Time and Cost Performance of Oil Wells

Drilling and Completion Projects in Warri Delta State, Nigeria: A Situational Analysis

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Ibeawuchi Ifeanyi Echeme

Department of Project Management Technology
Federal University of Technology

Owerri, Nigeria

 



Abstract

This study focused on the time and cost performance of Oil Well Drilling and Completion projects in Warri Delta State as to the success or failure of Aroh- 1 and 2 Oil Well projects.  The aim basically is to assess the performance of these projects with regards to cost and schedule requirements and the possible causes of variation, if any. Earned value analysis (EVA) model was the major tool used for the project monitoring and it was also used to analyze the performance of these projects. Aroh-1 and 2 Oil Well drilling and completion projects were selected for the analysis using judgmental sampling base on the availability of necessary data. The analysis revealed that most of the activities undertaken by the contractors show some elements of “fatigue” as they experienced cost and time overrun. This problem seems to come from the mechanical and logistics arrangement which appears in the form of equipment breakdown and delays by the staff of Joint Tax Force (JTF).    

Keywords: time and cost overrun; project performance; Aroh-1 and 2; oil well drilling and completion; cost and time performance; earned value analysis.

Introduction

Nigeria is developing country that is heavily dependent on petroleum resources for development. This much awaited development can only be achieved if projects, especially the oil and gas projects, can be realized free of any negative variations in cost, time and quality performances. This is because they are the major criteria for judging projects success. Project is therefore seen as a proposal for an investment to increase, expand and/or develop certain facilities in order to increase the production of goods and/ or services in a community during a given period of time (Echeme, 2015). Again for evaluative purposes, a project is a unit of investment, which can be distinguished technically, commercially and economically from other investment. Akpan and Chizea (2013) explained the term project to connote any unique activity, situation, task , programme, scheme, or any human endeavour in which human, time and other resources are utilized to satisfy a definable and definite one-off (single or multiple) objective, the realization of the set objective generally signals the completion of this unique activity.

Furthermore, it was added that the word “completion” as used may not be implicit and could be discriminatory as it can come out to be unsatisfactory completion depending on the set criteria. An unsatisfactory completion connotes that though the project was realized, its realization did not adhere to the set criteria of cost, schedule and quality. However, Kezner (2009) added that a successful project implementation occurs if the project, comes on-time, on-budget, achieves all the goals originally set for it, and is adopted and used by the clients for whom the project is intended. It implies the successful achievement of time, cost and quality objectives, as well as the quality of the project process. Since the existence of a project is for development purposes, the determination of the time and cost performance becomes very necessary, especially for oil and gas projects in Warri, Delta state.

This study analyzed the level of performance of time and cost indices in the Oil Well Drilling and Completion project execution in Warri, Delta State. The benefits derivable from a successful project management, especially in the area of execution have renowned multiplier effects on the economies of our various societies.

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How to cite this paper: Echeme, I. I. (2018); Time and Cost Performance of Oil Well Drilling and Completion Projects in Warri Delta State, Nigeria: A Situational Analysis, PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VI – June. Retrieved from https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/pmwj71-Jun2018-Echeme-time-and-cost-performance-of-oil-projects-in-warri-delta-state.pdf



About the Author


Ibeawuchi Ifeanyi Echeme, PhD

Federal University of Technology, Oweri

Nigeria

 

 

Ibeawuchi Ifeanyi Echeme is a lecturer in the department of Project Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. Echeme has a B.Tech, MSc, and PhD in Project Management Technology and has published more than fifteen (15) articles in both international and national reputable journals. Dr. Echeme has published a textbook on Project Time, Cost and Quality Management. He is a Certified Project Director (CPD) and a member of International Project Management Professionals (IPMP). Dr. Echeme has presented papers in conferences and workshops within and outside Nigeria. He can be contacted through; [email protected]

Tel +2348032403835.

To view other works by Dr. Echeme, visit his author profile in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/ibeawuchi-i-echeme-phd/

 

 

The Application of Cash Flow Analysis

in Real Estate Investment Appraisal

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Francis P. Udoudoh, PhD
Department of Estate Management, University of Uyo
Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Mbosowo Ebong Ekpo, M.Sc.
Department of Estate Management, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic
Ikot Osurua, Nigeria

 

 


 
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to examine the application of cash flow analysis in real estate investment appraisal. In every appraisal exercise, there are cash outflows and cash inflows; and the appraiser may adopt the discounting or non-discounting methods. The non-discounting methods differ from the discounting methods mainly on the premise that they do not take into account the timings of the returns from various projects and the risk factor associated with these returns. The discounted cash flow techniques can be used to produce Gross Present Value (GPV), Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and External Rate of Return (ERR); while the typical examples of non-discounting appraisal techniques are Rate of Return (RR) and the Payback Period (PP) models. Based on the computation carried out, this research has shown that cash flows analysis is the basic prerequisite to determine the attractiveness or otherwise of a contemplated project. It concluded that discounted cash flow techniques do not tell an investor which scheme to invest in, but rather provide very useful financial information on which investment decision is based.

Introduction

Real estate investment appraisal is critical in any project proposal and execution, though the process differs from one investment to another. Cash flow analysis is one of the techniques of pre-investment appraisal as the primary concern of any appraiser is on how to estimate the cash inflows and cash outflows in order to determine the attractiveness or otherwise of a contemplated project. The analysis of cash flow helps in determining whether development proposals meet project requirements, that is, whether the project attains a certain level of returns within the specific timeframe. This method of analysis requires the use of appropriate discount rate. The discount rate is the cost of capital adjusted to reflect the degree of risk inherent in the particular investment proposal. It involves the explicit tabulation of all incomes and outgoings, and appropriate made where necessary to arrive at reasonable values. The technique is time-adjusted in that the analysis takes into consideration the effect of time on the value of money.

The aim of this paper is therefore to examine the application of cash flow analysis in real estate investment appraisal. The paper seeks to examine the various types of cash flows and their analytical techniques in real estate investment. A few case studies are employed to demonstrate their applicability.

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How to cite this paper: Udoudoh, F.P. & Ekpo, M. E. (2018); The Application of Cash Flow Analysis in Real Estate Investment Appraisal; PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue 6 – June. Retrieved from https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/pmwj71-Jun2018-Udoudoh-Ekpo-cash-flow-analysis-in-real-estate-appraisal-featured-paper.pdf



About the Authors


Francis P. Udoudoh, PhD

University of Uyo, Nigeria
Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

 


Dr. Francis P. Udoudoh
holds B.Sc, M.Sc and Ph.D degrees in Estate Management from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka with specialization in Real Estate Development Appraisal and Urban Infrastructure Economics. He is an Associate Member of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers, and registered with the Estate Surveyors and Valuers Registration Board of Nigeria (ESVARBON). He had served as the Secretary, Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers, Akwa Ibom State Branch from 2006 – 2010; Chairman, Mandatory Continuing Professional Development (MCPD) for the same Branch from 2014 to date; and as Editorial Board member of many journals including Journal of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers, Real Estate Journal, Artist Journal, among others. Dr. Udoudoh is the author of Real Estate and Infrastructure Economics in Urban Nigeria, and Co-Editor of Real Estate Development and Issues of Sustainability in Nigeria. He is currently a Senior Lecturer and Head, Department of Estate Management in the University of Uyo. He can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 


Mbosowo Ebong Ekpo

Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic,
Ikot Osurua, Nigeria

 

 

Mr. Mbosowo Ebong Ekpo holds both the Bachelor and Master of Science degrees in Estate Management from the University of Uyo, Nigeria. He is currently pursuing a Doctoral degree programme in Estate Management in the same university.  His area of interest is in Real Estate Investment Valuation. He is an Associate of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers, and a registered Estate Surveyor and Valuer. Mr. Mbosowo is a Lecturer in the Department of Estate Management, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua and can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

Behavioral Change Metrics

in an Engineering & Construction Environment

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Bob Prieto

Chairman & CEO
Strategic Program Management LLC

Florida, USA

 



The engineering & construction industry is a project based industry and one which must undergo major transformation to deliver the projects of tomorrow.

Behavioral change is just one of the change dimensions associated with organizational transformation. Others include new tools, new process development, and new skill training that happen in parallel and influence and are influenced by the behavioral change dimension. Metrics must be carefully chosen recognizing their ability to drive behaviors and inadvertently drive unintended consequences. For example, activity measures may result in a lack of results and busy staff, while result measures may involve a limited understanding of the results, why are they not being achieved and large amounts of duplicative or uncoordinated activity. A balance is required.

Finally, transformation efforts involve a series of beginnings, middles and ends and the transitions between each phase as well as each set comprising the overall transformation effort is extremely important. (Beginnings, Middles and Ends: A Systematic Approach to Organizational Transformation; Prieto; PM World Journal; Vol. III, Issue VI – June 2014)

https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/pmwj23-jun2014-prieto-beginnings-middles-ends-FeaturedPaper.pdf

In generalizing the design of behavioral metrics we can think of them as grouping into three broad categories:

  • Doing the right things
  • Doing enough of the right things
  • Doing right things right

For organizational transformation to be effectively managed, it must be measured around individual behaviors and then aggregated for project, business unit and overall organizational measurement. Metrics must be traceable to top level strategic business objectives and reflect a cascading down of KPI’s.

Let me use an example that would relate to a top level KPI on profitability. One change to improve top level profitability would be to reduce the percentage of revenue written off to bad debts. We would find that write-off levels are influenced by the age of the account, amount of communication with the debtor, and the effectiveness of the billing department. Normal KPI’s would track the amount written off and even the aging of the account (as a leading indicator) but neither of these metrics drives the desired behavioral changes we require to improve outcomes. Let’s look at the behaviors we might wish to instill (at the responsible individual level) in the transformed organization for each of the three influencers of write-off levels:

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How to cite this paper: Prieto, B. (2018). Behavioral Change Metrics in an Engineering & Construction Environment. PM World Journal, Vol VII, Issue VI – June. Retrieved from https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/pmwj71-Jun2018-Prieto-Behavioral-Change-Metrics-featured-paper.pdf



About the Author


Bob Prieto

Chairman & CEO
Strategic Program Management LLC
Jupiter, Florida, USA

 


Bob Prieto 
is a senior executive effective in shaping and executing business strategy and a recognized leader within the infrastructure, engineering and construction industries. Currently Bob heads his own management consulting practice, Strategic Program Management LLC.  He previously served as a senior vice president of Fluor, one of the largest engineering and construction companies in the world. He focuses on the development and delivery of large, complex projects worldwide and consults with owners across all market sectors in the development of programmatic delivery strategies. He is author of eight books including “Strategic Program Management”, “The Giga Factor: Program Management in the Engineering and Construction Industry”, “Application of Life Cycle Analysis in the Capital Assets Industry”, “Capital Efficiency: Pull All the Levers” and, most recently, “Theory of Management of Large Complex Projects” published by the Construction Management Association of America (CMAA) as well as over 600 other papers and presentations.

Bob is a non-executive director of Cardno (ASX) and an Independent Member of the Shareholder Committee of Mott MacDonald. He serves on the Millennium Challenge Corporation Advisory Board and a member of the ASCE Industry Leaders Council, National Academy of Construction, a Fellow of the Construction Management Association of America and member of several university departmental and campus advisory boards. Bob served until 2006 as a U.S. presidential appointee to the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Business Advisory Council (ABAC), working with U.S. and Asia-Pacific business leaders to shape the framework for trade and economic growth.  He had previously served as both as Chairman of the Engineering and Construction Governors of the World Economic Forum and co-chair of the infrastructure task force formed after September 11th by the New York City Chamber of Commerce. Previously, he served as Chairman at Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB).

Bob can be contacted at [email protected].

 

 

To study and analyze Information Filtering approaches

for Emergency responders during Crisis Management

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Vedna Sharma

Institute of Technology Management
Defense Research & Development Organization

Mussoorie Uttarakhand, India

 



Abstract

Information filtering is a function to select useful information for the user among a large amount of information. Among Organizations major distinctive feature of information filtering is transition from the classical activity of Information Retrieval to organized information Filtering, then conversion of filtered information into Knowledge to help decision making. This function has become very important as network technology develops rapidly and to making fast decision with overcome cost of time with the increasing value of time among organization. This paper focuses on information filtering for emergency management. When a large-scale disaster happens, the problem of information flood can be very serious because a great deal of information occurs in a short time and is sent to a person or an organization that is responsible for managing the situation. Information filtering systems filter data items by correlating vector of terms that represents data items e.g. documents, emails.

In previous years, neural networks have yielded immense success on speech recognition, computer vision and natural language processing. However, the exploration of deep neural networks on Information Filtering systems has received relatively less scrutiny. Many IF Systems have been developed in previous years for various application domains. Some examples of filtering applications are searching personal mails based on personal profiles or newsgroup filter for groups or individuals. In this paper we emphasis to study and analysis techniques for acquiring knowledge of user for information filtering, various concepts, approaches and components in IF System.

