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Gender Issues in Project Planning and Management

FEATURED PAPER

By Ujeyo Margaret Stella
Busitema University

Kisige Abdu
Al-Mustaf Islamic College

Nabunya Kulthum
Makerere University

Prof Peter Neema-Abooki
Makerere University

Kampala, Uganda

 


Abstract

Gender equality ranks high on international and national development agendas. It has been enshrined in international legal instruments and declarations as well as national constitutions. There has been some gain in ensuring gender equality but glaring gaps still exist in many sectors. Gender equality advocacy has consequently become central in discussions concerning development programmes because such programmes are about eradicating poverty and  promoting human rights. This paper discusses gender in project planning and management. The paper is based on a review of relevant literature on gender in project planning and management. It explains some key terms and discusses the characteristics and importance of considering gender issues in project planning. The paper explains how gender can be mainstreamed in the project cycle before discussing the tools and methods used to do so. In the conclusion the paper reiterates the importance of gender mainstreaming in projects, acknowledging that not many projects have embraced it.

Introduction

Efforts geared towards ensuring gender equality have taken center stage in all spheres of development agendas because gender equality is a human right (European Institute of Gender Equality (EIGE), 2016). It is a requirement by international legal instruments and declarations and enshrined in most national constitutions (European Union (EU), 2010). Governments, Civil Society organizations (CSO), donors and the international community are all keen in assessing gender concerns in different local, national and international laws, policies, programmes and projects. These efforts have however not yielded the results anticipated hence a reason to adopt specific strategies and interventions. A gender sensitive project is a series of activities aimed at bringing about clearly specified objectives and results within a defined time period and with a defined budget while taking into account women and men issues (EIGE, 2016; EU, 2010). Gender equality needs to be mainstreamed at each phase of the project cycle (European Union, 2010), but first an explanation of some concepts that are used throughout this paper.

Key concepts in gender

Sex and Gender

Sex refers to the biological or genetic differences between males and females; that is to say the physical attributes pertaining to a person’s contours, features, hormones, genes and reproductive organs that cannot be naturally changed (EIGE, 2016; Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), 2013).

Gender refers to the social differences between men and women as opposed to biological ones. These differences are learnt over time; they can also change with time and vary from culture to culture (EIGE, 2016; Pacha & Banda, 2013).

Gender role

The roles one is expected to play by virtue of being a woman or a man is a gender role. Gender roles are shaped and defined by several factors including socio-economic, political and cultural ones (EIGE, 2016). Gender roles can change either impromptu or as a result of policies and planned interventions.

Gender relations

Gender relations are relationships of distribution or sharing of power between women and men which characterizes any specific gender system. Gender roles reflect unequal power relation and values between women and men (EIGE, 2016; CDB, 2013).

Gender equality

It means equal treatment of men and women in laws, policies, being accorded equal participation and access to resources within families, communities and society (EIGE, ). It is not about women and men being the same or in equal numbers in all activities but rather having same status within society (EIGE, Pacha & Banda, 2013; Lentisco & Arenas, 2011). It refers to being free to develop personal abilities and make choices without limitations set by strict gender roles. Gender equality cannot be achieved without putting in place equity measures.

Gender inequality (imbalance)

The term refers to unequal access and control over material and non material resources and assets of society. Inequality therefore relates to lack of access to rights, assets, resources and decision making. Women’s role is usually inferior in the power relationship since they do not have equal access to power and decision making structures (EIGE, 2013; Lentisco & Arenas, 2011).

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About the Authors


Ujeyo Margaret Stella

Busitema University
Uganda

 


Ujeyo Margaret Stella
is a lecturer in the Department of Education in the Faculty of Science and Education at Busitema University. Previously she worked as the Gender Coordinator for Busitema University, participated in gender situational analysis and drafting of the university’s gender policy as well as managing community projects for women groups. Ujeyo holds a Masters’ Degree in Educational Studies from the University of Western Australia and a Bachelor of Arts Education Degree of Makerere University. She is currently pursuing a PhD in Educational Management at Makerere University. Her research interests are in Sustainability Education in Higher Education.

 


Kisige Abdu

Al-Mustaf Islamic College
Uganda

 

 


Abdu Kisige
holds a Master of Arts in Educational Policy and Planning of Makerere University, and is a PhD student of Educational Administration and Management. He has over 5 years of teaching experience at higher education. For the past 5 years, he has been teaching both undergraduates and postgraduate courses in Educational Administration and Management at the Islamic University in Uganda and Al-Mustaf Islamic College-Uganda. He now occupies the Directorate of Research at Al-Mustaf Islamic College-Uganda, helping build and strengthen research capacity.

 


Nabunya Kulthum
 

Kampala, Uganda

 




Nabunya Kulthum
is a PhD Student of Educational Management. She holds a Bachelors degree in Education and a Masters degree in Educational Policy and Planning, both from Makerere University. She has a Certificate in Administrative Law from Law Development Center (LDC) and delights in her knowledge of sign language. Kulthum renders counsel to young married couples and empowers the youth to have a relevant education career. She is the Director of Anwar Baby and Primary School. She doubles as Supervisor Education Operations with Kampala Capital City (KCC) Authority, mainly focusing on Quality Assurance in both Government and Private Nursery and Primary Schools. Email knabunya@kcca.go.ug     kulthumnabunya@yahoo.com

 


Prof Peter Neema-Abooki

Makerere University
Kampala, Uganda

 




Assoc. Prof. Peter Neema-Abooki
holds academic credentials in philosophical and theological disciplines besides a Post Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE); a Masters and a Doctor of Philosophy: both degrees in Educational Management. He is an Associate Professor of Higher Education, including Educational Management and Administration, Human Resource Management in Education, Educational Policy and Planning, and Educational Foundations and Curriculum Studies. He is the Founding Dean, EASHESD, at Makerere University, and co-Editor for Contemporary Issues in Higher Education Management. Earlier, he lectured in Educational Foundations, Educational Administration, and Educational Planning and Management at Kampala University, Kisubi Brothers’ Centre for Uganda Martyrs University, and Kyambogo University.

Dr. Neema-Abooki doubles as External Examiner in several Public and Private Universities, nationally and internationally. Besides being a Reviewer at several International Fora, the Associate Professor has presented academic papers and delivered Key-note addresses at several International Conferences and Summits. The scholarly research of his delves into issues encompassing, but not limited to, managerial disciplines with specific focus on Quality Assurance (QA). He is Editor-In-Chief of the International Journal of Progressive and Alternative Education, and a Member of several International Technical Committees. Neema-Abooki may be contacted at +2567724123184, +256704169214, +250781293741; and via email at pnabooki@yahoo.co.uk, pneemaster@gmail.com, akampaneema@yahoo.co.uk, pneema@cees.mak.ac.ug, or rpkla@yahoo.co.uk

Skype: peter.neema.abooki