Situational Analysis of Time and Cost Performance of World Bank-assisted Local Empowerment and Environmental Management Project (LEEMP) in Imo State, Nigeria
Akpan, E.O.P. , Echeme, I.I. , Ubani, E.C.
Department of Project Management Technology
Federal University of Technology
The major problem facing many developing economies has been the issue of rural migration to urban centres in search for better standard of living. Efforts at curtailing this trend have centred on provision of basic amenities in partnership with some donor agencies, the World Bank being the major partner. In the light of this, it is important to undertake the analysis of the performance of the World Bank-assisted Local Empowerment and Environmental Management Projects (LEEMP) in Imo State as to the success or failure of this intervention. The aim basically is to assess the performance of these projects with regards to cost and schedule requirements and the possible causes of variation, if any. Earned value analysis (EVA) model was the major tool used for the project monitoring and it was also used to analyze the performance of these projects between 2004 and 2008. Fourteen completed projects and thirty-eight uncompleted ones were selected for the analysis using stratified random sampling. The analysis revealed that most of the projects show some elements of “fatigue” as they experienced cost and time overrun. This problem seems to come from funding arrangement which appears in the form of funding gap and timing.
Keywords: World Bank, rural development, LEEMP, cost and time performance, earned value analysis.
Community or rural change is an on-going global phenomenon which commands the attention of policy makers in virtually all the nations of the world. It embraces the myriad of adjustments in the areas of economic, social, and infrastructural provisions in the rural areas under the impact of development. The pace of rural development has quickened in recent times, primarily with respect to industrialization, urbanization, development in communication and transportation, technology transformation in agriculture, education, land reform, politics and social revolution. Some rural areas have experienced more changes/development in the recent past than in the previous centuries (World Bank, 2008).
Recent discussions among the developing nations seem to revolve around the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Various efforts have been made by governments and international organizations to develop the rural areas in order to achieve these objectives. The need to assess the level of project performance of World Bank-assisted programmes in Nigeria tagged “Local Empowerment and Environmental Management Projects (LEEMP) with regards to cost, schedule requirements and possible causes of variation, if any necessitated this study.
International debate on the need for total development in developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, has centered on economic restructuring with emphasis on strengthening the rural areas through infrastructural development, capacity building, and so on. This is based on the fact that the objective function on national development has rural development as a dominant factor with very high level of correlation (Nwachukwu, 2003).
Recently, the state of poor development project delivery of less developed countries (LCDs) and the extent to which this has created problems of underdevelopment in these economies have been of general concern. Many scholars have associated this with poor project management principles which are bedeviling Nigeria, with particular reference to low technical, technological and managerial capacity to implement projects effectively (Okereke, 1995; Olayide, 1999 and FMWR, 2003).
To achieve the needed development, the World Bank has been collaborating with the Federal Government of Nigeria in the development of the country through the implementation of development programmes. The World Bank has planned to achieve all these by establishing development agencies across many countries among which is the LEEMPs, a programme to tackle various problems of development in Nigeria and other developing countries. The main goal of this World Bank agency is to strengthen the rural communities through the provision of infrastructure to improve the social and economic wellbeing of the people. In order to realize this goal, the World Bank adopted the Community Driven Development (CDD) approach, LEEMP being one of them in the planning and implementation of its development projects. With this approach, the benefitting communities champion their developmental agenda by identifying and prioritizing their needs, deciding and preparing the projects required to address the identified needs, co-financing the projects, continuing to operate and maintain the project, thereby ensuring sustainability, and learn to do things for themselves and in so doing build their capacities and ownership of the projects are guaranteed by active participation of beneficiaries in all phases of the project life cycle. The funding pattern used is 90% contribution from the World Bank (LEEMP) and 10% from the community of the total project cost.
About The Authors
Ifeanyi Echeme is a lecturer in the department of Project Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. Echeme has a B.Tech, MSc, and PhD in Project Management Technology and has published more than fifteen (15) articles in both international and national reputable journals. Dr. Echeme has published a textbook on Project Time, Cost and Quality Management. He is a Certified Project Director (CPD) and a member of International Project Management Professionals (IPMP). Dr. Echeme has presented papers in conferences and workshops within and outside Nigeria. He can be contacted through; email@example.com
Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria
Edem Okon Peter Akpan is a distinguished figure in the field of Industrial Engineering, Project Management and Information Technology. He is currently a Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria. He read and obtained a BSc(Hons) degree in Management & Engineering Production from University of Wales, Institute of Science & Technology (UWIST), an MSc in Production Technology & Production Management and a PhD in Industrial Technology from Universities of Aston in Birmingham, Birmingham and Bradford respectively. He has published widely in both local and international journals and for this recognition has since been honoured to join many editorial boards including among others, the International Journal of Production Planning & Control published by Taylor & Francis, London, Reviewer of the Journal of Construction Engineering & Management of American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). He is a registered engineer with COREN, a member with Nigerian Society of Engineers (MNSE) and many other professional bodies. Professor Akpan can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
Emmanuel C. Ubani is a Reader in the Department of Project Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Nigeria. He holds B.Sc., M.Eng in Industrial Engineering and a Ph.D IN Project Management Technology. He has researched and published a lot of articles in both local and international reputable journals. His research interest is in areas of Industrial System Design and Project Planning and Control. He can be reached through +234 8037748978.