Keywords:  Information Filtering, Emergency Management, user profile, Deep Learning, Information filtering Types

  1. Introduction

Information filtering (IF) is one of the methods that are rapidly evolving to manage large information flows. It deals with the delivery of information that the user is likely to find interesting or useful. Because knowledge represents an important aspect for an organization and a way to compete more efficiently, strategic information systems. In front of the critical proliferation of electronic information and the underlying difficulty to manage this information in a relevant way, the usual answer is to reduce drastically the volume of documents available to the end users using abstracting or filtering process.

Information filtering combines tools from the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), such as intelligent agents or software robots, with information retrieval approaches, indexing and retrieving of content [3].

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How to cite this paper: Sharma, V. (2018). To study and analyze Information Filtering approaches for Emergency Responders during Crisis Management; PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VI – June. Retrieved from https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/pmwj71-Jun2018-Sharma-information-filtering-for-emergency-responders-featured-paper.pdf



About the Author


Vedna Sharma

Mussoorie Uttarakhand, India

 

 

Ms Vedna Sharma received M.tech & B.tech degrees in Computer Science from Himachal Pradesh Technical University & HPU Shimla respectively. She is currently working as Junior Research Fellow (JRF) at the Institute of Technology Management, Mussoorie Ministry of Defense (DRDO), Landour Cantt. Mussoorie Uttarakhand, India. She can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

Aspects Influencing Enterprise Resource Planning Projects Performance

in Retail Supermarkets in Nairobi County, Kenya

 

FEATURED PAPER

by Maureen Njoki Munyori and Dr. Karanja Ngugi

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology

Nairobi, Kenya

 


ABSTRACT

This study was carried out on aspects influencing enterprise resource planning projects on the performance of retail supermarkets in Kenya. The study had four objectives: To assess the influence of team project leadership on Enterprise Resource Planning projects project performance in Enterprise Resource Planning projects, to investigate the influence of strategy alignment on Enterprise Resource Planning projects performance, to examine the influence of stakeholder participation on Enterprise Resource Planning projects performance and to evaluate the influence of firm resources on Enterprise Resource Planning projects performance.

The research adopted a descriptive approach in trying to establish aspects influencing Enterprise Resource Planning projects on the performance of retail Supermarket branches in Nairobi. The study targeted 53 supermarkets in Nairobi. A sample frame was drawn from the target population using a census survey. A pilot study was conducted to pretest the validity and reliability of data collection instruments.  After data, had be collected it was prepared in readiness for analysis by editing, handling blank responses, coding, categorizing and keying into statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) computer software for analysis.  SPSS software version 21.0 was used to produce frequencies, descriptive and inferential statistics were used to derive conclusions and generalizations regarding the population. A multiple regression model was used to show the relationship between the independent variables to the dependent variable.

Data was presented using tables to make it reader friendly. The study found that project leadership, stakeholder participation, strategy alignment and firm resources had a positive and significant effect on enterprise resource planning projects on the performance of retail supermarkets in Kenya. The study recommends; that a competent project leader be given the responsibility to oversee the performance of the Enterprise Resource Planning project, proper guidance on the utilization of firm resources to meet the project requirements hence improving performance, the project manager and the team should formulate project strategies based on project objectives, and develop interconnections between IT projects and the organization’s performance outputs to increase project success rates, development of best measures for stakeholder participation be identified to avoid conflict of interests among the project stakeholders. Lastly, there should also be adequate preparation and communication before project initiation to ensure that the project acceptance does not experience major setbacks by the project stakeholders.

Background of the Study

Projects are activities or an undertaking that need to be accomplished by certain date, for a certain amount of money and within some expected level of performance. Important aspects of a project includes “inputs” in the form of men, money, materials, and plans and “outputs” in the form of activities, products or services (Asfandyar, 2012). Abuya, (2016) argues that development projects in Kenya have become the principal mechanisms through which governments deliver public services. Understanding this strategic role is important because few politicians and citizens appreciate the role that development projects play in the delivery of essential public services.

The globalization of competition means that apart from ensuring their own successful operation, firms that hope to survive must establish highly responsive supply chains, with upstream, midstream, and downstream partners (Yang, 2009). The Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system plays the role of central nervous system in promoting globalization of enterprise operations and shortening product lifecycle. Therefore, the ERP system has become popular. Li (2009) considered ERPs enveloped software that provides various internal information for an enterprise using an efficient means that enables units at different organizational hierarchies to effectively make business or daily operational decisions.

Conceptually, many firms have implemented company-wide systems called Enterprise Resource Planning systems, which are designed to integrate and optimize various business processes, such as order entry and production planning, across the entire firm (Mabert et al., 2001). This investment has also made possible the sharing of large amounts of information along the supply chain, and has enabled real-time collaboration between supply chain partners, providing organizations with forward visibility, thus improving inventory management and distribution (Mbogori, 2010). Furthermore, many firms deploying ERP systems considered extending system scope mainly to integrate their suppliers, customers or both to the system, to provide additional e-commerce or e-business operations and to increase supply chain functionalities (Olhanger & Selldin, 2003).

When enterprise resource planning systems are fully realized in a business organization, they can be expected to yield many benefits, such as reduction of cycle time, faster transactions, better financial management, the laying of the groundwork for e-commerce, linking the entire organization together seamlessly, providing instantaneous information, and making tacit knowledge explicit (Mabert et al., 2001; Davenport and Brooks, 2004; Shang and Seddon, 2000; Murphy and Simon, 2002; Al-Mashari et al., 2003). ERP can provide the digital nervous system and the backbone in an organization to respond swiftly to customers and suppliers (Cox et al., 2000; Mabert et al., 2001).

As reported in Akkermans et al. (2003), ERP systems are widely believed to support operations in technical areas such as standardization, transparency and globalization. ERP systems are a leading tool for this purpose, and are always expected to be an integral component of operations (Nah et al., 2001; Themistocleous et al., 2004). The potential benefits of an integrated ERP system are such that many organizations are willing to undertake the difficult process of conversion.

Yurtkoru (2015) state that there have been a large number of studies on the success factors of ERP implementation .The basic underlying premise of most of these studies is that the success of ERP is largely determined by initial implementation. For this reason, most of these studies focus on the implementation activities and tend to ignore the role of the post-implementation stage that can either improve or impair the performance of ERP regardless of how successful the initial implementation was.

Statement of the problem

The Financial Year ending 2005 was a challenging one for Uchumi Supermarket Ltd. The rise in operational costs was among the factors that affected its profitability and this heavily resulted from amortization of ERP/Computerization costs, a higher depreciation charge and a number of one-off costs that included derecognizing of the deferred tax assets. The insolvency caused Uchumi Supermarkets to close for a month in 2006 but reopened after the Government lent it Ksh675 million and receiving Kshs 300 million from its shareholders (Kadzo, 2011). Uchumi has already made a retreat from Uganda, while Nakumatt is facing problems in the same market. Two of Kenya’s largest retail supermarkets have closed two of their stores within a fortnight while the third one is still struggling to sell its assets to turn around its fortunes, exposing the woes facing the retail industry. Nakumatt has shut its Ronald Ngala branch among others while Tuskys Supermarket closed its Sheikh Karume branch both in Nairobi (Achuka, 2017).

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How to cite this article:  Munyori, M.N., Karanja N. (2018); Aspects Influencing Enterprise Resource Planning Projects on Performance of Retail Supermarkets in Nairobi County, Kenya; PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue 6 – June. Retrieved from https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/pmwj71-Jun2018-Munyori-factors-influencing-erp-project-performance-retail-supermarkets-nairobi.pdf



About the Authors


Maureen Njoki Munyori

Nairobi, Kenya

 




Maureen Njoki Munyori
is a graduate student at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya, studying for a MSc. Project Management degree. She previously earned a Diploma in Procurement and Supply from the Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply (May 2015 – Dec 2016); Bachelor of Business Administration (Procurement and Supply Chain Management option) from Kenya Methodist University (2012 – 2015). She resides in Nairobi, Kenya and can be contacted at [email protected]

 


Prof Patrick Karanja Ngugi, PhD

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology
Nairobi, Kenya

 


Patrick Karanja Ngugi
is a professor at the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology, from which he earned a PhD and MSc degrees in Entrepreneurship.  He also holds a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from the University of South Africa, a Diploma in Electrical Engineering from Kenya Polytechnic and a Diploma in Theology from Presbyterian College.  He has authored numerous presentations and papers at international conferences and in international journals on business, education, public health and other topics.

 

Leading Enormous and Complex Projects or Programs

The standard development methodology fails unique, enormously big and complex projects

 

FEATURED PAPER

Charles Villanyi Bokor

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

 



Lessons to learn

  1. Extremely large system development projects (the technology part of a business solution that is to facilitate and/or enable a vision or a new paradigm) are not only complicated but are also complex.
  2. Most organizations do not know how to successfully develop enormously large and consequently complex application systems, but because they think they know, they attempt them and hence, fail them by design.
  3. In order to develop enormously large and consequently complex projects, we have to reduce their size, use a unique customized for the project methodology, and project governance structure, that reflects the organization’s capability, its capacity, the project and the people involved.
  4. We may not be ready to accept (beside the need for climate change, or gun control) that the current system development methodology needs significant changes when used to develop extremely large and consequently complex projects.

Abstract

In the last two decades, the size of many system development projects grew and exceeded all upper bounds. These enormous and complex projects (programs) have unmanageably large number of: functions and resulting lines of code; development teams comprised of people with different skills; stakeholders; and different and changing requirements that define the expected outputs. These projects cost hundreds of millions of dollars and take many years to develop and deploy and impact the organization in such a fundamental way that most operational people resist them. They are analogous to the most exciting concept in the universe and so, we will call these totally overwhelming, all consuming, centers of the organization’s focus, Black Hole Projects (BHP). [7- Villanyi Bokor, 2017]

Developing BHPs with a standard development methodology that is focused on producing outputs based on requested requirements, under a governance structure that is slow and mostly administrative, has proven to result in outcomes that are less successful than desired. BHPs take significantly longer to develop than planned in the initial estimate of the schedule, cost more than initially estimated and do not deliver the critical success criteria of the vision set at the start. “According to a 2013 Strategy&/Katzenbach Center survey of global senior executives… the success rate of major change initiatives [BHPs] is only 54 percent”. [A- Katzenbach, 2014] According to this, only 54% of the BHPs deliver their expected outcome. According to empirical evidence, only the exceptional BHP is successful, often due to luck.

In short, most organizations do not know how to develop BHPs that are built to enable a new paradigm, but as they think they know, they attempt them and hence, fail them by design. The worldwide cost of failing very, very large projects is between $3 and $6.2 trillion per year. This is unconscionable.

The most significant cause of such poor results (we suspect) includes: our tolerance for even smart people, to do stupid things; the (enormously large) size of these projects and the resulting complexity; the long development time scheduled; inadequate pre-development problem and business requirements definition; an output focused requirements management process; and a project management plan that overlooks the organizational capacity (due to the portfolio of projects already underway) and capability (limited by the available skill sets) to undertake such projects. In other words, using a methodology that was not designed for BHPs, in its standard (i.e. not unique to the organization and the project) form, and a project governance structure that does not support the project’s needs.

As a project’s probability of success varies inversely with its size, we need to limit the non-vital functionality we develop in order to reduce the size, complexity and length of time needed to develop these mega-projects. We must assemble the solution out of smaller projects rather than subdivide the BHP into sub-projects and use a customized, unique and iterative BHP development methodology, project specific governance structure that empowers and responsibilizes Business Analysts and calls to replace the Project Manager with a Project Leader.

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How to cite this article:  How to cite this paper: Bokor, C. V. (2018). Leading Enormous and Complex Projects or Programs; PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VI – June. Retrieved from https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/pmwj71-Jun2018-Bokor-leading-enormous-complex-projects-or-programs-featured-paper.pdf



About the Author


Charles Villanyi Bokor

Ottawa, Canada

 


Charles Villanyi Bokor
is a Strategic Management Consultant focused on Leading to Better Decisions. Principal activities include Business Transformation, Problem Project Recovery & Leadership, Strategic Planning. Charles works mostly in Ottawa but has successfully completed assignments in Florida, Wales, Malaysia, Sweden and Australia, and was key-note speaker in Johannesburg South Africa and Victoria BC. Formal education includes an Executive Development and Diploma in Management (McGill University), M.Sc. Mathematics (Université de Grenoble, and U. de Montréal) and B. Sc. Mathematics (Concordia University). He was: Program Director of the Corporate Performance Management Program, Sprott, Carleton; Director of IS/IM at Royal Trust; and at Northern Telecom; CMC; CMC Board Member; PMI-OVOC Board Member; Governor of ICCC; is ITIL Certified and a TBS Independent Project Reviewer. Charles can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

Exploring the effects of the economic crisis

on the way construction projects are managed: The case of Greece

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Stavros G. Barmpas

Thessaloniki, Greece

 



Abstract

The objective of the specific research is to identify how the economic crisis has affected the way construction projects are managed and to determine how project management should be exercised amid an economic crisis.

