resolving conflicts on construction projects in Onitsha Metropolis Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 56 questionnaires were administered to the respondents and they were all completed, returned and found useful, thus, giving a response rate of 100%. Data garnered were analysed and presented using mean score index, standard deviation, percentages and charts. The study observed that 77% of construction professionals prefer to resolve using ADR rather than going to court. Thus, ADR is significantly preferred in the study area for resolving construction dispute. This is because it is faster, cheaper and preserves relationships. Nevertheless, ADR lacks enforceability in the study area; hence, there is need for establishment of Dispute Review Board within the study area. In addition, construction practitioners within Onitsha metropolis should be trained on the use of ADR techniques through workshops, symposia or seminars. It should also be incorporated as a major section of the “Law of Contract” during academic trainings of intending construction professionals.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The construction industry involves complex and competitive environment in which participants with different views, talents and levels of knowledge of the construction process work together (Cakmak & Cakmak, 2013). Hence, Odiri (2004) notes that in every industry where people have to work together there is a tendency/possibility for conflicts to arise. Nevertheless, there is still a misunderstanding among construction professionals about the difference between conflict and dispute, and these terms have been used interchangeably especially in the construction industry (Acharya, Lee, & Im, 2006). However, Fenn, Lowe and Speck (1997) assert that conflict and dispute are two distinct notations. Conflict exists wherever there is incompatibility of interest. Conflict can be managed, possibly to the extent of preventing a dispute resulting from the conflict. In view of this, Corby (2003) defined dispute as a difference between the parties after the internal resolution procedure has been exhausted.

According to Suretylearn (2014) conflict in the construction industry can be resolved using any of the four options: litigation, negotiation, meditation and arbitration. Litigation according to Suretylearn (2014) entails resolving dispute through the court system, while the remaining three are classified as Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). It has been proved that litigation is costly, lengthy and adversarial (Cheung, Wong & Kennedy, 2010). Thus, the use of ADR has been advocated to address these criticisms (Cheung, Wong & Kennedy, 2010).

According to Gould (1998), ADR is a structured process with third party intervention which does not lead to a legally binding outcome imposed on the parties. Although the concept of dispute resolution techniques as an alternative to the traditional court-based system is not new; yet the ADR movement brings with it a connotation of innovation (Gould, 1998). The more recent advent of the acronym is essentially taken to describe the use of a third party mediator who assists the parties to arrive at a voluntary, consensual, negotiated settlement.

Conversely, Suleman (2015) noted that a careful survey of the socio-political environment of the Nigerian building and construction sector reveal increasing incidents of disputes and disagreements of many shades among stakeholders. Also, the implementation of Nigeria’s infrastructural development master plan and other agenda for rapid infrastructure transformation of Nigeria has led to major boom in economic activities in the building and construction sector. With the upsurge in construction activities, the management of relationships between various contracting parties to construction projects becomes increasingly problematic. Consequently, this study sought to examine the use of ADR as a strategy for resolving conflicts on construction projects in Onitsha Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria.

1.2 The Study Area

Onitsha metropolis in Anambra State, Nigeria comprises Onitsha North and Onitsha South Local Government Area (LGA) and some parts of Ogbaru, Idemili North and Oyi LGAs. It is a city located on the eastern bank of the Niger River; lies within Latitude 6° 10ʹ 0ʺ North and Longitude 6° 47ʹ 0ʺ East. It is the commercial hub of Anambra State with an estimated population 511, 000 based on the 2006 census (NPC, 2006). Being the commercial hub of the state, lots of building construction projects takes place in order to provide the housing needs of the growing populace. This is buttressed by the significant number of building construction companies within the area. Consequently, they are adequate and experienced respondents with respect to disputes resolution.

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About the Authors


Fidelis Ezeokoli

Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Anambra State, Nigeria

 


Fidelis Ezeokoli
is a Lecturer in the Department of Building, Nnamdi Azikiwe University with vast experience in building construction and management. He has successfully delivered a number of building projects to time, desired quality and within the client’s budget. He graduated with a first class in Building, Nnamdi Azikiwe University at the first Degree level, and was the overall best student in his Masters programme in Construction Management in Nnamdi Azikiwe University. He is presently running a PhD programme in construction management. His research interests are in flood resilient buildings, building materials and project management. He is a member of the Nigerian Institute of Building (MNIOB) and is registered with the Council of Registered Builders of Nigeria (CORBON). You can reach him on [email protected].

 


Stanley Ugochukwu

Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Anambra State, Nigeria

 

 

Stanley Ugochukwu is a lecturer in the Department of Quantity Surveying, Nnamdi Azikiwe University. He has a strong desire and passion to bring his wealth of professional experience to bear on his students and to produce well equipped graduates that will add value to the profession and make a positive impact on the Nigerian construction industry. He graduated as the best student in Quantity Surveying, Nnamdi Azikiwe University at the first Degree level, and repeated same in his Masters programme in Construction Management, University of Jos, Nigeria. He is presently rounding off his PhD programme in construction management.  His research interests are in construction tendering, estimating and infrastructure budgeting. Stanley is also a member of the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (MNIQS) and is registered with the Quantity Surveyors Registration Board of Nigeria (QSRBN). You can reach him on [email protected].

 


Andrew Ilozulike

Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Anambra State, Nigeria

 


Andrew Ilozulike
is a graduate of Building, Nnamdi Azikiwe University. He is a building construction manager at Shelter Worth & Bricks Limited, Onitsha-Anambra State, Nigeria. He was recently involved in the construction of the Shoe Manufacturers’ Market at Nkwelle, Anambra State. His professional skills include: building construction management, construction estimation and AutoCAD designs. His research interest is construction dispute resolution. You can reach him on [email protected]

 


Dr. Nathan Agu

Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Anambra State, Nigeria

 


Dr. Nathan Agu
is a senior lecturer in the Department of Quantity Surveying, Nnamdi Azikiwe University and the principal partner of Nathquants Associates, a firm of chartered Quantity Surveyors based in Enugu State, Nigeria. His research interests are in professional practice management and construction arbitration. He has a number of notable professional achievements as a professional quantity surveyor and has contributed immensely to the development of the quantity surveying profession in Nigeria. He is also a fellow of the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (FNIQS) and a registered and executive member of the Quantity Surveyors Registration Board of Nigeria (QSRBN). You can reach him on [email protected]