The research identifies the adoption of more consistent project governance, more rigorous risk management techniques and a more careful project portfolio management as the main areas on which the economic crisis affected the way construction projects are managed. Most importantly it shows that the economic crisis has contributed to the reemergence of project management as a key competency within the organisational culture of construction companies.

In terms of how project management should be exercised amid an economic crisis, the research shows that the main actions to be taken should include the development of an early warning system, the formation of crisis scenarios and the formation of a crisis management team in a context of tighter cost and risk control procedures throughout all the phases of the crisis.

Keywords: project management, economic crisis, construction industry, crisis effects.

Introduction

The financial crisis, which followed the collapse of the subprime mortgage market in the US in 2008, very quickly spread all over the world with disastrous consequences for many countries and a lot of people. One of the most severely hit industries both internationally and in Greece was the construction industry with thousands of jobs lost and hundreds of companies shutting down.

A lot has been written about the macroeconomic effects of the economic crisis on the construction industry. A quick statistical data search can provide useful information on how many employees have been fired, how many companies have shut down and how much value added has been lost in the construction industry all over the world during the crisis years.

Regardless of how useful these statistical data are, they do not allow the understanding of how the economic crisis has affected the way construction projects are managed and how construction project management has changed and evolved during the crisis years. The specific research deals with this very subject and explores the effects of the economic crisis on project management, using the Greek construction industry as a case study. The objective of the research is to identify project management strategies adopted as a result of the economic crisis and to propose an appropriate approach from the project management perspective for dealing with economic crisis situations. In this sense the research questions to be answered are as follows:

  • How has the economic crisis affected the way construction projects are managed?
  • How should project management be exercised amid an economic crisis?

Understanding how the economic crisis has changed the way construction projects are managed is of vital importance, because it will allow the development of a roadmap from a project management perspective for confronting economic crises of similar size/nature and the identification of post crisis project management techniques adopted. The latter is also very important, because it will highlight whether the limitation of resources caused by the crisis has negatively affected the efficiency of the industry or else its capacity to deliver quality projects. It is the ultimate responsibility of the researcher to bring such inefficiencies (if applicable) to light and to propose corrective action.

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How to cite this article:  Barmpas, S. G. (2018). Exploring the effects of the economic crisis on the way construction projects are managed: The case of Greece; PM World Journal, Vol. VII, Issue VI – June. Retrieved from https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/pmwj71-Jun2018-Barmpas-effects-of-economic-crisis-on-construction-project-management-in-greece.pdf



About the Author


Stavros G. Barmpas

Civil Engineer, BEng, MSc, MBA
Thessaloniki, Greece

 




Stavros G. Barmpas
is a civil engineer with more than 10 years of working experience as a site engineer in big infrastructure construction projects. He has worked in highway, building and bridge construction projects and he currently works for one of the biggest Contractors in Greece. He holds a Bachelor’s Degree (BEng) in Civil Engineering from the University of Portsmouth (UK), an MSc in Civil Engineering from the same university, an MSc in Construction Economics and Management from University College London, (UCL, UK) and finally an Executive MBA from the International Hellenic University (Greece), graduating first in his class. He can be contacted at: [email protected].

 

 

Designing Industry 4.0 Virtual Networks

of Partners Value Chains

 

FEATURED PAPER

by Dr. Pieter Steyn

Cranefield College, South Africa

and

Dr. Brane Semolic

Lens Living Lab, Slovenia

 



Abstract

Industry 4.0 organisations are increasingly becoming integral parts of regional and global value chains. It is imperative for modern organisations to have competitive products, services and processes supported by effective and efficient value chain business models. An organisation can act as integrator, organiser, or partner of a value chain engaged in new technology development and improvement. All value chain partners are required to harmonise their contributions to the chosen initiative.

A virtual value chain consists of an array of organisations, each contributing unique strategically relevant collaborative value driven activities with respect to technological, behavioural and structural elements.  Partnering organisations gain a competitive advantage through collective orchestration of strategically essential activities and standards. Moreover, joint collaboration and governance of related partnering projects and programmes are of paramount importance.

FUNDAMENTALS OF VIRTUAL NETWORKS OF PARTNERS

In an earlier topic virtual networks of partners were discussed as a relatively new concept in organisational design and development. In the Industry 4.0 economy an increasing number of organisations realise that networking with partners can lead to innovation and turn out to be profoundly beneficial. Smart organisations utilise the capability of resources from partner organisations and knowledge workers to optimise their own potential. Teams from different locations create opportunities for participating in the design and development of products, services, manufacturing processes and supply chain operational activities. Figure 1 illustrates how the value chains of the initiating organisation and partner organisations combine to create virtual networks of partners (Semolic, 2012).

Figure 1: Combining Initiating and Partner Organisations’ Virtual Value Chains (Semolic, 2012)

Outsourcing has been practiced by organisations in the private and public sectors for many decades. The mode was mainly sub-contracting. At the start of the new millennium organisations began to realise that outsourcing has to be seen as a strategy in their relentless search for competitive advantage. Hence, organisations recognised the limits of their own distinctive competencies and started looking at outsourcing and partnering for boosting the needed skills, products and services. According to Steyn ed. (2012), quoting Knod and Schonberger, the strategic significance of partnering and outsourcing is demonstrated by the large number of possibilities as shown in Figure 2 (as adapted).

Figure 2: Partnering Possibilities (adapted from Steyn ed., 2012)

The possibilities extend along the transformation processes from the initial design all the way to serving and delivering to the customer and include, inter alia, design services, parts procurement, sourcing sub-assembly and component partner capacities, and logistics. Moreover, all the above transformation process elements need to be effectively and efficiently integrate and coordinated in a sound flow-control system to ensure timely, accurate, value-adding movement of products and services through various stages of processing. The appropriate vehicle is the cross-functional Manufacturing Flow Management supply chain process.

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How to cite this article:

Steyn, P., Semolic, B. (2018), Designing Industry 4.0 Virtual Networks of Partners Value Chains, PM World Journal, Volume VII, Issue 5, May 2018. https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/pmwj70-May2018-Steyn-Semolic-industry-4.0-virtual-networks-partners-value-chains.pdf



About the Authors


Prof Dr Pieter Steyn

Founder, Director, Principal
Cranefield College of Project and Programme Management
Pretoria & Western Cape, South Africa

 


Dr
Pieter Steyn is Founder and Principal of Cranefield College of Project and Programme Management, a South African Council on Higher Education / Department of Education accredited and registered Private Higher Education Institution. The Institution offers an Advanced Certificate, Advanced Diploma, Postgraduate Diploma, Master’s degree, and PhD in project and programme-based leadership and management. Professor Steyn holds the degrees BSc (Eng), MBA, and PhD in management, and is a registered Professional Engineer.

He was formerly professor in the Department of Management, University of South Africa and Pretoria University Business School. He founded the Production Management Institute of South Africa, and in 1979 pioneered Project Management as a university subject at the post-graduate level at the University of South Africa.

Dr Steyn founded consulting engineering firm Steyn & Van Rensburg (SVR). Projects by SVR include First National Bank Head Office (Bank City), Standard Bank Head Office, Mandela Square Shopping Centre (in Johannesburg) as also, Game City- and The Wheel Shopping Centres (in Durban). He, inter alia, chaired the Commission of Enquiry into the Swaziland Civil Service; and acted as Programme Manager for the Strategic Transformation of the Gauteng Government’s Welfare Department and Corporate Core.

Pieter co-authored the “International Handbook of Production and Operations Management,” (Cassell, London, 1989, ed. Ray Wild) and is the author of many articles and papers on leadership and management. He is a member of the Association of Business Leadership, Industrial Engineering Institute, Engineering Association of South Africa, and Project Management South Africa (PMSA); and a former member of the Research Management Board of IPMA. He serves on the Editorial Board of the PM World Journal. Pieter is also Director of the De Doornkraal Wine Estate in Riversdale, Western Cape.

Professor Steyn can be contacted at [email protected]. For information about Cranefield College, visit www.cranefield.ac.za.

To view other works by Prof Steyn, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/dr-pieter-steyn/

 


Prof Dr Brane Semolic


Founder and Head of LENS Living Lab –
International living laboratory
Celje, Slovenia

 

 

Dr. Brane Semolic studied mechanical engineering, engineering economics, and informatics; he holds a scientific master degree and doctorate in business informatics. His focus of professional interest is industrial and system engineering, innovation and technology management, virtual organizations and systems, project and knowledge management. He has 40 years of working experiences in different industries (industrial engineering, IT, chemicals, household appliances, government, and education), as an expert, researcher, manager, entrepreneur, counselor to the Slovenian government and professor.  He operates as head of the open research and innovation organization LENS Living Lab. LENS Living Lab is an international industry-driven virtual living laboratory. He is acting as initiator and coordinator of various research and innovation collaboration platforms, programs and projects for the needs of different industries (ICT, robotics, laser additive manufacturing, logistics, education). He was co-founder and the first director of the TCS – Toolmakers Cluster of Slovenia (EU automotive industry suppliers). Since 2004 he is serving as the president of the TCS council of experts. Besides this, he is operating as a part-time professor at the Cranefield College.

He was head of project and information systems laboratory at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Head of the Project & Technology Management Institute at the Faculty of Logistics, University of Maribor and professor of project and technology management at the graduate and postgraduate level. He acted as a trainer at the International »European Project Manager« post-graduated program, organized jointly by the University of Bremen.

He was the co-founder and president of the Project Management Association of Slovenia (ZPM), vice president of IPMA (International Project Management Association), chairman of the IPMA Research Management Board (2005-2012), and technical vice-chairman of ICEC (International Cost Engineering Council).  Now he is serving as a director of the IPMA & ICEC strategic alliance. He actively participated in the development of the IPMA 4-level project managers’ certification program. He introduced and was the first director of the IPMA certification program in Slovenia. He has been serving as the assessor in this certification program since 1997. He performed as assessor in the IPMA International PM Excellence Award Program in China, India, and Slovenia.

He is a registered assessor for the accreditation of education programs and education organizations by the EU-Slovenian Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education.

He was a Member of Strategic Advisory Board of European Competitiveness and Innovation, as well as the president of the Slovenian Chamber of Business Services.

He got the award as ICEC Distinguished International Fellow in 2008. He received the »Silver Sign« for his achievements in research, education, and collaboration with the industry from the University of Maribor in 2015.

Professor Semolic is also an academic advisor for the PM World Journal.  He can be contacted at brane.semolic@3-lab.eu.   Additional information about the LENS Living Lab can be found at http://www.3-lab.eu/ .

To view other works by Prof Semolic, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/brane-semolic/

 

 

Between Myth and Reality

The Frontiers of Waterfront Redevelopment in Nigeria

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Dr. Felix Osita Ikekpeazu and Arc. Vitalis M. Irouke

Nnamdi Azikiwe University

Anambra State, Nigeria

 



ABSTRACT

This paper is at once an evaluation and investigation into the economic viability and the architectural possibilities of waterfront redevelopments in Nigeria, in terms of the residential and commercial developments. It commences with a historic overview of waterfront redevelopments, highlighting the evolution of programmes for waterfronts; and furthermore, emphasizing the role of commercial developments in waterfront redevelopments. The paper then progresses to the issue of the public perception of waterfront redevelopments elaborating on the fact that public skepticism, in this regard, is attributable to the factors of technical feasibility, enforceability, resource and affordability and cultural validity concerning waterfront redevelopments. It then provides an insight into the economic context of waterfront redevelopments in Nigeria, elucidating the potentialities of waterfront redevelopments for tourism and economic development in the states of Nigeria. The paper then makes some policy recommendations stating that the potentialities of waterfront redevelopments for job creation and investments are immeasurable. It then reaches the conclusion that investors would no longer look further than the waterfronts of coastal states for profitable investments in properties and tourism – indeed, that waterfronts are new investment havens.

Keywords: Redevelopment, Commercial development, Public perception, Economic context, Investment potential and New investment haven.

INTRODUCTION

The rapidity of waterfront redevelopments in the coastal and riverine areas of metropolitan cities in Nigeria is indicative of their economic viability, in terms of the volume of the residential and commercial developments. Essentially, waterfront redevelopments are commercial and residential developments in form of shops, restaurants, aquariums, entertainment facilities, office and housing on the coastal areas or alongside large rivers, seas or oceans.

Globally, the revitalization of the waterfront has been a principal feature of urban development over the last thirty years. The herd mentality of city planners and developers has given rise to generic models of success that ignore local characteristics. Opportunities exist for more experimental approaches that accommodate a wide range of uses and users and that adapt their forms to the uniqueness of their place and topography.

HISTORIC OVERVIEW OF WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENTS

The Evolution of Programmes in Waterfront Redevelopment

The obsolescence of the port began in America during the late 1950s. The rest of the world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. Advances in transport technology – the intercontinental jet aircraft, the automobile and the railway – weakened the dominance of the city port as principal transport centre. Maritime passenger traffic rapidly disappeared, eliminating the need for liner berths and terminals. At the same time, the emergence of containerized shipping forced many ports to relocate further away from the city where land was in abundance – enabling quick and inexpensive access and construction of railroads and highways.

The combination of large plots of derelict land in the heart of cities with the rapid growth in the sector industry made waterfront redevelopment an obvious and valuable opportunity for city planners and entrepreneurs. Programmes for renewal and rebuilding in waterfront redevelopment first began in major North American cities such as Boston, Baltimore, St. Louis and Toronto in the 1960s and ‘70s. These were followed in rapid succession by projects in Europe – the Docklands in London and Liverpool, the Vieux  Port in Marseilles – and on the other side of the world, Darling Harbour in Sydney and the Victoria and Alfred Waterfront in South Africa.

Our the last two decades, cities as diverse as Barcelona, Baltimore, Bangkok an Buenos Aires have attempted to reclaim their waterways. City officials and developers have radically restructured abandoned and underused urban waterfronts; transforming their physical layout, function and use. In the 19th Century, the waterfront was a place devoted to commerce and industry. A post-war shift away from the manufacturing economy to the informational and service economy (leisure, recreation and tourism) led to the emergence of a wide array of new uses for waterfront – from parks and walkways, restaurants and casinos to mixed-use and residential projects. 

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How to cite this article:

Ikekpeazu, F., Irouke, V. (2018), Between Myth and Reality: The Frontiers of Waterfront Redevelopment in Nigeria, PM World Journal, Volume VII, Issue 5, May 2018. https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/pmwj70-May2018-Ikekpeazu-frontiers-of-waterfront-redevelopment-Featured-Paper.pdf



About the Authors


Dr. Felix Ikekpeazu

Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Anambra State, Nigeria

 

 

Dr. Felix Ikekpeazu holds a Bachelor of Architecture (B. Arc) and a Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Architecture, specializing in Housing delivery systems. He joined Nnamdi Azikiwe University in Anambra State after serving as Chief Architect at the Enugu State Housing Development Corporation. He is currently a senior Lecturer in the Department of Architecture. His research interests are in Housing delivery systems, Green buildings and energy efficiency in buildings. Dr. Ikekpeazu is a registered Architect and has published in many local and international journals. He can be contacted at [email protected]

 


Arc. Vitalis M. Irouke

Nnamdi Azikwe University
Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

 

 

Arc. Vitalis M. Irouke holds a Bachelor of Architecture (B. Arc) and a Master’s Degree in Architecture. He is currently a Lecturer in the Department of Architecture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State. Arc. Irouke is a registered Architect and has published in many local and international journals.

 

A Review of Literature to aid in Management

and Forecasting of Technology: A case of Petrol Engines

 

FEATURED PAPER

by Ashwani Kharola, Yadnyesh Nikam, Hitesh Patil

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Tula’s Institute

Dehradun, India

 



Abstract

In this paper a brief review of past 30 years literature has been conducted on four-stroke petrol engine. The study would help in analysing different approaches and analysing them for effective management of such complex technologies and forecasting future trends of such technologies. Review of past literature can be used to create a roadmap for future technologies. This review can be utilised by researchers to conduct technology management and forecast innovative technologies for future needs.

Keywords: Technology Management, Forecasting, Four-stroke petrol engine, I.C. engine, spark ignition

  1. Introduction

An Engine is a device which converts chemical energy of a fuel into mechanical energy.  Four stroke petrol engines are very popular engines widely used in vehicles operating on Otto-cycle and using petrol as a fuel. Four stroke petrol engines are very popular spark ignition engines widely used in automobiles. These engines are keen source interest for researchers working in the field automobile sector. Various researchers have proposed different techniques for optimising performance characteristics of these engines. These engines uses electric spark for burning the fuel thereby moving movable parts of the engine. The first four stroke engines was demonstrated by Nikolaus August Otto in 1876, hence it is also called Otto cycle. In 1885, German Mechanical engineer, Karl-Benz built the world’s first automobile powered by an internal combustion engine. In the past 150 year’s world has seen fast and innovative advancements in the design of four-stroke petrol engine. Many different designs have been suggested and built keeping in mind the basic objective of compact size, price, quality of combustion products, power output etc. This study highlights in brief various techniques and approaches being adopted by researchers in the past few decades to improve the performance and efficiency of four-stroke petrol engine. A survey has been carried out on the research work by different authors and some significant contribution has been beautifully highlighted in this study.

  1. Literature review

Melgaard et al. [1] identified an engine model from a linearized version of a mean value model for a four-cycle spark ignition (SI) engine. The approach demonstrated a physical understanding of the engine throughout the identification stage. The techniques which were adopted by authors includes a classical step response approach and modern statistical methods like Kalman filtering and Maximum Likelihood estimation. The results helped in identification of the most important parameters and time constants of the engine which can be used for the construction of engine simulation models, control studies and condition monitoring applications. Hwang [2] simulated a digital engine speed display and an advance ignition system for designing a microcontroller-based electronic control system for a four stroke and single cylinder engine. The author utilised a DC motor whose speed can be adjusted by a voltage transformer and numerated by a photo sensor, 8751 H microcontroller, and digital readout is used as an engine. A timing light is used to identify the advanced ignition angles of the spark plug. The simulation results showed that some mechanical hardware can be replaced by electronic components to make automobile engines more efficient and inexpensive.

Kurniawan & Abdullah [3] carried out a numerical study to simulate and analyze the combustion process occurring in a compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI) engine using a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was performed on a single cylinder 1.6-liter engine running at wide open throttle at a fixed speed of 2000 rpm. The mesh generation was established via an embedded algorithm for moving meshes and boundaries thereby providing a more accurate transient condition of the operating engine. The natural gas employed is considered to be 100% methane (CH4) with three global step reaction scheme. The results of CFD simulation were then compared with the data obtained from the single-cylinder engine experiment and showed a close agreement. Wong et al. [4] proposed a novel design called dual-mode electrohydraulic fully variable valve train (EHFVVT) for both engine intake and exhaust. The system is controlled by either proportional flow control valves or proportional pressure relief valves. The author’s demonstrated a mathematical model of the valve train system and its dynamic analysis in their paper. Experimental and simulation results show that the proposed valve train was capable of achieving fully variable valve timing and lift control, and has the potential to eliminate the traditional throttle valve in the gasoline engines.

Rebhan & Stokes [5] demonstrated the combinability of two and four stroke operations in a single internal combustion engine equipped with a demonstrator vehicle. The proposed engine operating mode opens the gateway for downsizing the complete system beyond the conventional technical limits. Donitz et al. [6] presented a novel hybrid pneumatic engine configuration that entails fixed camshafts for both intake and exhaust valves while utilizing variable valve actuation for one charge valve per cylinder only. This configuration is operated entirely in four-stroke modes and requires a careful optimization of its operating strategy to achieve its fuel economy potential. The results showed small efficiency losses compared to a full two-stroke operation using four-stroke modes. Finally initial measurement results were obtained from the engine system which confirmed the validity of proposed approach. Senthilkumar et al. [7] conducted various tests on horizontal single cylinder variable speed Greaves engine with various blends of cottonseed oil (B5, B10, B15, B20, B40 & B100) and further compared the performance of cottonseed oil with diesel. The results shows that B20 diesel with blend 20% yielded optimum value, with less fuel consumption and higher efficiencies than diesel and it is feasible us it in the diesel engine with no modification.

Shiao & Dat [8] proposed a dynamic model of an unthrottled SI engine to simulate the engine cycle. The model uses an Electromagnetic valve train (EMV) system that allows valvetrain control and provides optimal valve timing for different engine speeds. Additionally, the study also highlighted that cylinder deactivation modes can be successfully applied in improving engine efficiency at different engine loads. It was observed that the two-cylinder deactivation mode (50% CDA) considerably improves fuel consumption at low engine load. Meanwhile, one-cylinder deactivation (25% CDA) is an optimal fuel economy mode at medium engine load. With proper uses of CDA strategies, the efficiency of an SI engine can be increased more than 30% at low engine load and 11.7 % at medium engine load. Noga & Sendyka [9] demonstrated a design of five-stroke engine developed at Cracow University of Technology. The authors identified the effect of implementing five-stroke cycle into the engine with spark ignition in order to reduce toxic emissions and increase total efficiency. A test engine has been built having different design of timing system, four valves per cylinder and petrol direct injection. The study presented a detailed description of the engine design and the results of the tests of the five-stroke engine confirm an increase of specific torque and power and improved the total efficiency of the engine.

More…

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How to cite this article:

Kharola, A., Nikam, Y., Patil, H. (2018), A Review of Literature to aid in Management and Forecasting of Technology: A case of Petrol Engines, PM World Journal, Volume VII, Issue 5, May 2018. https://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/pmwj70-May2018-Kharola-Nikam-Patil-forecasting-technology-literature-review-featured-paper.pdf



About the Authors


Ashwani Kharola

Tula’s Institute
Dehradun, India

 


Mr. Ashwani Kharola
received B.Tech (with Honors) in Mechanical Engineering from Dehradun Institute of Technology, Dehradun in 2010 and M.Tech in CAD/CAM & Robotics from Graphic Era University, Dehradun in 2013. Presently he is working as Assistant Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering at Tula’s Institute, Dehradun. Earlier he has worked as a Research Fellow in Institute of Technology Management (ITM), One of premier training institute of Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India. He is pursuing PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Graphic Era University (Deemed University), Dehradun. He has published many Research papers in National/International peer reviewed ISSN Journals and IEEE Conferences. His current areas of work includes Fuzzy logic reasoning, Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) control, Neural Networks, PID, Mathematical Modeling & Simulation.  He can be contacted at [email protected]

 


Yadnyesh Nikam

Tula’s Institute
Dehradun, India

 


Mr Yadnyesh Sanjay Nikam
is presently pursuing B. Tech in Mechanical Engineering from Tula’s Institute (affiliated to Uttarakhand Technical University), Dehradun. Tula’s is one of the best engineering colleges in Dehradun. His current areas of interest include Automobile engineering, Thermodynamics, CAD, etc. He can be contacted at     [email protected]

 


Hitesh Patil

Tula’s Institute
Dehradun, India

 


Mr Hitesh Dinesh Patil
is presently pursuing B. Tech in Mechanical Engineering from Tula’s Institute (affiliated to Uttarakhand Technical University), Dehradun. Tula’s is one of the best engineering colleges in Dehradun. His current areas of interest include Automobile engineering, Robotics, CAD etc. He can be contacted at [email protected]

 

Towards Systems Management in the Electric Power Sector

for Physical Facilities in Nigeria: Issues, Challenges and New Directions

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Dr. Felix Osita Ikekpeazu

Nnamdi Azikiwe University

Anambra State, Nigeria

 



ABSTRACT

This paper is an investigation into the application of systems management in the operation of public utilities in Nigeria, specifically, in the electric power sector; towards the effective utilization of electric energy for physical facilities, namely, residential, commercial and institutional buildings, etc.  The paper commences with a definition of terms, especially, systems management, system failure and system collapse, in connection with regulation, management and ownership in the electric power sector. It then proceeds to an elaboration of the phases or steps in the historical evolution of the electric power industry in Nigeria and the associated factors which can be isolated in each stage of the historical development of utilities. It then progresses to an examination of the problems of electric power generation, transmission and distribution within the organizational framework of the new Power Holding Company of Nigeria PLC (PHCN), in terms of the Power Sector Reform Act 2005. The paper provides an elucidation of the existing and proposed strategies for policy implementation in the Power Holding Company of Nigeria PLC (PHCN). In this regard, it highlights the operational link between PHCN, management on the one hand and its supervisory board, supervisory ministry (the Federal Ministry of Energy) and the Presidency on the other hand. These strategies set the stage for new directions and management. This paper then reaches the conclusion of the centrality of adequate power supply to family life and business life in the country; that a stable power supply creates a positive multiplier effect in the whole economy. Indeed, that low service delivery in the Nigerian electricity sector is, perhaps the greatest developmental drawback facing the country in the areas of residential development and industrialization.

Key words: Power disruption, Deregulation, System Collapse/System Failure, National Grid, Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Power Sector Reform Act, Organizational Change, Privatization and Stable Power Supply.

INTRODUCTION

The frequency of power disruption and instances of system collapse has created the imperative for organizational change in the operation of electric power utilities in Nigeria. The new appellation, Power Holding Company of Nigeria PLC (PHCN), is a reflection to some extent, of this new organizational change. The impending deregulation of the electric power sector will engender competitiveness in the electric power sector with its attendant economic revitalization.

Indeed, the envisaged role of systems management in the electric power sector in Nigeria, will focus on the general dynamics of system integration, in time as well as in space, of system dysfunction or system collapse/system failure and the dynamics involved in system change and revitalization.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT

According to Klein (1977), in addition to the surveys of the basic social and behavioural sciences, the past thirty years have seen the development and blossoming of several fields of inquiry which, together, may be termed ‘system sciences’. They may be characterized, in general, as being more interdisciplinary and holistic in their approach to problems than are the more traditional disciplines. They may also be said to be somewhat more problem-oriented or applied, although this may not characterize every scholar or practitioner. As the interests here relate to the role of management, it seems appropriate to label this last discipline to be reviewed, ‘systems management’.

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About the Author


Dr. Felix Ikekpeazu

Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Anambra State, Nigeria

 

 

Dr. Felix Ikekpeazu holds a Bachelor of Architecture (B. Arc) and a Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Architecture, specializing in Housing delivery systems. He joined Nnamdi Azikiwe University in Anambra State after serving as Chief Architect at the Enugu State Housing Development Corporation. He is currently a senior Lecturer in the Department of Architecture. His research interests are in Housing delivery systems, Green buildings and energy efficiency in buildings. Dr. Ikekpeazu is a registered Architect and has published in many local and international journals. He can be contacted at [email protected]

 

Event Chain Diagrams

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Lev Virine, Michael Trumper, Eugenia Virine

Ontario, Canada

 



Relationships between project risks can be very complex. Risks can be assigned to different activities and resources, have different probabilities and impacts, and have correlations or act as triggers with each other. Due to this complexity, we recommend visualizing project events and event chains using event chain diagrams. Event chain diagrams use the familiar structure of a Gantt chart to visualize the relationships between project risks. State tables are also a useful tool and can be used to define the state of an activity. This paper provides a specification of Event chain diagrams and State Tables along with advice on how to use them effectively.

Event Chain Methodology

Event chain methodology is an extension of “traditional” and event-based quantitative risk analysis. Event chain methodology is an uncertainty modeling and schedule network analysis technique that is focused on identifying and managing events and event chains that affect project schedules. It is a logical formula to model and analyze a wide variety of different problems related to managing uncertainties in project schedule (Virine and Trumper 2007, Virine and Trumper 2013).

According to Event chain methodology activities in project schedule are affected by external events that transform them from one state to another (Virine 2013). The notion of state means that activity will be performed differently as a response to the event. This process of changing the state of an activity is called excitation. For example, an activity may require different resources, take a longer time, or must be performed under different conditions. As a result, this may alter the activity’s cost and duration. The original or planned state of the activity is called a ground state. Other states, associated with different events are called excited states. For example, in the middle of an activity requirements change. As a result, a planned activity must be restarted. Similarly to quantum mechanics, if a significant event affects the activities, it will dramatically affect the property of the activity; for example, cancelling the activity (Agarwal and Virine 2017).

Each state of activity in particular may subscribe to certain events. It means that an event can affect the activity only if the activity is subscribed to this event. For example, an assembly activity has started outdoors. The ground state the activity is subscribed to the external event “Bad weather”. If “Bad weather” actually occurs, the assembly should move indoors. This constitutes an excited state of the activity. This new excited state (indoor assembling) will not be subscribed to the “Bad weather”: if this event occurs it will not affect the activity.

Some events can cause other events. These series of events form event chains, which may significantly affect the course of the project by creating a ripple effect through the project. Here is an example of an event chain ripple effect:

  1. Requirement changes cause a delay of an activity.
  2. To accelerate the activity, the project manager diverts resources from another activity.
  3. Diversion of resources causes deadlines to be missed on the other activity
  4. Cumulatively, this reaction leads to the failure of the whole project.

Events can also cause execution of activities and group of activities. Risk response efforts are considered to be events, which are executed if an activity is in an excited state. Risk response events may attempt to transform activity from excited state to the ground state.

Analysis of project schedules with event and event chain are performed using Monte Carlo simulation. The result of analysis is a risk adjusted project schedule. The event and event chains can be ranked as a result of analysis. Events and event chains, which affect the project the most are called critical events or event chains.

Information about events and event chains, particularly probabilities and impacts of risks should be monitored and updated as part of project control.

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About the Authors


Lev Virine, PhD

Intaver Institute
Alberta, Canada

 


Lev D. Virine
, Ph.D. has more than 25 years of experience as a structural engineer, software developer, and project manager. He has been involved in major projects performed by Fortune 500 companies and government agencies to establish effective decision analysis and risk management processes as well as to conduct risk analyses of complex projects. Lev’s current research interests include the application of decision analysis and risk management to project management. He writes and speaks around the world on the decision analysis process, the psychology of judgment and decision-making and risk management. Lev can be contacted at [email protected]

 


Michael Trumper

Intaver Institute
Alberta, Canada

 


Michael Trumper
has over 20 years’ experience in communications, software design, and project risk and management. Michael is a partner at Intaver Institute Inc., a vendor of project risk management and analysis software. Michael has authored papers on quantitative methods in project estimation and risk analysis. He is a co-author of two books on project risk management and decision analysis. He has developed and delivered project risk analysis and management solutions to clients that include NASA, DOE, and Lockheed Martin.

 


Eugenia Virine, PMP

Alberta, Canada

 


Eugenia Virine
, PMP, is a senior manager for revenue development at Greyhound Canada. Over the past 12 years Eugenia has managed many complex projects in the areas of transportation and information technology. Her current research interests include project risk and decision analysis, project performance management, and project metrics. Eugenia holds B. Comm. degree from University of Calgary.

 

Elements of the Mathematical Theory of Human Systems, Part 5

Quantitative analysis of the benefits and losses of two human systems in the regime of confrontational equilibrium of their interrelations

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Pavel Barseghyan, PhD

Yerevan, Armenia and

Plano, Texas, USA

 



Abstract

Quantitative analysis of confrontation and acute conflict situations between human systems makes it possible to evaluate and predict the results of different scales of collisions between people in the form of potential benefits and losses.

From the point of view of an adequate quantitative representation of the confrontation between human systems, it is advisable to use such parameters and notions that are universal in nature and invariant with respect to the systems under study.

In other words, these models should operate with universal concepts such as stability and equilibrium of the state of the system, conflict of interests of the opposing sides, the magnitude of the expected benefits, losses and mutual concessions, and so on, which are characteristic of all opposing and conflicting human systems.

Like other activities carried out by people, the process of conflicts between them is also a certain sequence of their mutual actions, which can be quantitatively described by the equations of state of opposing human systems.

This article is devoted to the qualitative and quantitative assessment of losses arising as a result of the conflict between two human systems.

In the first part of the research, the graphic analysis of the process and results of the conflict are carried out, and the second part is devoted to the development of linear and nonlinear mathematical models of confrontation between people and their losses.

Mathematical models of confrontation of two human systems, presented in this article, will later become a platform for quantitative modeling of more complex situations in the clash of three or more conflicting parties.

Key words: Human systems, mathematical theory, state equations, equilibrium, non-equilibrium, benefits, losses, conflicts, confrontational equilibrium, interrelations, pressure on human systems, upper limits of mutual pressure, power of human systems

Introduction

To ensure the safety, prosperity and sustainable development of human systems, a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the equilibrium and non-equilibrium states of their interactions is necessary [1].

The method of equations of state of human systems is a convenient tool for the practical realization of this goal, namely the representation of the relationships between these systems in the form of a system of equations of states, where each of these equations reflects the behavior of the relationships between the two of these systems.

In addition, in modeling, it should be taken into account that the interactions between pairs of human systems are not symmetrical, and for this reason, the mutual influences of the parties are represented by separate equations, each of which splits into two equations, one of which presents a positive pressure on the opposite side, and the other – negative pressure on the same opposite side.

Thus, the mathematical model of the relationship between each pair of interacting human systems in the general case is a system of four equations of state.

This means that with the increase in the number of human systems , the number of equations of state of their mutual relations will increase sharply and in the case  for this purpose we will have 12 equations, and in the case  we will deal with 24 equations.

In addition, since the pressure on each side of the confrontation can be divided into different types of pressures, such as political pressure, economic pressure, financial pressure, etc., the number of equations representing the state of human relations can be increased even more rapidly.

Naturally, under such conditions, the targeted use of the behavioral models under consideration based on a large number of state equations representing the relationships between human systems is possible only within the framework of modern expert information systems.

On the other hand, in cases where the relationships between human systems are only of a confrontational nature or only the nature of cooperation, the number of equations in the corresponding models can be reduced by half.

From a practical point of view, mathematical modeling of the relationships between the three human systems is of great interest, since this case is relatively simple from the mathematical point of view, but it is already quite complex in the meaningful sense.

In particular, in this case it is already possible to make an object of quantitative consideration the problems of the emergence and degradation of coalitions of people (important from the point of view of the productivity of design teams), organizations (important from the point of view of business) and countries (important from the geopolitical point of view).

In any case, a quantitative analysis of the relationships of an arbitrary number of human systems is based on models of interaction between two human systems that are the subject of further consideration.

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About the Author


Pavel Barseghyan
, PhD

Yerevan, Armenia
Plano, Texas, USA

 

 

Dr. Pavel Barseghyan is a consultant in the field of quantitative project management, project data mining and organizational science. Has over 45 years’ experience in academia, the electronics industry, the EDA industry and Project Management Research and tools development. During the period of 1999-2010 he was the Vice President of Research for Numetrics Management Systems. Prior to joining Numetrics, Dr. Barseghyan worked as an R&D manager at Infinite Technology Corp. in Texas. He was also a founder and the president of an EDA start-up company, DAN Technologies, Ltd. that focused on high-level chip design planning and RTL structural floor planning technologies. Before joining ITC, Dr. Barseghyan was head of the Electronic Design and CAD department at the State Engineering University of Armenia, focusing on development of the Theory of Massively Interconnected Systems and its applications to electronic design. During the period of 1975-1990, he was also a member of the University Educational Policy Commission for Electronic Design and CAD Direction in the Higher Education Ministry of the former USSR. Earlier in his career he was a senior researcher in Yerevan Research and Development Institute of Mathematical Machines (Armenia). He is an author of nine monographs and textbooks and more than 100 scientific articles in the area of quantitative project management, mathematical theory of human work, electronic design and EDA methodologies, and tools development. More than 10 Ph.D. degrees have been awarded under his supervision. Dr. Barseghyan holds an MS in Electrical Engineering (1967) and Ph.D. (1972) and Doctor of Technical Sciences (1990) in Computer Engineering from Yerevan Polytechnic Institute (Armenia).  Pavel’s publications can be found here: http://www.scribd.com/pbarseghyan and here: http://pavelbarseghyan.wordpress.com/.  Pavel can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

A Supply Chain Management (SCM) Framework

for Construction Project Delivery in Nigeria: An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) Approach

 

FEATURED PAPER

*1Amade, B., 2Akpan, E. O. P., 3Ukwuoma, F. P. O., 4Ononuju, C. N., and 5Okore, O. L.

*1,4,Department of Project Management Technology
Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri, Nigeria

2,Department of Mechanical Engineering
Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin, Nigeria

3,National Centre for Technology Management
Obafemi Awolowo University,P.M.B. 012 Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

5,Physical Planning Department
Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author email: [email protected]

 



ABSTRACT

This study sought to analyze the results of a survey that aims to develop a SCM framework for the successful delivery of construction projects using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The study adopted an exploratory research design with the aid of both quantitative and qualitative methods of research. Purposive and convenient sampling techniques were utilized with the aid of semi-structured interview, case study and questionnaire in selecting respondents from a construction firm in Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were used as instrument for primary data collection after it was pre-tested via a pilot study for purposes of validity and reliability. The data collected were later analyzed using the AHP. Findings from the study shows that the following main factors; trust and long term relationships (TLR=0.283), supply chain finance (SCF=0.189), continuous performance measurement (CPM=0.154), information technology (IFT=0.099), quality (QTY=0.096), supplier management (SMT=0.078), top management’s support (TMS=0.055) and supply chain orientation (SCO=0.046) are key to the successful delivery of construction projects using the SCM approach. The findings indicates that when delivering construction projects via the SCM approach, more emphasis should be skewed towards the eight (8) (critical) factors in the hierarchy as they would drive the critical ingredient to achieving success in the delivery of projects using SCM. In a nutshell, the framework would kick start the drive to ensuring a drastic increase and improvement in the business of construction in Nigeria.

Key words: Analytical hierarchy process, Construction projects, Case study, Framework, Supply chain management

INTRODUCTION

SCM according to Shakerian et al.(2016) has become one of the important features through which the global industry can compete and as such is likely to remain a major element in worldwide competition. Given the current economic crisis engulfing nations and coupled with the competitive nature of most environments, there is the need to optimize supply chain activities of most organizations to help stem the tide of this recent upsurge. The term “supply chain” as stated by Irizarry et al.(2013), entails the delineation of the stages through which construction resources viz materials, equipment, and personnel proceed from supply (source) points to the constructions site

Tamošaitienė et al.(2017) stated that the main objective of SCM is to maximize value in the supply chain (SC) environment. SC in construction is concerned primarily with the planning and directing discrete quantities of materials to the construction site where the proposed project is articulated from incoming (raw) material components. A look at the industry indicates that a large proportion of waste generated ensues as a result of the poor management of the material SC viz; service delivery, inventory, communications.

SCM as opined by Tamošaitienė et al.(2017) was initially used in the 1980s, and is described by Ab Talib and Hamid (2014) as a systematic and strategic means of integrating business functions, from an end user perspective through to the original supplier by adding value to end products, services and information for users and other key stakeholders. A SC consists of all activities, functions, and facilities that are involved in the flow and transformation of goods and services from the material stage (raw state) to the end user (final stage). In this era of globalization and innovation, the delivery of construction projects needs to be achieved with the aid of technical skills and techniques that would contribute to an effective and efficient production of construction project and its sustainability in the nearest future (Mohammad et al., 2014). Hence, there is need for the construction industry to shifts its attention towards addressing the manufacturing of their products/deliverables in relation to keeping abreast with sustainability issues and waste generation within the construction environment. As opined by Albaloushi and Skitmore (2008), SC within the context of the construction industry, consists of all construction processes that starts from the initial demands made by the client/owner, through to the design and construction, to maintenance, replacement and subsequent demolition of projects. It further consists of firms involved in the construction process, viz the client/owner, designer, main contractor, subcontractor, and suppliers. Albaloushi and Skitmore (2008) further stated that, construction SCM is adjudged to be a group of firms, individuals working collaboratively in a network of interrelated processes that is structured in such a way that the end users needs are satisfied while also rewarding the entire constituents of the chain.

According to Aloini et al.(2012), the construction industry differs a great deal from the SCs noticeable within the goods and services sectors per se, largely as a result of the high complexity and uncertainty associated with the production process; the transitory state of its site during construction configuration; the high rate of customer influence on the deliverable; the fragmented state of its operations; and the complex state of its network of stakeholders involving multiple organizations and relationships amongst others. The peculiar nature of the industry alongside other cultural ties is some of the causes of the encumbrances militating against its inability to replicate some of the positive gains being experienced from other industries. From the information acquisition point of view, some of the problems associated with construction projects usually emanate from the aspect of data and information generation from construction sites. The effectiveness and efficiency of information and data flow between the office and the construction site is most time affected generally by the use of written documents, drawings, specifications and shop drawings causing the duplication of data and information, lack of data and information, and subsequent confusion. The means of processing information and data accumulation are not only time-consuming, but rather expensive thus leading to a compromise on project management performance in information acquisition process (Wang et al.,2007). With the advent of technology and culture, a lot of changes have been witnessed in the construction industry in recent time. Studies have shown that the industry is still not effective as a lot of problems bedeviling construction supply chain (CSC) could be identified easily. Majority of these problems to a greater extent are SC related that originate at the interface between the individual actors or stages involved in the CSC activity (Wang & Xue, 2004).

The  broad  objective  of  the  research  reported  in  this  paper,  therefore,  was  to  develop a SCM framework for the successful delivery of construction projects to fruition using the AHP. More specifically, the aim was to obtain an insight into the applicability of SCM practices in construction project delivery in Nigeria, with a view to gaining insights into the business of modern day use of cutting edge technology associated with SCM adoption on project performance and delivery in the Nigerian construction industry.

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About the Author


Benedict Amade, PhD

Federal University of Technology
Owerri, Nigeria

 

 

Benedict Amade is a Project Manager by Profession. He read and obtained a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) Degree in Project Management Technology from the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. He is a member of the Project Management Institute (PMI) U.S.A. and presently lectures in the Department of Project Management Technology of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria for the past 9 years. His areas of research interest include construction project management, computer based project management and construction supply chain management. He has authored over 20 scientific publications in international refereed journals and is actively involved in other consultancy works. He can be reached on [email protected] or [email protected]

 


Edem Okon Peter Akpan, PhD

Akwa Ibom State University
Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria

 



Akpan, Edem Okon Peter
is a distinguished figure in the field of Project Management, Industrial Engineering and Information Technology. He is currently the Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and a Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Akwa Ibom State University. Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria. He read and obtained a B.Sc in Management and Engineering Production from the University of Wales, Institute of Science and Technology, Cardiff and an M.Sc and a Ph.D in Aston, Birmingham and Bradford respectively. He has published widely both in the local and international journals and in recognition of this feat has since been honoured to join the editorial boards of International Journal of Production Planning and Control of Taylor and Francis London and the Journal of Construction Engineering and Management of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). He is a registered Engineer (COREN), Member Nigerian Institute of Production Engineers, Member Nigerian Institute of Industrial Engineers as well as a consultant to many organizations. Professor Akpan can be reached on [email protected]

 


Festus Prince Okechukwu Ukwuoma, PhD

Obafemi Awolowo University
Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

 

 

Ukwuoma, Festus Prince Okechukwu is a Professor of Project Management and Chemical Engineering and currently the Director General of the National Centre for Technology Management (NACETEM), a Parastatal of the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State. He was a former Head of Department of Project Management Technology and also a Former Associate Dean of the School of Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. He is also one of the founding Lecturers of the Department of Chemical Engineering, Enugu University of Science and Technology (ESUT). His research interests are in the areas of Environmental Management, Project Risk and Safety, Process Design. He received a B.Sc. in Chemical Engineering, University of Ife, Ile-Ife. M.Sc. in Chemical Engineering, University of Ife, Ph.D.  Chemical Engineering/Project Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology.  He is a Fellow of the following bodies; Nigerian Society of Engineers, Nigerian Society of Chemical Engineers, American Academy of Project Management, Renewable and Alternative Energy Society of Nigeria amongst other awards.  He can be reached on [email protected]

 


Charles Nnamdi Nonuju, PhD

Federal University of Technology,
Owerri, Nigeria

 

 

Ononuju, Charles Nnamdi is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Project Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. He was the former Director of FUTO Water Limited at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. His research interests are in the areas of Construction Project Management, Contract Law and Arbitration. He received his B.Eng. in Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, as well as an M.Sc. and PhD in Project Management Technology both at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Dr. Ononuju has also worked with Private Construction Firms as a Consulting Civil Engineer in the past before joining the Federal University of Technology, Owerri. He is a COREN Registered Engineer and a Member of the Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE). He can be reached on [email protected]

 


Ogaga Linus Okore

Auchi Polytechnic
Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria

 



Okore, Ogaga Linus 
obtained a B.Sc – Building from Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. Thereafter, he acquired an M.Sc – Project Management Technology from the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Presently, he is currently undergoing a doctorate degree program in Construction Management at the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaira. He works with the Auchi Polytechnic Auchi as a Building Officer in the Physical Planning Department. He can be reached on [email protected]

 

Mapping ERP “Chart of Accounts” to Building Information Modeling Software

Using Omniclass Coding Structures and Activity Based Costing/Management- A CONTRACTOR’S perspective

 

FEATURED PAPER

Dr. Paul D. Giammalvo, CDT, CCE, MScPM, MRICS

Jakarta, Indonesia

 


 

Introduction

As the world of construction becomes increasingly automated through the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM), particularly during the early design phases, when the opportunity to find errors/omissions is high and the cost to make corrections is low, it is apparent that those responsible to execute the projects- the owners and contractors project managers, cost estimators, schedulers, document controllers, project controllers et al have not yet caught up with our architectural and engineering counterparts to ensure the work we do is consistent with,  complimentary to and supportive of the use of BIM and related evolving technological advances, specifically, the use of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems.

The inherent problem with “flat file” or single dimension WBS/CBS structures lies with the fact that not all stakeholders need to see the project deliverables shown in the same way.  This led to the evolution of multi-dimensional, “relational” or “object oriented” database coding structures.

The idea or concept of multi-dimensional Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) or Cost Breakdown Structures (CBS) is not new.  After World War II, building construction specifications began to expand, as more advanced materials and choices became available.[1] The Construction Specifications Institute (CSI)[2] was founded in 1948 and began to address the organization of specifications using a numbering system like the Dewey Decimal System used by libraries. The purpose or objective of this effort was to ensure that a specification appeared once and only once in any set of contract documents, thus helping to eliminate redundancy or conflicting information in the contract documents, and thus reducing claims and disputes.

In 1963, CSI published a format for construction specifications, with 16 major divisions of work. These 16 divisions were built around work packages normally and customarily sub-contracted by prime contractors to specialty sub-contractors (e.g., Site work, Concrete, HVAC, Electrical) or prime contractors would supply their own workforces (e.g., general building, masonry, finishes, doors, and windows).

This need for multiple ways to sort or view work and their associated costs was reaffirmed by the Norwegian government, who, back in 1992, initiated a project to STANDARDIZE the Cost Coding structures coming from their production sharing contractors drilling for oil in the North Sea. The STANDARIZED Cost Coding structure is known a “Norsok Z-014”[3] has withstood the test of time and is still in use after 26+ years undergoing 2 revisions or updates.

In the early- to mid-1970’s, around the same period that MasterFormat was evolving within CSI, the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), in conjunction with the U.S.-based American Institute of Architects (AIA), commissioned Hanscomb Associates, Inc. to create a standardized construction cost-coding structure, originally named ‘Mastercosts.’  The GSA and AIA renamed this ‘UniFormat, which enabled capture and summation of costs by building components.  ASTM[4] International began developing a standard for classifying building elements (1989), based on UNIFORMAT, and renamed to UNIFORMAT II.[5]

When CSI’s “Masterformat” and ASTM’s “Uniformat” were combined, this provided us with a two-dimensional sort capability used to “view” or see our project deliverables.

The OmniClass Construction Classification System (known as OmniClass or OCCS) originated around 2000 as a product of the Construction Specifications Institute. (CSI) It incorporates other extant systems currently in use as the basis of many of its Tables – MasterFormat™ for work results, UniFormat for elements, and EPIC (Electronic Product Information Cooperation) for structuring products[6]

The OmniClass Construction Classification System (OmniClass or OCCS) is a means of organizing and retrieving information specifically designed for the construction industry. OmniClass is useful for many applications for Building Information Modeling (BIM), from organizing reports and object libraries to providing a way to roll up or drill down through data to get the information that meets your needs. OmniClass draws from other extant systems in use to form the basis of its Tables wherever possible — MasterFormat™ for work results, UniFormat™ for elements, and EPIC (Electronic Product Information Cooperation) for products.

OmniClass is designed to provide a standardized basis for classifying information created and used by the North American architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) industry, throughout the full facility life cycle from conception to demolition or reuse, and encompassing all the different types of construction that make up the built environment. OmniClass is intended to be the means for organizing, sorting, and retrieving information and deriving relational computer applications.

OmniClass consists of 15 hierarchical tables, each of which represents a different facet of construction information. Each table can be used independently to classify information, or entries or it can be combined with entries on other tables to classify more complex subjects. This is the basis for the use of multi-dimensional Work and Cost Breakdown Structures.

More (with footnotes and references)

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About the Author


Dr. Paul D. Giammalvo, CDT, CCE, MScPM, MRICS

Jakarta, Indonesia

 

 


Dr. Paul D. Giammalvo
, CDT, CCE (#1240), MScPM, MRICS, is Senior Technical Advisor (Project Management) to PT Mitratata Citragraha. (PTMC), Jakarta, Indonesia. www.build-project-management-competency.com.

For 25+ years, he has been providing Project Management training and consulting throughout South and Eastern Asia, the Middle East and Europe.  He is also active in the Global Project Management Community, serving as an Advocate for and on behalf of the global practitioner. He does so by playing an active professional role in the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering International, (AACE); Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) and the Construction Management Association of America, (CMAA). He previously served on the Board of Directors of the American Society for the Advancement of Project Management (asapm) http://www.asapm.org/ and served previously as the Chair of the Certification Board of the Green Project Management organization. http://www.greenprojectmanagement.org/ He is active as a regional leader and a compensated consultant to the Planning Planet’s Guild of Project Controls. http://www.planningplanet.com/guild

He has spent 18 of the last 45 years working on large, highly complex international projects, including such prestigious projects as the Alyeska Pipeline and the Distant Early Warning Site (DEW Line) upgrades in Alaska.  Most recently, he worked as a Senior Project Cost and Scheduling Consultant for Caltex Minas Field in Sumatra and Project Manager for the Taman Rasuna Apartment Complex for Bakrie Brothers in Jakarta.  His current client list includes AT&T, Ericsson, Nokia, Lucent, General Motors, Siemens, Chevron, Conoco-Philips, BP, Dames and Moore, SNC Lavalin, Freeport McMoran, Petronas, Pertamina, UN Projects Office, World Bank Institute and many other Fortune 500 companies and NGO organizations.

Dr. Giammalvo holds an undergraduate degree in Construction Management, a Master of Science in Project Management through the George Washington University and a PhD in Project and Program Management through the Institute Superieur De Gestion Industrielle (ISGI) and Ecole Superieure De Commerce De Lille (ESC-Lille- now SKEMA School of Management) under the supervision of Dr. Christophe Bredillet, CCE, IPMA A Level.  “Dr. PDG” can be contacted at [email protected].

To view other original work by Paul Giammalvo, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at http://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/dr-paul-d-giammalvo/

 

[1] Construction Specifications Institute History (n.d.) http://www.lacsi.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52&Itemid=59

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construction_Specifications_Institute

[3] Norsok Z-014 (2002 version) http://www.standard.no/pagefiles/951/z-014.pdf

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASTM_International

[5] Charette, R. P.  Uniformat II, retrieved from: www.uniformat.com/index.php/using-uniformat-ii/building-design-management#astme1557

[6] From “About Omniclass” (n.d.) http://www.omniclass.org/about/

 

Labor Productivity Improvement

in Construction Projects Using WBS & OBS Integration

 

FEATURED PAPER

Essam Mohamed Lotfi, PMP, CCP

Abu Dhabi, UAE

 


  1. ABSTRACT

Abu Dhabi is one of the cities in GCC where the Construction field is booming very fast; this technical paper is intended to show the effects of labor productivity on construction projects profits, the factors which result in productivity loss and how to improve productivity using WBS & OBS framework. The author seeks to illustrate how loss productivity will affect direct labor cost which may result in reducing project profits by using Earned Value management (Accomplished man-hours). Upon applying earned value calculations, the negative deviation from planned man-hours will be analyzed and root cause of productivity loss and how it may affect the direct labor cost. Hence establish WBS & OBS integration matrix to recover this loss. Examples and figures used in this report are adopted from On-going construction project within Abu Dhabi city and estimated productivity rates are limited to this project only. The results of this study will show the effect of establish WBS & OBS integration matrix to monitor the project performance and improve the labor productivity by assigning works to appropriate organizational units using right combination between Responsibility assignments’ matrix and organizational breakdown structure by identifying the individual responsibility for performing the work.

  1. ITRODUCTION

Labor productivity is one of the most vital challenges during construction projects life cycle (Productivity is critically important in construction projects, both large and small. Construction contractors are typically paid for work completed in place that conforms to the terms of the contract. This is sometimes referred to as pay item work and is generally true whether the contract is lump sum/firm fixed price, cost reimbursable, target cost, unit cost or pay item work or as a percentage of Previously defined categories of work often referred to as a schedule of values or bill of quantities. That Is, unlike automotive manufacturers, construction contractors are rarely paid on the basis of the entire Completed product. And, unlike craft labor, construction contractors are rarely paid by hours of labor. Therefore, productivity is related to project cash flow and profitability. Refer AACE International Recommended Practice No. 25R-03).

It was noticed that most project managers can’t achieve either planned labor productivity or their organization strategic plans in this regard. Failure in achieving required or planned labor productivity may affect the direct labor cost and incurred huge losses to the project. In most of construction projects if the standard and or planned productivity rates are compared to actual accumulative accomplished productivity it may shows that the actual productivity is less than planned due to many circumstances’ illustrated later in this technical paper, which means that the actual manpower used to accomplished specific task is greater than the planned that should be used for the same task and this may escalate the labor direct cost and may affect the planned budget of the project, this can be cleared if simple Earned Value management is applied which will show that the project till specific period of its life cycle is over budget.

This difference of labor productivity may be because of lack of duly supervision and or non availability foundation to assign work to appropriate organizational units to ensure right combination between project works and responsibility assignment matrix and organizational breakdown structure, Hereinafter this technical paper goal is to show how to achieve the labor productivity improvement using proper methodology to analyze the weakness of labor productivity and how to improve it as well. In this technical paper the actual accomplished labor productivity will be compared to standard and or planned productivity rates to analyze the deviation and its reasons then study the effect of using WBS & OBS integration matrix to ensure that each work package will have a single point of responsibility which will be used as main objective of controlling direct labor cost and to identify the individual responsibilities for performing the work to monitor the project performance.

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About the Author


Essam Mohamed Lotfi

Abu Dhabi, UAE

 

 

Essam Lotfi, PMP, CCP is ELV Projects Manager, BSc. in Electrical Engineering, Power Distribution through Zagazig University, Egypt since 2001. He has pursued and achieved his certificates in Project Management (PMP®) from PMI-USA since 2013, and certificate in Cost Management (CCP®) from AACE International since june-2014. Essam has 15 years extensive hands on experience in various aspects of projects and project management within maintenance, power distribution networks, monitoring and supervision, and construction projects as well.

He has volunteered at PMI-Global Congress EMEA-2014 – Dubai during 5th to 8th May 2014. He has made technical presentations at PMI-AGC 15th International conference –Bahrain 19th to 21st January 2015; the 54th AACEi-SF Bay Annual Western Winter Workshop, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, USA; and the 55th AACEi-SF Bay Annual Western Winter Workshop, Indian Wells, CA, USA. He has authored and co-authored papers previously published in the PM World Journal and now contained in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/essam-lotffy/

An independent project management, cost engineering and cost control consultant and instructor, Mr. Lotfi can be contacted at [email protected]

 

 

Adjudication

A Dispute Resolution Mechanism for Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Christian Azuka Olele

Project Implementation Manager
EdgeGold Concept Services Limited 

Lagos, Nigeria

 



ABSTRACT

Adjudication is an alternative dispute resolution method introduced by the judiciary. The study evaluates the essential frameworks from the contractual and legal aspect, it talks about applicable skills and on hand training that could be offered, and ascertains the important and impact in the practice of adjudication. Adjudication emerges to have been accepted in the Nigerian construction sector, however it is concluded that the sector has not being able to realize the full potential of adjudication, the main reason for this is lack of Information.

This paper is aimed at exploring requirements for the full realization of the potentials required for adjudication.

Key Words: Adjudication, Alternative Dispute Resolution, Nigerian Construction Sector, Litigation, Conflicts, Infrastructure Development

INTRODUCTION

In the process of doing business, it is anticipated that differences of opinions will arise intermittently among business partners or connected persons. However, it is a known fact that commercial disputes are universal and frequent; the way and manner they are dealt with can have a philosophical impact on the outcome of the business. It is proven that unresolved disputes are factors affecting business ventures, scare investors and also affect the stock market performance of a registered business.

Disputes are normally an unavoidable part of human dealings which may be naturally domestic, civil, commercial or economic in character. Litigation has been the conventional process of settling disputes, which may arise as a result of defaulting (sometimes not deliberate) by an accomplice. Ultimately, the procedure of litigation has turn out to be guzzling time, costly and weighty which leads to overcrowding and setback in passing their resolutions.

According to Uff (2005), increase in globalization and the contemporary business world has been a reason in the improvement of more flexible way of resolving disputes that provide alternatives to court-based litigation governed by the law and procedure of a specific country.

For the first time in Nigeria, Adjudication and other forms of Alternative Dispute  Resolution (ADR) is backed up constitutional in section 19(d) of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (CFRN) 1999 and it provides for the settlement of disputes by Arbitration, Mediation, Conciliation, Negotiation and Adjudication.

According to Odiri (2004), every business sector which brings people together to work and achieve a common goal, there is likelihood that disagreement, variance and arguments may arise.  These factors are common in the construction sector. As you may know, conflict and dispute may perhaps signify same meaning since the duo involves a disagreement over some issues at hand. However, there are various theoretical dissimilarities between the two terms. Conflict as it is explained, subsists wherever there is an incongruity of concern. The Oxford English Dictionary describes conflict as a serious disagreement or argument; a prolonged armed struggle. However, Suleman (2015) is of the view that a thorough assessment of the socio-political atmosphere of the construction sector in Nigeria disclosed growing occurrences of varied opinions and disagreements among stakeholders. In turn, this also explain that the implementation of Infrastructural Development master plan for Nigeria led to the Increase in Economic activities in and around the construction sector and relationships needs to be managed so as to understand the clauses that makes up contracts being signed by parties whom have come together for a common goal.

Adjudication was introduced into the FIDIC, NEC and GCC conditions of contract as the standard means of dispute resolu­tion early 2000 as an international rule practice.  Adjudication as it is known is comparatively a new model which is not implicit as all adjudicators are well trained and have experience in the other forms of dispute resolution. The rationale behind this paper is to examine the requirements on how to apply adjudication in construction and Infrastructure development in Nigeria. To aid this, the researcher reviewed the essential framework and other permissible factors, discuss­es significant skills and available training, and establishes the impartation of adjudication in Nigeria…

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About the Author


Christian Azuka Olele

Lagos, Nigeria

 

 

Christian Azuka Olele is a project manager experienced in the Construction Sector in Nigeria, West Africa. He received his B.Sc. and PGdip degrees in Geology from the University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Nigeria; and his M.Sc. degree in Project Management from the University of Liverpool, Liverpool; U.K

Christian Azuka Olele worked on the Lekki Toll Road Infrastructure Project, Victoria Island Lagos; Osborne Jetty Terminal, Ikoyi, and Several Roads Construction Projects in Lagos & Abeokuta, Nigeria. He is currently the Project Implementation Manager for Uyo Women Development and Skill Acquisition Center, Akwa Ibom State. A Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Project of TOTAL Upstream Nigeria Limited (TUPNL), Lagos, Nigeria.

He is Interested in Managing Projects in Nigeria and Africa.

He can be reached via email at [email protected]

 

The Evolution of Programme Management

Towards Governance of Industry 4.0 Organisations

 

FEATURED PAPER

Dr Pieter Steyn and  Elzabe Zovitsky

Cranefield College

Pretoria and Western Cape, South Africa

 


 

  1. Introduction

Steyn and Semolic (2017, March) aver that the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0) is characterised by increasing digitisation and interconnection of products, value chains and business models. Competitiveness no longer depends solely on optimisation of own resources, but total inter-organisational value chain innovativeness and supportive partner technologies, products, services and systems. With the aid of partners, organisations are co-creating innovative inter-organisational value and supply chains that operate in a local, regional and international collaborative business ecosystem.

The complexity of today’s technologies, artificial intelligence, mass data, robotics and internet of things calls for specialisation and sustainable collaboration among organisations. Consequently, organisational design, development and governance have entered a challenging new phase. This inevitably requires strategic transformation and change of Industry 4.0 organisations and demands the introduction of new horisontal supply and value chain business models. Virtual value chains shape organisations into strategic, collaborative, value-driven entities where non-core activities are performed by carefully selected partners.

A competitive edge is gained by collaboratively performing strategic activities more effectively and efficiently. This approach demands exceptional governance, supported by transformational leadership excellence and a systemic knowledge of applied programme management. Effective and efficient cross-functional and inter-organisational programme management of projects and programmes in virtual networks is a critical enabling competency for the Industry 4.0 economy. The advantages of programme management have become profoundly important in the Fourth Industrial Revolution economy.

In research done towards a Master’s degree at Cranefield College, Zovitsky (2014) avers that by 1990 organisations already realised that competitiveness had become the driving force to win customer orders in project work. Competitiveness entails developing a business model that embeds sound project management methodologies and techniques. Organisations realised that competency in project management constituted a primary input in planning and executing strategy with the ultimate purpose of creating sustainable competitive advantage. This required strong leadership initiative and support, and a firm belief that project management contributed to the bottom line of the organisation.

Rothwell (1994) identified that during the 1970’s and 1980’s organisations reoriented research and development (R&D) management to consolidate, readjust costing and shorten the path between knowledge and new technologies. Moreover, they started utilising matrix organisational structures. This ultimately led to incorporating project, programme and portfolio management into R&D management thinking. The focus was transferred from the product to the entire business system. Planning, production and product marketing were integrated into the entire process that enhanced systems, flexible innovation processes and networking models with customers and suppliers. This development was the forerunner of what is experienced today where leaders in the Industry 4.0 economy learning organisations focus on collaboration and the creation of virtual networks of partners to be more effective and efficient.

From the year 2000 project management maturity models and mechanisms assisted organisations to achieve rapid performance improvement. Several integrating mechanisms such as creating a formal hierarchy; standardising organisational policies and procedures; and introducing cross-functional teams emerged. These mechanisms were the forerunners of cross-functional project and programme-managed value chain structures utilised in modern day learning organisations.

  1. Early Period Literature

Stretton (2009:3) argues that the terminologies ‘programme’ and ‘project’ have been used interchangeably since the 1960s and particularly in the US Department of Defence and NASA. There was no definite distinction between the usage of ‘programmes’ and ‘projects’ at that time, and large projects were often described as programmes. According to Weaver (2007), the Manhattan initiative to create the atomic bomb in the 1940s was probably the first programme, while since the 1950s numerous programmes crystallised in the US military. Milosevic et al (2007) mention that the Japanese implemented quality improvement programmes long before the United States. Quality project and programme management developed in the United States only in the early 1980s due to a dearth in America of quality management practices, which led to difficulties in competing nationally and internationally.

The 1970s was the period during which the focus moved to project control with the development of computer-based management systems capable of integrating cost, time, and quality. Before that (the 1950s and 1960s) the emphasis was on the time span of projects and ways of reducing it.  The result was that many organisations introduced integrated management systems in the early 1980s, but most of them still failed to deliver successful projects with regard to cost, time, and quality.  According to Harpham (2003 [a]), this resulted in organisations looking for project managers who could manage in a matrix system with minimum “given” authority. The result was that organisations started paying increasingly more attention to the skills of project managers, inter-alia, leadership, motivation and team-building…

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About the Authors


Prof Dr Pieter Steyn

Founder, Director, Principal
Cranefield College of Project and Programme Management
Pretoria & Western Cape, South Africa

 


Dr
Pieter Steyn is Founder and Principal of Cranefield College of Project and Programme Management, a South African Council on Higher Education / Department of Education accredited and registered Private Higher Education Institution. The Institution offers an Advanced Certificate, Advanced Diploma, Postgraduate Diploma, Master’s degree, and PhD in project and programme-based leadership and management. Professor Steyn holds the degrees BSc (Eng), MBA, and PhD in management, and is a registered Professional Engineer.

He was formerly professor in the Department of Management, University of South Africa and Pretoria University Business School. He founded the Production Management Institute of South Africa, and in 1979 pioneered Project Management as a university subject at the post-graduate level at the University of South Africa.

Dr Steyn founded consulting engineering firm Steyn & Van Rensburg (SVR). Projects by SVR include First National Bank Head Office (Bank City), Standard Bank Head Office, Mandela Square Shopping Centre (in Johannesburg) as also, Game City- and The Wheel Shopping Centres (in Durban). He, inter alia, chaired the Commission of Enquiry into the Swaziland Civil Service; and acted as Programme Manager for the Strategic Transformation of the Gauteng Government’s Welfare Department and Corporate Core.

Pieter co-authored the “International Handbook of Production and Operations Management,” (Cassell, London, 1989, ed. Ray Wild) and is the author of many articles and papers on leadership and management. He is a member of the Association of Business Leadership, Industrial Engineering Institute, Engineering Association of South Africa, and Project Management South Africa (PMSA); and a former member of the Research Management Board of IPMA. He serves on the Editorial Board of the PM World Journal. Pieter is also Director of the De Doornkraal Wine Estate in Riversdale, Western Cape.

Professor Steyn can be contacted at [email protected]. For information about Cranefield College, visit www.cranefield.ac.za.

 

 
Elzabe Zovitsky

Cranefield College of Project and Programme Management
Pretoria & Western Cape, South Africa




Elzabe Zovitsky
holds a B A Degree (Anthropology) from the University of Pretoria and a Master’s Degree in Programme Management from Cranefield College.

She is Head of the Principal’s office at Cranefield College, where her duties include project and programme management research and administering Cranefield’s specialised and short course programmes.

Before joining Cranefield College in 2006, she was actively engaged in managing anthropology and genealogy projects.  These projects ranged from solving tribal succession disputes in KwaZulu Natal to systemising the genealogies of the Zulu tribes.

 

 

 

Elements of the Mathematical Theory of Human Systems Part 4

Quantitative interpretation of the victory, defeat and concessions of human systems by the method of state equations

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Pavel Barseghyan, PhD

Yerevan, Armenia and

Plano, Texas, USA

 



Abstract

The mathematical theory of human systems has many applications in the fields of analysis, synthesis and optimization of confrontations and conflicts between the groups of people of different scales.

The clash between human systems arises from a conflict of interest, be it the usual conflict of interests in people’s daily lives or a serious clash of interests in international relations, or a clash of civilizations.

The purpose of the article is to show that the problems of quantitative description and analysis of conflicts between human systems can be reduced to the method of state equations.

According to this method, the activities of each party to the conflict can be represented by the equation of state, on the basis of which the benefits and losses obtained from the activities of the parties are evaluated.

In the case of significant differences between the benefits and losses of the conflicting parties, the balance of power between them can be violated, which can lead to non-equilibrium phenomena such as the victory of one of the parties.

In the work on the basis of quantitative assessments of the benefits and losses of the conflicting parties, quantitative interpretations of the victories and defeats of people are also given.

The methods discussed in the article may have many practical applications, including the analysis of different types of competition between human systems, as well as assessments and predictions of the results of the conflict between countries and their various blocs and alliances.

Key words: Human systems, mathematical theory, state equations, systems theory, equilibrium, non-equilibrium, benefits, change management, losses, victory, defeat, concessions, conflicts.

Introduction

For mathematical modeling and simulation of confrontations and conflicts between human systems, it is necessary to have an adequate quantitative description of their activities and relations among themselves.

The mathematical theory of human systems, the axis of which is a quantitative description of the actions and activities of people by means of the equations of state, is also suitable for studying and managing confrontations and conflicts between different groups of people.

In different cases, the conflicting parties may be negotiators in business and diplomacy or participants in a scientific debate whose opinions differ on the issues under discussion, or the equation of state may partially describe the relationship between the client and the seller, or between the customer and vendor, etc.

In addition, in the context of the further effective penetration of quantitative methods into the sphere of human systems management, the symbiosis of the possibilities of behavioral models of people’s life based on the equations of state [1] and the basic propositions of systems theory is very important [2, 3].

Such symbiosis allows, along with traditional qualitative methods of studying human systems, to create new scientific methods for analyzing, synthesizing and optimizing the behavior and activities of people on the basis of quantitative approaches of a fundamental nature.

The essence of quantitative methods of analyzing the behavior and activities of people, based on the equations of the state of human systems, is as follows.

Each human system can be quantitatively described by an equation of state that incorporates the needed resources for people’s activities, their knowledge, skills and tools used by them and the results of their activities.

In this sense, the purpose of quantitative analysis of the behavior and activity of human systems is to evaluate and predict the results of their activities in the form of gain and losses based on the equation of state and the characteristic data of the system (the number and motivation of people, the effectiveness of their activities and tools used, etc.).

In the case of confrontation and conflicts of human systems, the problem of analyzing their behavior and activities is to assess the results of their clash in the form of victory (or gain) and defeat (or loss), having the data of the conflicting parties.

The problem of the synthesis of human systems is that by having the desired results of its behavior and activity, by inverse calculation on the basis of the equations of state, find those values of the system parameters that can provide the given desired result.

In the case of confrontation and conflicts between human systems, the problem of synthesis in planning the behavior and activity of one of the parties is to use the method of state equations to find those values of the system parameters with which it will be possible to defeat the potential enemy or, at least, not to be defeated by him.

Since any synthesis problem has a lot of solutions, the goal of optimal synthesis or optimization of systems is to choose from this set of solutions those that are more preferable in terms of price, quality, risk and feasibility.

The method of the equations of state has a deterministic character and describes the problem of analysis, synthesis and optimization at the level of average values of the parameters of human systems.

But, as is known, mathematical modeling of systems at the level of mean values of parameters can be considered as a first approximation, which does not always lead to comprehensively grounded solutions to problems [4].

From this point of view, for a more detailed consideration of the problem, the parameters in the equations of state of human systems can be divided into three groups:

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About the Author


Pavel Barseghyan
, PhD

Yerevan, Armenia
Plano, Texas, USA

 


Dr. Pavel Barseghyan
is a consultant in the field of quantitative project management, project data mining and organizational science. Has over 45 years’ experience in academia, the electronics industry, the EDA industry and Project Management Research and tools development. During the period of 1999-2010 he was the Vice President of Research for Numetrics Management Systems. Prior to joining Numetrics, Dr. Barseghyan worked as an R&D manager at Infinite Technology Corp. in Texas. He was also a founder and the president of an EDA start-up company, DAN Technologies, Ltd. that focused on high-level chip design planning and RTL structural floor planning technologies. Before joining ITC, Dr. Barseghyan was head of the Electronic Design and CAD department at the State Engineering University of Armenia, focusing on development of the Theory of Massively Interconnected Systems and its applications to electronic design. During the period of 1975-1990, he was also a member of the University Educational Policy Commission for Electronic Design and CAD Direction in the Higher Education Ministry of the former USSR. Earlier in his career he was a senior researcher in Yerevan Research and Development Institute of Mathematical Machines (Armenia). He is an author of nine monographs and textbooks and more than 100 scientific articles in the area of quantitative project management, mathematical theory of human work, electronic design and EDA methodologies, and tools development. More than 10 Ph.D. degrees have been awarded under his supervision. Dr. Barseghyan holds an MS in Electrical Engineering (1967) and Ph.D. (1972) and Doctor of Technical Sciences (1990) in Computer Engineering from Yerevan Polytechnic Institute (Armenia). Pavel’s publications can be found here: http://www.scribd.com/pbarseghyan and here: http://pavelbarseghyan.wordpress.com/. Pavel can be contacted at [email protected]

To view works by Dr. Barseghyan previously published in the PM World Journal, visit his author showcase in the PM World Library at https://pmworldlibrary.net/authors/dr-pavel-barseghyan/

 

 

An Overview of Governmental Rehabilitation Programmes in Nigeria

A Project Management Perspective

 

FEATURED PAPER

By Dr. Felix Osita Ikekpeazu and Dr. Uchenna Ajator

Nnamdi Azikiwe University

Anambra State, Nigeria

 



ABSTRACT

This paper addresses the project management issues related to governmental rehabilitation programmes, at the federal level, from a national perspective based on the national geopolitical coverage of the rehabilitation programme of the petroleum Trust fund, PTF, (a program of the military era) and the localized programme of the Niger Delta development commission NDDC, (a programme of the democratic dispensation). It commences with providing an insight into the role of a counter budget, a blueprint for changing national priorities, in the evolution of national rehabilitation programmes. It therefore, underscore the relevance of a counter budget which is designed to open federal spending to broad, public discussion, and the present a comprehensive, economic and political analysis of possible alternatives in the medium term. The paper then proceeds to a methodological review of the programmes of the PTF, Petroleum Trust Fund. It provides an overview of its urban interventions in the area of institutional and infrastructural rehabilitations with emphasis on the scope, process and impact. An overview of the performance of the Nigeria Delta Development commission in terms of rehabilitation programmes is also presented. The paper considers the proposition of the cost-benefit analysis approach to the evaluation of the socio-economic benefits of rehabilitation programmes in Nigeria. Finally, it concludes with the evident contrasts in development, especially in the rehabilitation of physical structures and infrastructure in Nigeria, emanating from different governmental initiatives and policies.

INTRODUCTION

In recent years, institutional rehabilitation programmes have become a national priority in Nigeria due to the advancing levels of physical deterioration of governmental institutional buildings and the associated infrastructure. These rehabilitation programmes span, the last few years of the military regime and then into the present democratic dispensation. From a national perspective, two institutional rehabilitation programmes, namely, the PTF, Petroleum (Special) Trust Fund and the Niger Delta Development Commission, were instituted by the military regime and the new democratic governance respectively. In a chronological sequence, the PTF progammes precede the programmes of the Niger Delta Development Commission.

THE ROLE OF A COUNTERBUDGET IN THE GENESIS OF NATIONAL REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES

The rehabilitation programmes of the military regime towards the last few years of its existence are an emanation of what is usually designated a counterbudget – a blueprint for changing national priorities.

The price of petroleum products was increased by the Federal Government in 1994. In order convince the citizenry of the propriety of the increase, the PTF was established to utilize the accruals from the increase for the resuscitation of social and infrastructural facilities which had become dilapidated as a result of neglect over the years. Indeed, there can be deficiencies in the way that a budget is shaped – deficiencies that, in the absence of reform, reduce the prospects for achieving significant change in our arrangement of priorities. One of the flaws is that budget allocations are often too determined through what might be called the let’s-see-what-we-gave-them-last-year-and-give-them-a-little-more-this-year approach. This practice militates against new ideas and tends to preserve programs that may no longer serve their original purposes. Another flaw is the lack of openness from beginning to end of the budget process. Secrecy reigns. There is little public participation.

The importance of a counter budget is expressed in the book, ‘Counter budget, A Blueprint for Changing National Priorities,’ in which the National Urban Coalition Steering Committee called upon the U.S.A. Federal Government to pursue six major goals, in reordering national priorities as part of the process of a counter budget:

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About the Authors


Dr. Felix Ikekpeazu

Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Anambra State, Nigeria

 


Dr. Felix Ikekpeazu
holds a Bachelor of Architecture (B. Arc) and a Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Architecture, specializing in Housing delivery systems. He joined Nnamdi Azikiwe University in Anambra State after serving as Chief Architect at the Enugu State Housing Development Corporation. He is currently a senior Lecturer in the Department of Architecture. His research interests are in Housing delivery systems, Green buildings and energy efficiency in buildings. Dr. Ikekpeazu is a registered Architect and has published in many local and international journals. He can be contacted at [email protected]

 


Dr. Uchenna Ajator

Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Anambra State, Nigeria

 


Dr. Uchenna Ajator
is an associate professor in the Department of Quantity Surveying, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, with vast experience in consultancy and construction. He also has also written a number of books on quantity surveying and cost management of oil and gas projects which has contributed immensely to the development of students and the quantity surveying profession in Nigeria. Ajator can also be described as a philanthropist, with numerous book donations to the university. His research interests are in cost engineering, construction economics and project cost control. He is a fellow of the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (FNIQS) and a registered member of the Quantity Surveyors Registration Board of Nigeria (QSRBN). You can reach him on [email protected]